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by George Moonhie

Copyright & Legal Notice Index


Section 1 - Basic Electrical Principles Section 6 - EV Gray Patent
Section 2 - Parallel resonance Section 7 - EV Gray News Articles
Section 3 - Principles for FE Section 8 - Equipment & Photos
Section 4 - Tinkerer's Projects Section 9 - The Power Tube
Section 5 - Experiments Section 10 - Modern Duplication

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Caveats, Disclaimer,
Legal Release and Copyright for
'High Voltage and Free Energy Devices'

This is an informational and entertainment text. The author and the publisher are not responsible
for the way the reader chooses to use this information. Any information, experiments or projects
described herein are understood by the purchaser, to be allegorical and offered solely for study and
not to be put into practical use. Purchaser will not be retroactively informed of corrections or
updated information and no refunds will be given based upon same. This book is sold "as is" and
all sales are final.

Contact: Website:
info@vanguardsciences.biz www.vanguardsciences.biz

(not to be confused with our original old site at http://www.vanguardsciences.COM

currently owned by the son of Dr. Harold Puthoff)

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Section 1

Basic Electrical Principles Revisited

A Brief Warning

This information probably isn't going to come as any surprise to most. But, I'm going to warn you
anyway.

High Voltage electricity can KILL you, your family, and your pets!

Please be very careful if you decide to build and experiment with any of the devices in this manual.
I will not be held responsible for any harm to YOU, your FAMILY, your PETS, or ANYONE
ELSE from a device that you decided to build.

I'm only offering the information for educational purposes. If you don't have experience with High
Voltage or someone properly trained to help you and teach you how to handle High Voltage, then I
don't suggest that you try building or operating any of the high voltage devices in this manual.

The High Voltage devices in this manual operate in the Kilovolt range. This simply means that we
are working with THOUSANDS of volts, not 6 volts or 12 volts like your flashlight or your car
battery. Kilovolt range electricity can pop through clothing and zap you. If it passes through your
chest, it may just stop your heart. This means you'll fall over and be very, very dead.

Nikola Tesla, the father of alternating current, used to work on high voltage devices using one hand.
The other was kept in his pocket. This kept him pretty safe from any possible jolts to his "ticker".

You should always wear rubber gloves when handling your high voltage devices. This isn't absolute
protection. But, it does reduce the risk of taking a lethal dose of current.

Be AFRAID. Do not assume that your project cannot harm you. Fear of electrocution can make you
pay attention to what your doing. A healthy fear of electricity can keep you alive. Never lose your
respect for high voltage. It does not forgive.

One final time: Construct projects in this manual at your own risk. Once you build them, you are
taking complete responsibility for any possible physical damage or legal repercussions resulting
from your actions. I accept no responsibility for problems you might cause.

This book is written for the tinkerer. Although, an open-minded engineer might just get something
out of it. Some of the theoretical points are fairly controversial. Many times, individuals can become
too well founded in "accepted" electrical theory to even give an honest ear to new ideas. As for the
devices in this book, build and test them. Then form your own conclusions. Let's begin by defining a
few terms with which you should already be familiar.

These are the definitions as they are used in this book.


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Electron: a sub-atomic particle with a negative charge whose maximum speed of movement is very
close to the speed of light.

Voltage: a relative difference in electron charge potential (pressure) between any two points in
space.

Charge: a measurement of the number of electrons being held at a given voltage at a point in space
relative to the number held at another point in space. Measured in "Coulombs"; 1 Coulomb = 6.242
* 10 to the 18th electrons

Current: a measurement of the number of electrons flowing through a circuit in a given period of
time. Measured in "Amperes". One Ampere = 1 Coulomb per second

Resistance: a circuit's opposition to current flow which limits the number of electrons that can pass
through a circuit at a given voltage in a given period of time.

Energy: measurement of how much work a system has the capability to perform.

Work: the use of energy to accomplish some task.

Power: the rate at which a given amount of work can be performed.

Corona: high pressure (voltage) electrons rushing to escape from sharp points and edges on
conductors creating a violet glow and quite a bit of ozone.

Batteries : charging, discharging, current and resistance

(This is a very simple explanation of the internal workings of a electrical storage battery. I won't be
explaining the ionic processes within the battery only because that information is of secondary
importance in reference to process being described.)

A battery stores charges chemically. Slow chemical reactions can store very large charges.

Batteries discharge when a number of electrons are allowed to migrate from the negative terminal
to the positive terminal. Batteries can be recharged by forcing current to flow backwards (positive
to negative). This typically takes 20% more charge to recharge a battery than what came out of the
battery in the first place.

The amount of work that is accomplished for a specific amount of electron flow is dependant upon
how efficiently the load makes use of the electrons passing through it. For the sake of fully
understanding the remainder of this book, please begin to think of battery discharge in terms of the
number of electrons that have passed from one terminal to the other.

For the sake of fully understanding this concept avoid thinking about the time that it takes the
charge to transfer. The "time factor" of charge transfer adds an element of confusion that is not
needed at this time.

Basically, it comes down to this. The NUMBER of ELECTRONS that are allowed to pass from
negative to positive on the battery is what discharges the battery. The rate at which that number of

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electrons pass only shortens the discharge time. It doesn't change the total amount of discharge.
The load resistance merely reduces the rate of electron flow and absorbs the electron's kinetic
energy.

It doesn't "eat" or destroy any electrons. They all pass through the load. The battery's own
electrons cause it to discharge itself, not the amount of work those electrons might perform while
they're moving. It can rightly be stated that a battery discharges itself. A resistive load merely
provides a path for the electrons to follow as they migrate from the battery's negative terminal to
the positive terminal. The load simply takes advantage of the electron movement as best it can.

Ok, here's the simple secret of resistance.

A resistive load DOES consume POWER.


A resistive load DOES NOT consume CHARGE.

Since power is a measurement of charge transfer per unit of time, the only thing the resistor really
"consumes" is TIME. Resistance simply lengthens the time for charge transfer from one point to
another. No electrons are destroyed as they pass through the resistance.

The electrons sacrifice some of their kinetic energy to the resistance as they pass through. That
kinetic energy manifests as heat, light or magnetism. The price for these manifestations is a slowing
of the charge transfer rate, not the consumption ( destruction ) of the charge.

Rectifiers

A rectifier is a device that allows electron flow in only one direction, like a check valve. They are
typically referred to as rectifier diodes. There are diodes designed to handle many different ranges
of voltage and current. Some are very tiny (tip of pencil) and others are much larger (soda can).
The rectifiers you'll need for these projects are quite small and can handle quite a lot of voltage.
More on these later.

Capacitors (direct electron charge storage)

A capacitor is a device made up of at least two metallic plates that are separated by a dialectric.
When the two plates are exposed to different relative voltages, one surface takes on electrons and
the other loses the same number of electrons. This puts the two plates in a state of relative charge
imbalance. This is how a capacitor stores a charge.

Unlike a battery, whose maximum current output is limited by the speed of chemical reactions, a
capacitor can release all its electrons in a very short, very powerful burst. Of course, it can only
release the same number that were put into it. But, it can absorb high voltage, low current spikes
and use the electrons, of which those spikes consist, to gradually fill itself until it rises to the voltage
level of the incoming spikes. While those high voltage spikes were not terribly useful individually,
the capacitor can pool them into a single large charge that can be harnessed to perform work.

A capacitor is to electrons what a dam is to water. The dam takes a fast moving stream of water,
blocks its flow and uses it to gradually fill a large basin with water. The dam gradually releases the
water from the basin and extracts energy for work from the falling water. A capacitor takes a
quickly flowing electron current ( high voltage) and causes it to stop and fill its internal storage area

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which fills from the bottom up, just like the water basin. The height that the water in the basin rises
is analogous to the gradual rise in voltage as charge fills the capacitor. The capacitor's charge can
be slowly bled through a load using a series resistor or it can be released all at once.

Electromagnets (inductors)

Let's start of with a definition of induction: the generation of electromotive force in a closed circuit
by a magnetic field that changes with time.

In other words, an inductor resists sudden changes in current flow which alter the size of its
magnetic field. As long as current remains steady through an inductor there is little resistance to
that current. But, as soon as that current flow changes, the field size changes and offers resistance
to that change.

An electromagnetic field develops around any conductor that is carrying an electron current. This
field can be concentrated by winding the conductor into a coil. Even more field strength can be
added by putting a ferrous metal core in the middle of the coil. If more turns are added to the coil
and the current through the wire is kept constant the field become increasingly powerful. If we
don't want a stronger field, we can add turns and then REDUCE the CURRENT to maintain the
same field strength. Let's examine an area where electromagnets can be easily studied; electric
motors.

Some small high-resistance motors can make use of very very weak currents to perform physical
work. One example is the solar cell driven motors that you can purchase at Radio Shack or from
Edmund Scientific Co. If you placed the proper resistor (to limit current) in series with one of these
motors and a 12 volt car battery it could potentially continue running for the life of the battery.

These high resistance motors can make use of almost every bit of charge in a battery because they
squeeze out as much kinetic energy from the passing electrons as they can. High resistance means
that very few electrons can migrate in a given time and the battery lasts quite a while. Compare this
to a typical automotive starter motor that relies on HUGE amounts of current flow in a very short
space of time to perform work. If you've ever owned a car you've probably heard the 'click' when
there wasn't enough charge left in your battery to run the starter. There would still be enough to
run the small motor, though.

Theoretically, a solar cell motor could turn over an automobile engine. But, you'd need extreme
gear reduction and the engine would turn over at speeds like that of the small hand on a clock.

If, for several engine revolutions, you measured the amount of battery discharge for the solar cell
motor compared to the regular starter you'd find that the small motor uses several times less
battery charge. So, many times we sacrifice efficiency for speed. Now, there is a way to make a
normal automotive starter several times more efficient without sacrificing the speed and immediate
power output. I'll explain.

Examine an old starter motor. You'll see that there are no real windings on the rotor. They use
straight pieces of heavy copper wire from one end to the other. This is not done for it's efficiency.
The same field strength could be achieved with much less current flow if there were four or S
windings in place of each straight piece of wire.

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Let's see just what's going on. A magnetic field's strength is determined by the number of "ampere
turns" in the magnet*s windings. Magnetizing force is calculated in the following way:

Take note that the only electrical measurement that counts in field strength is CURRENT.

Voltage is not a factor in E.M. field strength. Let's say we have a coil that has 5 turns over a 1cm
core and has a total resistance of 5 ohms. We could connect a 5 volt battery to it to get a 1 amp flow.
That would give us a field strength of about 6.28 oersteds. So we nave 5 volts @ l amp (5 watts) to
produce a 6.28 oersted field.

Now, let's say the coil only has a resistance of 1 ohm. Now, we need only apply a 1 volt battery to get
1 ampere of current flow. This produces the same 6.28 oersted field. But, 1 volt @ 1 amp is only 1
watt! The idea is that the volume of CHARGE you move is what counts, not the voltage of that
charge. 1 ampere is always equal to 1 coulomb of charge per second, no matter what voltage it may
have pushing it along.

For example, let's say the one normal starter winding carries 10 amperes to produce a specific
strength field. This draws 10 coulombs per second (ouch!) from our battery while the winding is
energized. If we just use 10 turns of a lighter guage wire in place of that single winding we can
achieve the same field strength using only 1 ampere of current flow. 10 turns @ 1 ampere each
equals 10 ampere turns. This produces the same field using 10 times less current flow.

Your battery lasts 10 times as long for the same amount of physical force produced. But, this
increases a property of the magnets that most engineers try very hard to avoid; C.E.M.F. A single
strand of wire has very little of this property and it greatly increases as you add turns to an
inductor.

C.E.M.F ( CounterElectromotive Force), or "back E.M.F." is what happens when an inductor's


electromagnetic field collapses suddenly. All the energy that it took to build up the field comes
crashing back out of the coil in one very short, very high voltage spike of current. The collapsing
field acts like an electron pump.

The inductor causes electrons to be pumped through the shortest electrical path available at that
moment. The spike voltage will rise to be able to complete the circuit between the ends of the
inductor winding. This is usually many times higher than the voltage that was applied to the
inductor in the first place.

The inductor pumps the same VOLUME of electrons as the TOTAL FLOW VOLUME that passed
through it to build the field. But, that surge of electrons is released in one quick pulse at a higher
pressure level. An inductor can be used to "store" energy in this way, but it requires high speed
input pulses. The pulses shouldn't be long enough to create a steady state E.M. field.
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For storage, the pulse must be just long enough to build a field almost to 100% and then let it
collapse immediately without "hanging" at the maximum strength point. This means that a sudden
pulse of low voltage current can be "bounced" into an inductor and released as C.E.M.F. at a
higher voltage level with great efficiency.

The current flow direction of that "bounce" is in the same direction as the original current flow. All
we need is a rectifier diode to catch the pulse and send it somewhere to be put to use. Modern
engineers usually use the same diode to simply short the pulse onto itself to cancel it out.

If left alone, the C.E.M.F. causes arcing on the commutators of D.C. motors which eats a battery's
charge faster than with a shunt diode in place across the windings. The reason is simple. ( Nearly
twice the number of electrons are being pumped from the negative to the positive terminal as were
used in energizing the electromagnet in the motor. ) Free inductive "bounce" energy was being used
AGAINST the power source to further deplete it.

Look at figure 1a.

If switch S1 is closed, current begins to flow in the whole circuit. Once current begins to flow, the
field around L1 begins to grow and reaches a maximum strength for that level of current flow.
Until it reaches full strength it is said to be "storing" energy in this field.

But, its NOT storing electrons. Remember, the electrons passed THROUGH the coil while the
energy of their movement created the field. The electrons are continuing on to the positive terminal
of the battery where they'll cancel some of the battery's charge.

Now, if S1 is opened, current flow in the circuit ceases and the field around L1 collapses. This
collapse releases the "stored" energy in the same direction as the original current flow which
follows the only easy path, through the diode.

By adding a capacitor in series with the diode we can collect the "spike" energy. The capacitor
drops the voltage and makes it steady again so we can use it to power other things. Just put a small
load in parallel with the capacitor. The "overshoot" principle (figure 1b.)

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We know that CURRENT is needed to charge a battery, right? Now consider that in any single
series circuit, the current flow is identical at all points of that circuit. This has been made very clear
to anyone who's ever taken a class in electrical theory.

Let's say we have a capacitor that's been charged to 3000 volts. If we discharge that capacitor into a
12 volt battery (the diagram) we know that about 99% of the capacitor charge (current) will flow
backwards through the battery and impart some charge in that battery. A good quality lead/acid
battery seems to have no problem handling the current spikes. Good ventilation and proper
shielding around batteries is needed in case they start "gassing" or they overheat and rupture.

If we add a resistor to the series circuit we can slow down the passage of current through the
battery, but we DO NOT change the total VOLUME of electron charge that passes through the
circuit. The battery still receives the same charge, just a little slower. Change that resistor to an
electromagnet and you'll get the same results. The difference is, you can use the physical force of
the magnetic field to perform work while that current is flowing.

The electromagnetic field will collapse once current (99% charge) stops flowing. With a rectifier in
place, the field collapse of the electromagnet will cause even more electrons to be pumped in the
same direction as the original current pulse, backwards through the battery.

The C.E.M.F. moves nearly 100% of the electron volume that was originally put through the
circuit. This imparts a charge to the battery of nearly 200% of the original capacitor charge. This
charge collection method provides a little bit of "extra" charge for the battery. The physical work
that the circuit produces is not significantly altered by the presence of the battery.

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I know this sounds really strange, but the second law of thermo-dynamics doesn't apply because
this isn't a "closed system" of energy flow. The extra power is what physicists refer to as "Zero-
point" or "Vacuum" energy.

It's the same energy source that allows an electron to "perpetually" orbit the nucleus of an atom
without spiraling in and crashing. I've asked some heretofore un-named "learned" people what the
energy source might be that is keeping all these electrons in motion. The best reply was something
like "...probably the same source that made the electrons in the first place...".

In other words, they don't really know.

This same energy is unleashed in normal D.C. motors when you see arcing on the commutator.

That's why this arcing causes the battery to discharge faster. The c.e.m.f. pumps a second pulse of
electrons into the positive terminal that nearly equals the one you first put into the motor windings.

As the contact (commutator) breaks the


circuit, the field collapse causes an arc that
further discharges the battery and also
erodes the contacts.

Adding a diode across the motor's


electrical terminals prevents the current
spike from reaching the battery.

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Section 2

Parallel resonant "LC tank"


Circuits and Free Energy Production

The "LC tank" circuit is the combination of a capacitor and an inductor that are connected to each
other in parallel. It takes advantage of the complementary properties between the two devices.

A charged capacitor can discharge quickly into an inductor to suddenly build an e.m. field. The
capacitor charge reaches 0 volts and the e.m. field collapses which forces (pumps) a high voltage
current pulse in the same direction as the original current flow.

This spike is collected by the capacitor which becomes charged with a polarity opposite to its
original charged state. The process then repeats in the opposite direction. If the capacitor and
inductor are properly matched, this reactive energy will pass back and forth many times before the
circuit energy completely dissipates. It takes much less charge input to maintain the circuit energy
than what cumulatively passes back and forth between the capacitor and inductor.

Initial logic might suggest that placing a load in series within the circuit would allow us to tap this
massive reactive power. Well, yes and no. Now, let me clarify that statement.

If you place a load resistance in series into the circuit, the capacitor discharge is slowed down and
thus cannot provide the "instant pulse" of current that the inductor needs to be able to "bounce"
the charge back out. So we can't have a load in place at this stage of circuit operation.

But, look what happens if you put the resistance in between stages 2 and 3, just before the field
collapses (c.e.m.f.). The capacitor only relies on two things in order to become charged; VOLTAGE
and VOLUME of CHARGE The time it takes for the electrons to flow into the capacitor makes no
difference.

The resistive load doesn't change the VOLTAGE or the VOLUME of PASSING CHARGE. It only
impedes, or slows down, the flow. ALL of the charge still reaches and fills the capacitor. At this
stage the collapsing field will build up the voltage as much as needed to pump electrons back
through the capacitor and load. Now we just need to remove the load and go back to step #1 to
repeat the process.

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Congratulations. You now know how to make use of REACTIVE POWER instead of just the
INPUT POWER. There's a huge difference between the two. You need high speed switching to
switch the load in and out at the proper times. Oh yeah, this system has already been patented and
is being developed. Order a copy from the U.S. Patent office. It's patent # 5,146,395, the Power On
Demand Module.

Now, we know that reactive interaction between a capacitor and inductor can allow us to pass
energy from a capacitor to an inductor and back again with little loss of system energy as long as
the two components are harmonically matched. We know that an electrical charge can be "bounced
off" an inductor and collected again for re-use with very little loss which means that only a tiny
fraction of the charge needs to be taken from an outside current source to "top off" the system. In
just a moment, you'll see how to cause a fixed amount of CHARGE in a two capacitor system to
actually INCREASE. The number of COULOMBS (charge volume) will actually increase without
introduction of more outside battery current!

Are you drooling yet? You should be!

First let's prove that charge isn't consumed by a load resistance. You'll need to understand how to
calculate coulombs ( amount of charge in a capacitor). It's simple. Multiply the capacitance times
the charge voltage.

So: COULOMBS=VOLTAGE * CAPACITANCE in Farads

C1 and C2 should be the same capacitance and voltage rating. Larger capacitances (30,000uf +) are
best for demonstration purposes because you'll be moving larger amounts of charge and the system
will operate slowly.

Charge C1 to 12 volts and make sure C2 is starting at 0 volts. Adjust R1 to 0 ohms and close S1.
The two capacitors should each end up with 1/2 of the original voltage of C1 ( 6 volts each,
approximately ). To figure the total system charge just figure the coulombs for each capacitor and
then add them together. Now, we could, technically, "bounce" C2's charge into an inductor, which
would raise the voltage, and into C1 which would leave C2 at 0 volts again and C2 would be back
up to 12 volts (nearly). That's simply the same charge conservation that occurs in any tuned LC
tank circuit.

Next recharge C1 to 12 volts and discharge C2 to 0 volts. Now, set R1 to 100 ohms and close S1.
Slowly, the voltages of C1 and C2 again reach 1/2 of C1's starting voltage. No charge was lost!
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Again, we can use our hypothetical inductor to "bounce" C2's charge up to a high enough voltage
to recharge C1 to 12 volts (nearly).

Now, replace R1 with a small bulb and you'll see the same effect, except this time you'll see light
from the bulb every time you close S1 to move charge down to C2. Bounce that charge back up to
C1 and do it again. Outside energy is only added to "top off" the charge on C1 every few cycles!
The load passes much more charge than what needs to be added to the system! Welcome to the
world of quantum energy extraction!

This next circuit actually INCREASES the net charge in a similar closed circuit while it performs
physical work!

We're using a buzzer (dotted area) and a transformer primary winding (L2) as a pulsed inductor to
produce c.e.m.f. pumping. Essentially, C1 sends charging current into C2 when S1 is closed and L1
and L2 build fields. L1's field pulls S1 open and an equal amount of current is again pumped
through C2 as the fields collapse. This happens repeatedly until C1 and C2 reach the same voltage
which will be GREATER than 1/2 of C1's starting voltage!

Now use an inductor that is harmonically matched to the capacitance of C2. Discharge C2 into that
inductor and direct the high voltage c.e.m.f with a diode to send it through C1 where it adds to the
volume of charge that C1 already contains. C1 should then return to THE SAME VOLTAGE that
it started with!!

This demonstrates a conservation of the original number of joules from the first capacitor while
doing physical work! To figure joules use the formula: joules=(charge * volts2)/2. That's the energy
stored in a capacitor.

Yes, you can go bury your face in a pillow and scream for a minute until you get over the shocking
simplicity of it all! Only while the buzzer is working will c.e.m.f. be produced for collection. My
buzzer stops buzzing after the difference drops below 3 volts.

I collected the c.e.m.f. in a separate capacitor and found that it produced 3 volts of charge in the
outside capacitor. That means that while the buzzer was working, nearly 100% of the charge
transfer had been "echoed" into the third capacitor!!!

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Section 3

Application of F/E Principles


in the E.V. Gray motor

The fact that this motor design uses high voltage pulses in the kilovolt range gives it some definite
advantages over conventional low voltage motors. By using high voltage, Ed Gray managed to
bypass the need for full contact commutator switching.

The high voltage pulses jump a small gap and then the source is disconnected. Very simple and very
effective. This pulse timing is controlled automatically by simply setting the proper spacing at the
spark gap and the capacitor pulse is always the same duration.

A conventional low voltage motor controller must constantly control pulse width and timing. This
puts you at the mercy of many more possible component failures. The only semiconductor circuitry,
besides the high voltage rectifiers, in the Gray motor is the voltage inverter. But, even that could be
replaced with a simple mechanical vibrator circuit if absolutely necessary.

Included with this book is the complete text and all the diagrams of the "Pulsed Capacitor
Discharge Electric Engine" patent # 3,890,548. As you examine the patent text and drawings try to
bear in mind that the "overshoot" and "back E.M.F." circuits were not detailed. Only the "delay"
coils were shown, but the rectifiers necessary to make these delay coils function properly were
omitted.

This is not unheard of in the world of patent information. Most times, patents show the simplest
embodiment of a device or process. Certain information, critical to the proper functioning of the
device or process is left out so that only those "skilled in the art" would be able to determine what
the missing details might be.

Look at the block diagram in the patent. You should now be able to understand just what's
happening at each stage of this process.

Parts 11, 36, 20, and 38 represent the high voltage power inverter with D.C. output. This is where
the 12 volts from the battery is converted to a high frequency high voltage A.C. signal that is
converted to D.C. using high voltage rectifiers.

Part 37 represents a long length of wire that is wrapped around the motor housing that is described
as a "delay coil". The H.V. pulsed D.C. is fed through these windings to reach the storage capacitor
( # 39 ).

The capacitor discharge is sent through a rotating controller ( #40, 41, 42 ) that directs the
discharge to the electromagnets at the proper time. The "overshoot" and C.E.M.F. is collected and
sent back to the main batteries to recharge them.

To provide maximum recharging, the pulses should be stepped down to less than 100 volts. This is
less likely to damage the battery and it increases the total amount of recharge current that passes
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through the battery (coulombs). The process is very orderly and fairly simple once you understand
what's happening at each stage.

The "delay coils" (#37) make use of the principle of "current lag". To put it simply, whenever a
charge source (battery) is connected in series with a circuit, there is a very short pause before
current begins to flow. This is where the circuit is "filling" with voltage.

Since electrical energy is limited to the speed of light, it takes a specific amount of time for an
applied voltage to potentialize a length of wire ( about 1 microsecond per 1000ft of wire ). Once that
wire has been fully potentialized, current begins to flow. ( A battery begins to discharge at the point
that the current begins to flow. During the time that voltage is filling a circuit the battery suffers
NO discharge. Only when electrons begin entering the positive pole of the battery does the battery
begin to discharge.)

The inverter puts out pulses that are shorter in duration than the delay time of the coil. When the
pulse finally finds its way to the other end, the pulse source is no longer connected. The electron
potential in the wire needs to discharge somewhere so a diode is employed to direct the pulse into
the capacitor bank.

This lowers the current draw on the transformer and increases the charge efficiency to the
capacitor bank. The voltage, apparently, is what causes the electrons to gain this momentum and
not the amount of current that's applied. This system performance is essentially the same as the
buzzer and transformer circuit that I showed you in a previous chapter.

Below you will find a simplified version of the Gray motor design that is only intended to make the
details in the patent a little clearer. This is not self starting. You need to start the wheel spinning by
hand. The more massive the flywheel the better. Notice that spark gaps are aligned just as one of
the iron slugs is approaching the electromagnet A "U" shaped electromagnet positioned so that the
slug passes throught the open ends produces quite a bit more physical force and a bit more c.e.m.f.

Source B1 provides current to power the 3500 volt inverter. The inverter gradually charges the
capacitor. When the capacitor reaches a voltage sufficient to fire across the rotating spark gap, it
discharges through the electromagnet and the current flow charges B2.

When the electromagnet is energized it pulls the iron slug causing a tug on the flywheel. The
C.E.M.F. pumping action from the electromagnet is directed through B2 by the rectifier and
provides further charging. Relay switching can periodically trade the positions of B1 and B2 so that
both receive charge.

The main differences between this design and the Gray patent is that no electromagnets are
mounted on the flywheel and only one electromagnet is being used. This motor relies on magnetic
attraction while Gray's design uses repulsion. The stationary spark gaps may be mounted on a ring
so that they can be turned to adjust the motors pulse timing. This would allow acceleration and
deceleration of the flywheel. Increasing and decreasing the input current to the inverter also affects
motor speed.

As in the patent, multiple magnets and inverters would greatly increase the motor's horsepower.

15
Instead of having the return pulses go to the battery, the pulses could be sent back and forth
between the high voltage capacitors in each circuit. This decreases the work that your inverters
must do to maintain a full capacitor charge. A generator may be driven from the output shaft and
used to top off the battery and power other things.

The remainder of the book is for those who can't resist building interesting and potentially useful
toys. Experiment with H.V. at your own risk. Be careful.

Please remember that this is a very simple example of the Gray motor design principles. The
battery "B2" must be tough enough to handle the high voltage spikes of current that the
electromagnet will produce. Still, the best method is to build two electromagnets and two inverter
assemblies. Just feed the c.e.m.f. spikes from one circuit to the high voltage capacitor in the opposite
circuit.

This approach eliminates two problems. First, your battery never needs to recieve any potentially
damaging high voltage pulses. Second, there is no POWER TRANSLATION loss from high to low

16
potential sides of the circuit. To understand this you must understand a little about electrical
transformer theory.

Ideally, a transformer will take a


certain amount of POWER (volts *
amps) and produce the same POWER
out the other side. If you put an
alternating current into one side of a
transformer you will get an
alternating current out of the other
side that is the same power.

By using different numbers of windings on the primary (input) and secondary (output) sides you
can change the voltage and current to make it either higher or lower. As you raise the voltage the
current decreases and as you lower the voltage the current increases. All the while the same power
will be maintained.

If you take current from a battery, raise the voltage, store it in a capacitor and then discharge that
capacitor back through your battery, the volume of current returned for charging will be smaller
than what was taken from the battery in the first place. This is what is meant by POWER
TRANSLATION loss.

If you still don't quite understand this principle, just go to the library and pick up a book on
transformers.

17
Section 4

Tinkerer's Construction Projects

I've tried to keep all the design descriptions as short and easy to follow as possible. Just keep
referring to the diagrams and everything should be quite clear. In combining devices you may need
"match" capacitance and inductance values to achieve the desired results.

Don't become discouraged if your first attempt doesn't work correctly. Just study some electrical
books and learn what you need to know. If the current flow from a capacitor flows for too long a
period of time there will be a "hang time" in the magnetic field.

Ideally, your capacitor should discharge just long enough to build a field and immediately allow it
to collapse without the field remaining in a steady state. The "build up time" is the only energy that
you can retrieve from the electromagnet. "Hang time" is all lost energy. For capacitor discharge
experiments you should always use only one hand and wear heavy rubber gloves.

Make yourself a discharge rod from a piece of PVC tubing by attaching a piece of ignition wire to a
bolt and attaching the bolt to one end of the rod. You hold the rod at the other end and the wire gets
attached to the circuit ground connection. Now you can discharge your capacitor from a distance
by touching the bolt to the opposite electrode.

Note: use metal core ignition cable for all H.V. leads. Also make sure all permanent connections are
sealed in Clear Silicone RTV.

Voltage Inverter and Rectifier Assembly

The diagram shows a simple "push-pull" feedback oscillator circuit that will drive an old
black&white television flyback transformer to produce between 5000 and 15000 volts A.C. The
frequency is usually between 20khz and 40khz. This A.C. output must be rectified (changed to D.C.)
in order to use it to charge capacitors. For the greatest efficiency, your projects should be designed
to work with the actual output voltage of the inverter.

Make sure you use HEAVY heatsinks for both transistors. Add windings to the flyback ransformer
as shown and seal transformer in epoxy to eliminate corona discharge.

18
Since finding rectifier diodes to handle 5000 volts isn't that easy, I suggest that you make your own.
Just purchase a bunch of 1000v diodes and solder them together in series. Each diode adds another
1000 volts of tolerance. Ten 1kv diodes in series should handle a maximum of 10,000 volts. Always
construct your H.V. rectifiers to handle TWICE THE WORKING VOLTAGE. That way you'll
greatly extend the life of the components.

19
The rectifier assemblies should be sealed in some sort of
insulator. Epoxy, silicone or even hot glue can be used to
put a block of insulation around the diodes. This will
eliminate loss of circuit charge to corona discharge on
the metal joints. Rectifier assemblies may be connected
in parallel to increase the current carrying ability if
needed.

High Voltage Volt Meter

Now, wouldn't it be nice to


monitor your project voltages?

You can build a simple voltage


meter that will give you a fairly
accurate reading with just a few
parts.

The first thing to understand is the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.

That formula works like this:

Voltage = Amperage * Resistance OR V = I*R

Knowing this, we can build a simple voltage measurement meter. All you need is a small 1 ma meter
(Radio Shack) and one 15 megohm resistor. This circuit, as shown, will measure a maximum of
about 15000 volts. Also, keep in mind that this will drain your capacitor a bit so disconnect it after
you're done taking your measurements.

Explanation: As in the formula above

V =15000v (maximum)
I = .001 amp (maximum)
R = 15,000,000 ohms

This is useful monitoring a capacitor's charging progress. Use alligator clips on leads so you can
attach the meter leads to the H.V. contacts BEFORE you turn on the inverter. This keeps YOU out
of the live circuit.

High Voltage Capacitor

This design text was donated by a friend of mine who just wanted to see something of his get
published.
20
I usually recommend to anyone that's serious about this hobby that they purchase ready made high
voltage capacitors like the big square one in the picture below. These are much more efficient than
home-built models (tall, skinny white one on the right) and much simpler to use due to smaller size.
There is a short list of parts suppliers at the end of this booklet that sell capacitors and other items
of interest.

If you simply must build your own ( I just had to! ) then just keep reading. I'll describe a fairly
simple method for building your own oil filled capacitors with very little expense.

This is a text on constructing an oil filled capacitor for holding 5-8 kv. It seems to be quickly usable
(within 1 week) without HV breakdown. You need 6 mil or 9 mil poly sheeting from the hardware
store and a good long roll of aluminum foil from the kitchen cabinet.

These plans are not exact and may be modified to suit whatever needs you may have. Just
remember, more surface area = louder BANG!

( Note: the dimensions given are the maximum for capacitors made with 6mil poly sheeting.
Greater surface areas will likely cause breakdown.)

Parts list:

- A length of 2" O.D. PVC pipe.


- A length of 1/2" pvc.
- 2 end caps for the PVC.
- PVC cement
- Clear silicone RTV

- #22 HV insulated solid aluminum wire (or Delco 440


ignition wire)
- Two 1/8" bolts 1 inch long with nuts (for terminal
connections)
- A roll of 6 mil or 9 mil plastic sheeting from the
hardware store. Polyurethane is the best for the money$.
- A roll of household aluminum foil.
- 1/4 inch thick plexiglass
- plastic wire ties
- Mineral oil

This is fairly simple. Cut your pipe about 6 inches longer than your roll of foil. Clean one end of the
pipe and the inside of the endcap with alcohol. Liberally apply the cement to the pipe end and twist
the cap into place to securely seal the end. This is the bottom of the capacitor.

Cut two 1 3/4 inch long by 1 inch wide rectangles from the plexiglass. Cut a center slot halfway
through the width of each so that they'll fit together like an X. Drop this assembly into the bottom
of the pipe.

21
Your capacitor guts will sit on top of this to keep them out of moisture that may collect on the
bottom. If you're using 2" pvc then the lengths I'll suggest will work nicely. Scale them up for
larger pipes.

Consult the capacitor construction


diagram.

Cut two 10 foot lengths of poly sheeting


that are 6 inches wider than the width of
the aluminum foil. Cut a length of 1/2" pvc
that is 1 inch longer than the width of the
poly strips. This is what you'll wrap the
poly/foil layers on ( center tube ).

Cut a 1/4" notch in one end. Strip several


inches of the aluminum wire and feed the
stripped end down through the tube and
out the notched end. Bend the wire at the
base of the stripped end and hook it in the
notch so that the bare wire rests against
the outside of the tube and the insulated
part is in the center.

Lay out one 10 foot poly strip and tape down both ends to the floor with just two tiny pieces of tape
(this is temporary to stabilize construction). Unroll your foil down the full length of poly. Leave
even spacing on both sides and overlap the poly on one end by 1".

Tack this in place at each end with tape (again, only a little because this is temporary). Now place
the second length of poly sheeting directly over the first (tape on ends to hold in place).

22
Unroll another layer of foil, but overlap edge by 1" on
opposite end from the first layer. Wrap the overlap
from the top foil layer around the 1/2 " pvc and wire
assembly so that the bare wire contacts the foil.

Remove tack tape on this end and begin rolling the


aluminum/poly sandwich up on the pvc/wire assembly.
Keep everything straight when rolling. When you reach
the far end you should have a little foil hanging out
from bottom layer. Strip the end of another piece of
wire and roll the foil overhang onto the bare area.

Now use the wire ties and secure the whole roll so that is doesn't unroll. This will also hold the wire
onto the side. The layered assembly should be rolled up tight on a very thin piece of pcv and then
held together with several plastic pull-ties. A neatly wrapped, tight roll will give the best and most
consistent performance. Don't cinch the ties any tighter than it takes to hold everything in place or
you may damage the poly with the wire end that1 s inside the roll.

23
Cut a square of plexiglass that overhangs the end of the
2" pipe on all on all sides. Drill holes for 2 vacuum
fittings and 2 1/8" bolts.

After drilling the holes then lightly score the surface of


the plexi from corner to corner in both directions (like
the letter x). This will allow the plexi to crack if there's
ever a sudden pressure build-up due to capacitor
failure.

This will keep it from acting like a pipe bomb.


Cracking the plexi is much better than having your cap
blow all over the room.

Place roll into the 2" pvc assembly and place plexi cap on pipe. Measure and cut wires so that they
will reach the bolts. Double check your measurements before cutting wires. You don't want any
mechanical stress on anything inside the capacitor. Feed the bolts through so that the threaded ends
stick out the top and attach the wires underneath. Seal the bolts in from top and bottom with
silicone. Seal vacuum fittings in place with silicone.

Coat the top edge of the pvc pipe with silicone and seal down the plexiglass endcap. Close one
vacuum fitting and apply a light vacuum to the other. Listen for hissing and seal any leaks. Let the
silicone cure for 24 hours.

Make yourself a
"catch can" from an
empty coffee can or
other similar
scalable container.
Punch two holes as
shown and put
vacuum hose nipples
into them. The catch
can must be airtight.

24
Run some hose from the vacuum pump to the catch can and then from the catch can to the
capacitor and from the capacitor to the bottle of oil.

Now apply vacuum. The oil will be sucked into the capacitor. Stop filling when the oil is about 1/4"
over the edge of the poly. Seal off the second vacuum fitting and continue applying vacuum to the
canister. Leave vacuum on the capacitor for about 5 hours.

The catch can will collect any oil that might bubble up the vacuum line. This way your pump is
protected from oil intake which would ruin the seals.

Let the capacitor stand on the shelf for about 5 days before using it. This gives any remaining air
bubbles enough time to work their way out from between the plates. If you set your power supply to
1kv and put a charge on the capacitor it will help to force air out of the plates.

The capacitor should have this charge placed on it for several hours a day during these first 5 days.

KEEP YOUR EYE ON THE CAPACITORS WHEN YOU ARE DOING THIS! If your capacitor
fails then you will want to be nearby to quickly clean up any mess and control any possible fire
hazard.

And by all means, keep the capacitors in some sort of metal pan thafs large enough to hold all the
oil without spilling over. Better safe...

If you used 6 mil poly then don't use much more than 5 kv DC and you shouldn't have any
problems. If you want more voltage then put several capacitors in series (e.g., 3 caps in series = 15
kv).

Paralleling them gives


you the same voltage but
greater capacity. Series
reduces total capacitance
but increases total
voltage rating.

The chart shows you the


equations to figure total
capacitance when you
connect several
capacitors together.

High voltage electrolytic capacitors can also be used to build a high capacity charge bank. Make
sure all the capacitors have the same voltage and capacitance rating. Solder a single 1kv diode

25
accross the terminals of each capacitor so that none will ever be able to accidentally receive a
reversed charge. The diodes are critical because a reversed charge on an electrolytic capacitor will
degrade and destroy the oxide layer and short out the capacitor.

Capacitors can be strung in series to multiply the voltage rating. Make sure all capacitors in a
string are the same type, voltage rating and capacity. Using different values mixed together causes
unstable charging and discharging which can damage capacitors. Use ignition wire between
capacitors and seal all connections in clear silicone.

Using capacitors of different size and rating will cause excessive wear and tear on the diodes which
can result in overheating and failure. Then you're back to that capacitor degradation thing again.

Photo flash capacitors are recommended. They're wound in such a way that removes most of their
internal inductance and they release their charge very quickly. Remember, you were warned.

NO WARRANTIES, GUARANTEES, OR ANYTHING ELSE EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. YOU


BUILD THIS AT YOUR OWN RISK. HIGH CURRENT LEVELS IN THE LETHAL RANGE
ARE POSSIBLE. DISCHARGES FROM CAPACITORS CAN CAUSE SKIN TO FRY OR
EXPLODE (ouch). KEEP PETS AWAY!!!

High Voltage Electromagnet ( Make two of these to begin with. See diagram page.)

An ELECTROMAGNET is a soft iron core that has many turns of insulated wire wrapped around
it. When power is applied to the coil a magnetic field is developed around the iron core. Two
electromagnets can be made to either push one another apart or pull one another together. You can
make electromagnets and solenoids for experimentation without much difficulty or expense.

Things you'll need :

- A 10lb. roll of #30 insulated wire. You can usually purchase wire from motor rebuilding shops. A
10 pound roll of armature wire usually sells for around $50.10 pounds of #30 wire is a bunch! This
will supply you with enough wire for many coils and experiments.
- Soft iron rod. Make sure you don't get steel. Soft iron is the absolute best for really good
electromagnets and solenoids. Large spike nails can be used also. Old transformer cores also work
very well.
- Mylar office tape. The big rolls are the best. 1/2 inch wide.
- Plastic tubing (for solenoids). You can get thin pvc pipe or gray plastic pipe from a plumbing
supply store. It's best if your iron rod just fits into the pipe so that it still slides freely.

26
Get a piece of 1/2 inch
iron welding rod for use
as a magnet core. Cut 2
pieces 1 1/2 inches long
each. Cut two plexiglass
squares and drill holes as
in the diagram. Glue
these squares onto the
ends of the iron core and
leave a little bit of the
core sticking out on both
ends.

Spray paint the core with enamel paint to seal the metal. Once the enamel dries, put a layer of
mylar office tape on the core. Make sure the tape overlaps slightly so that the metal isn't exposed.

Begin wrapping layers of the #30 wire on the core, start


by running the end of the out through the small hole in
the plexiglass. Wind each layer neatly. Wind from one
end to the other and a apply a layer of tape. Now wind
another layer back in the other direction and apply
another layer of tape. Continue applying layers until
you lose your sanity from the absolute monotony of the
process.

The more layers you apply, the stronger the field will be. Make sure your windings don't exceed the
width of the plexiglass ends. Next, from flat aluminum stock, cut, bend and drill a bracket (figure
7c) in which to mount the electromagnet.

Affix the magnet in the bracket and glue in place. Now dip the completed assembly in enamel paint
to permanently seal out moisture. Let the magnet drip dry for 5 days. The finished electromagnet
should end up looking something like figure 7d.

27
For the strongest magnets make
your iron cores very short and put
many layers of windings so that
the magnet begins to take on a
pancake-like shape. These
features provide greater
inductance and greater c.e.m.f.
return. Make sure that all sharp
metal edges have been filed off to
prevent stray arcing that might
damage the windings.

Note: you may want to build a wire wrapping jig so you don't go crazy trying to wind all those
turns by hand.

High Voltage Solenoid

A SOLENOID is an electromagnet that has a core that can slide out. When power is applied to the
solenoid coil, the core is pulled inside. Solenoids are used for activating mechanical processes using
electrical impulses. A solenoid is considered to be a very simple form of a motor because it converts
electrical energy into linear physical motion.

Cut a 5 inch piece of hard


plastic tubing and, using a
permanent ink marker,
make a mark 1/2 inch from
each end so that you have a
4 inch space between the
two marks. Cut and drill
plexiglass ends. Glue the
ends onto the tubing in the
same way you put them on
the electromagnet cores.

Begin winding using the same methods as you used making the electromagnets. You'll need at least
30 layers of windings with a thin layer of tape between each layer. The tape makes winding easier
and prevents arcing inside the windings.

Once you have the solenoid fully wound you can make a frame for it as in the diagram. This frame
should be made from steel stock. The magnetic effects of the steel are needed for this device.

28
29
Section 5

Experiments - Perform these


AT YOUR OWN RISK!!!

See diagram for directions on building a discharge rod to use when conducting High voltage pulse
experiments. This is VERY important to your safety when working with these devices. USE IT!
Make sure you are wearing safety goggles and rubber gloves at all times when operating these high
voltage devices.

Sometimes arcs can cause things to be thrown at great speeds (plasma balls, small bits of metal,
etc.). It's easier to enjoy the experiments when you still have eyes with which to observe. A clear
plastic grinder's mask is even better. Check your local hardware supplier for these items.

High Voltage Arcs

Capacitive discharge arcing is usually very noisy. Sound levels can literally be deafening. For this
reason, ear protection is recommended. Some arcs can leave your ears ringing for hours. Wear ear
plugs. Also, make sure your capacitor bank is not charged while you are setting up experiments.
Always discharge the capacitor before you set up tests. Charge the capacitor only after everything
is set up and ready to be used.

WARNING! THIS EXPERIMENT IS RATHER MESSY. WEAR FACIAL SHIELDING OR


PLACE TEST EQUIPMENT BEHIND SHIELDING TO PROTECT YOU FROM FLYING
DEBRIS.

Drill a 1/4 inch deep, 1/2 inch wide hole in a steel block. Mount a wire so that it goes into the hole
but doesn't touch the bottom. About .005 inch gap will work just fine. The wire must be insulated
from the steel block.

30
Put a drop of water in the hole so that the wire is poking through it. Connect the block to one
terminal of your capacitor and connect your discharge rod to the other terminal. Now, charge up
the capacitor and fire the charge through the wire to cause an arc under the water. Water usually
blows everywhere. Since you used only a small drop or two, not much gets on your surroundings,
but it travels so fast that it could damage your eyes.

You can easily use other substances in the test chamber. But, you should carefully consider what
might happen. Some things are flammable, some things are toxic to breath or get on your skin, and
some things will stain your surroundings. I personally stick with water for these tests.

Try changing the gap between the wire and the steel block. See if you can change the level of the
explosion.

Try making a plastic bottle launcher by firing the gap in the bottom of a pipe that's sealed on one
end. Slip the empty soda bottle over the open end of the pipe and fire the water arc. How high can
you get the bottle to fly? More voltage means better launches. Be careful that the pipe doesn't blow
apart from water vapor pressure! Use proper shielding to protect you and your friends.

I've considered using the water arc to drive a small piston engine to perform some kind of work.
Since there doesn't seem to be much open research into this sort of mechanism you might just be
able break some new ground! I've never seen an engine that worked on this principle.

NEAT TESTS: Place a 12" by 12" poly square on tile floor. Place a 10" by 10" foil square on the
poly, attach HV lead. One more layer of poly, and one more layer of foil. Attach the other HV lead
to top foil layer. Now place one more sheet of poly over it all. Apply HV DC and listen to the
crackling as the plates charge. Discharge and charge several times. Now turn off the HV DC source
and discharge plates fully. Don't touch until foil plates have been shorted together!! Pick the layers
apart and notice how the charging makes the poly and aluminum pull together in a fairly tight
bond, forcing the air from between the layers.

"Hopping" magnets

Place your two electromagnets face-to-


face so that when you apply current they
will both have either north or south poles
facing against each other Connect them in
series.

Making sure to wear your safety


equipment, use your discharge rod to fire
the fully charged capacitor through the
magnet circuit.

31
You should see the magnets repelling each other. The violence of that repulsion depends upon a few
things. It depends upon the inductance of the magnets, upon the capacitance rating of your
capacitor and upon the voltage of the charge. Using a large commercial capacitor these magnets can
be made to fly several feet into the air.

My homebuilt capacitors don't seem to provide the same punch as the commercially produced
types. If you built your bank from electrolytic capacitors I'm sure you saw a pretty good launch.
This sudden slam of physical force is what drives the Gray motor's flywheel rotor.

Electromagnetic Crusher

Place your two magnets face-to-


face so that opposite poles are
together. Connect them in series
as before. Place small bits of
plastic, raisins, sunflower seeds
(dust baby!) and other things in
between the two magnets.

Discharge the capacitor into the magnets and see what happens.

Again, if you have all the electrical factors correct, this should smash just about anything you put in
there. Be very careful that you don't crush your own skin. The force of the attraction is huge, but
just for a short instant.

Collecting back E.M.F.

Connect the diode to one of the magnets as shown. Then, connect the other magnet so that the back
E.M.F. is sent through it. Place a small bit of iron near each magnet.

When you discharge the capacitor, you'll notice that both magnets tug the iron slugs up against
them. This is the collection and re-use of the same charge that you fired into the first magnet. This
is another way to increase the horsepower of your prototype motor.

If the magnets are properly designed, you can


send the back E.M.F. through a chain of
magnets and diodes, eventually dumping it
into the secondary battery. Start by trying it
with just two magnets.

32
Solenoid Power Lifting

Attach your solenoid to a stable


workbench. Now, attach a cable (bicycle
brake cable) to the plunger and drape the
cable over the edge of the bench. Attach a
small weight to the other end so that the
cable is pulled snug. You may need to
make a small stopper to sit in front of the
plunger so it won't get pulled out of the
housing.

Discharge your capacitor into the solenoid and see how high the weight is pulled.

This imparts very sudden upward momentum to the weight that can, with proper magnet design
and capacitor size, throw the weight up onto the bench or higher. Don't use string or twine for this
experiment due to the fact that it tends to snap, leaving the weight sitting on the floor.

If you like those old "matchbox"™ car sets with the lever powered car launcher you might like this
idea. Mount your solenoid so that it an pull the launch lever. The force can be much greater than
anything you might be able to apply with your hand. Be careful as this can turn a matchbox car
into an extremely high speed projectile.

This device lends itself quite well to applying pressure to levers that will, in turn, propel objects
much faster than the plunger was moving. The plunger can have IMMENSE pulling power over a
very short distance. Experiment and learn to take advantage of this.

Maybe you could replace the piston in a small two-stroke engine with a high voltage solenoid. When
I say "small" I mean something like a model car or airplane. Imagine having a remote controlled
car or plane that never runs out of fuell You'd never have to leave the park!!!! Ever!!!

Diodes can also be attached to solenoids for C.E.M.F. collection and use just as with regular
electromagnets. The C.E.M.F. will probably be a bit less though.

I hope the information in this book helps you fulfill your dream of getting off of the "grid". It'll be
difficult for those who don't have the money to build massive and powerful machines. But, at least
the information is out there to be had.

If you build anything really impressive, take a snapshot and send it to the publisher's address. He'll
get it to me and maybe we can put it in the next book.

33
These few experiments are designed to give you a feel for how the electromagnets and solenoids
might be used. The REAL experiments will be in building useful devices around the electrical
principles that you now understand. I wish you the very best of luck in your quest.

There's a short list of component supply companies inside the back cover. They've proven pretty
reliable and quick to deliver parts. Take Care and Have Fun!

34
Section 6

EV Gray Patent

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
United States Patent 3,890,548
Gray June 17, 1975

Pulsed capacitor discharge electric engine

Abstract

There is disclosed herein an electric machine or engine in which a rotor cage having an array of
electromagnets is rotatable in an array of electromagnets, or fixed electromagnets are juxtaposed
against movable ones. The coils of the electromagnets are connected in the discharge path of
capacitors charged to relatively high voltage and discharged through the electromagnetic coils
when selected rotor and stator elements are in alignment, or when the fixed electromagnets and
movable electromagnets are juxtaposed. The discharge occurs across spark gaps disclosed in
alignment with respect to the desired juxtaposition of the selected movable and stationary
electromagnets. The capacitor discharges occur simultaneously through juxtaposed stationary
movable electromagnets wound so that their respective cores are in magnetic repulsion polarity,

43
thus resulting in the forced motion of movable electromagnetic elements away from the juxtaposed
stationary electromagnetic elements at the discharge, thereby achieving motion. In an engine, the
discharges occur successively across selected ones of the gaps to maintain continuous rotation.
Capacitors are recharged between successive alignment positions of particular rotor and stator
electromagnets of the engine.

Inventors: Gray; Edwin V. (Northridge, CA)


Assignee: Evgray Enterprises, Inc. (Van Nuys, CA)
Appl. No.: 412415
Filed: November 2, 1973

Current U.S. Class: 318/139 ; 310/46; 318/254; 318/439


Field of Search: 310/46,5,6 318/194,439,254,139 320/1 307/110

References Cited [Referenced By]

U.S. Patent Documents

2085708 June 1937 Spencer


2800619 July 1957 Brunt
3579074 May 1971 Roberts
3619638 November 1971 Phinney

Other References

Frungel, High Speed Pulse Technology, Academic Press Inc., 1965, pp. 140-148..

Primary Examiner: Schaefer; Robert K.


Assistant Examiner: Feldhaus; John J.

44
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Price; Gerald L.

Claims

The inventor claims:

1. An electric engine comprings:

a housing;

an array of electromagnets uniformly spaced in said housing to form a stator;

a rotor cage on a shaft journaled in and rotatable within said housing and within said stator, said
rotor cage having thereon a spaced array of electromagnets similar to said stator electromagnets
and in number comprising an integral fraction of the number of electromagnets in said stator
array;

each of the electromagnets of said stator and of said rotor having a magnetizable core of particular
configuration and each being wound with a coil such that a pulse of unidirectional electric current
through said coil magnetizes the respective core thereof to a particular magnetic polarity, and the
faces of rotor cores juxtaposing selected stator cores are magnetized to the same polarity, the
juxtaposed cores thereby tending to repel one another, one lead of each of the stator and rotor coils
being connected to a common terminal, the other lead of each of said coils being connected to a gap
terminal, the gap terminals of said rotor coils being on the rotor and equal in number to the
number of coils thereon and matching the positions of said rotor electromagnets thereon, the gap
terminals of said stator being equal in number to the number of coils on the stator and disposed
uniformly about said stator to match the positions of said stator electromagnets within said
housing;

a first array of capacitors each having a terminal in common with the common coil terminal of said
stator electromagnets, and each capacitor having its other terminal connected to a gap terminal
arrayed adjacent the gap terminal of an electromagnet associated therewith;

a second array of capacitors, each having a terminal in common with said common terminal of said
rotor electromagnet coils but equal in number to the number of capacitors in said stator array, the
other terminals of said capacitors in said second array being connected to gap terminals arrayed
about said housing so as to be in axial alignment with said stator gap terminal positions and being
alignable with said rotor gap terminals as said rotor is rotated in said housing and respective gap
terminals of said rotor coils pass each second array capacitor gap terminals at a predetermined gap
distance;

gap coupling terminals on said rotor equal in number to the number of rotor electromagnet coils
and positioned to match the rotor electromagnet positions on said rotor, the gap coupling terminals
being rotatable with said rotor so as to pass said adjacent stator coil and associated stator capacitor
45
gap terminal at a predetermined distance therefrom;

a plurality of capacitor charging circuits connected respectively across each of said capacitors in
both said first and said second arrays of capacitors for charging each of said capacitors to a
predetermined high d-c potential;

a first source of unidirectional electric potential connected to each of said capacitor charging
circuits for energizing said charging circuits; and

a second unidirectional electric potential source connected to said electromagnets of said rotor and
said stator of such polarity as to receive a charge from the inverse inductive discharge of the
electromagnet coils as their fields collapse following the discharge of each capacitor through a rotor
or stator electromagnet coil,

whereby whenever a rotor electromagnet is aligned opposite a stator electromagnet, the rotor coil
gap terminal of that electromagnet is opposite an associated second capacitor array gap terminal,
and a gap coupling terminal of said rotor is aligned opposite the stator electromagnet coil gap
terminal and associated first capacitor gap terminal, the capacitors discharge the charge thereon
across the gaps through their associated electromagnet coils to magnetize their respective
juxtaposed electromagnet cores to cause them to repel one another, thus aligning a succeeding pair
of rotor and stator electromagnets for capacitor discharge across their respective gaps, to cause
them to repel one another, alignments rotor rotation within the housing continuously bringing
successive rotor-stator electromagnets into alignment for discharge of the capacitors therethrough
to produce rotary motion of the rotor on said rotor shaft continuously so long as energy from said
first source of unidirectional electric potential is applied to said charging circuits to recharge said
capacitors after each discharge.

2. In an electric engine having a rotor comprising electromagnetic coil means rotatable within a
stator comprising similar electromagnetic coil means, said electromagnetic coil means being
polarized for magnetic repulsion;

capacitor means electrically coupled across successive spark gaps to selected ones of said coils of
said stator and all of the coils of said rotor;

charging means connected to said capacitor means for charging said capacitor means to an
electrical charge potential sufficient to cause arcing across said spark gaps to result in the discharge
of said capacitor means through the electromagnetic coils so that the electromagnetic coil means
repel one another; and

a unidirectional electric power source connected to said charging means to energize said charging
means to continue charging said capacitor means following each discharge whereby the rotor of
said engine is maintained in rotation by the successive discharges of said capacitor means across
successive spark gaps into said electromagnetic coil means.

3. An electric engine according to claim 2, wherein:

the charging means includes electronic square core oscillators connected to said unidirectional
electric power source and includes step-up means and a rectifier to produce a substantial voltage
step up from the voltage of said power source.

46
4. An electric engine according to claim 2, wherein:

the charging means includes a vibrator connected to said power source, and step up transformer
and rectifier means to provide a high voltage for charging said capacitor means.

5. A motive force producing means comprising:

at least a first electromagnet means including at least one coil wound about a core,

at least a second electromagnet means including at least one coil wound about a core similar to said
first core,

the respective cores being positioned adjacent to one another so that the magnetic polarities of the
adjacent core surfaces are the same when a unidirectional electric current is passed through the
coils,

at least one capacitor means having one terminal thereof connected to one terminal of both of said
electromagnet coils,

the other terminal of said capacitor means being connected to one terminal of a spark gap means,
the other terminals of the coils of both said first and said second electromagnet means being
connected to the other terminal of said spark gap means,

at least one unidirectional pulse charging means connected to said capacitor means to charge said
capacitor means to a relatively high potential sufficient to arc across said spark gap means at
predetermined spacing of said gap terminals, and

a source of unidirectional potential connected to said charging circuit to energize said charging
means,

whereby upon application of current from said potential source to said charging means the
successive pulses generated thereby charge said capacitor means to a voltage level sufficient to arc
across said spark gap means to produce a discharge path for said capacitor means through said
coils to cause said electromagnet means to repel one another with a substantial force.

6. A motive force producing means according to claim 5, wherein:

said first electromagnet means is secured in a relatively stable housing, and said second
electromagnet means is connected with and freely movable relative to said stable housing, and has
utilization means connected thereto for performing work therewith when said capacitor means
discharges through said coils of said electromagnet means.

7. A motive force producing means according to claim 6, wherein said utilization means is a motor
rotor coupled with said second electromagnet means and said first electromagnet means is a stator.

8. A motive force producing means according to claim 6, wherein said utilization means is a piston
attached to said second electromagnet means and is movable therewith to produce hammer-like
blows when said capacitor means discharges through said electromagnet means.

9. In an electromotive force generating system as disclosed, means for accelerating or decelerating


47
the motion of a force generating system, said means comprising:

at least two juxtaposed electromagnetic core elements, one fixed and one movable, including coils
wound thereabout to provide a repulsion tendency when said cores are energized,

spark gap termimals connected with said coils,

capacitor means connected with said spark gap terminals to discharge across said spark gap
terminals through said coils when a charge of sufficient voltage level appears across said capacitor
means, thus to energize said juxtaposed electromagnets to induce said juxtaposed electromagnet
cores to repel one another,

charging means connected to said capacitors for charging them to said sufficient voltage level, and

selective positioning means coupled with said spark gap terminals and with at least said movable
electromagnet core to cause selective displacement of said movable core with respect to said fixed
core to accelerate or decelerate the motion of the movable core relative to the fixed core.

10. An electromotive force generating system according to claim 9, wherein:

said juxtaposed electromagnetic cores include a plurality of fixed cores and a smaller number of
movable cores, said smaller number being an integral fraction of the number of fixed cores, and

said selective positioning means is an electromagnetic clutch coupled with said smaller number of
movable cores for movement therewith, and includes selective displacement means coupled with
said spark gap terminals connected with selected capacitors in said capacitor means and selected
combinations of coils in said plurality of fixed electromagnets.

11. The method of generating motive power comprising the steps of:

a. positioning similar electromagnets in juxtaposed relationship with their respective cores


arranged for repulsion when said electromagnets are energized,

b. charging capacitors to a relatively high potential, and

c. discharging said capacitors simultaneously through said electromagnets across spark gaps set to
break down at said relatively high potential,

thereby to cause said similar electromagnets to repel one another with considerable force.

12. The method of generating motive power defined in claim 11, wherein in said positioning step at
least one of said electromagnets is maintained in a fixed position and another electromagnet is free
to move relative to said fixed electromagnet.

13. The method of generating motive power according to claim 11, wherein:

the charging step includes the charging of capacitors to a relatively high potential from a pulsed
unipolar source of electric energy.

14. In an electromagnetic capacitor discharge engine including movable electromagnets and fixed
48
electromagnets, said movable electromagnets being movable into polar alignment with said fixed
electromagnets, capacitor means, means for charging said capacitor means, and means for
discharging said charged capacitor means through said fixed and movable electromagnets to
polarize aligned fixed and polarized electromagnets for magnetic repulsion, an acceleration and
deceleration control means comprising:

first selective means for momentarily delaying the discharge of the capacitors until the movable
electromagnets in said engine have begun to recede from the fixed electromagnets, in order to
accelerate the motion of said movable electromagnets by the added impetus of the repulsion, and

second selective means for momentarily accelerating the discharge of the capacitors to occur at a
point in the motion of the movable electromagnets where said movable electromagnets are
approaching said fixed electromagnets to decelerate the motion of said movable electromagnet by
the tendency to repel the approaching electromagnet by the fixed electromagnet.

15. An electric engine, comprising:

fixed electromagnets;

movable electromagnets movable into alignment with said fixed electromagnets;

capacitor means;

means for charging said capacitor means; and

means for discharging said charged capacitor means through said fixed and movable
electromagnets to polarize said aligned fixed and movable electromagnets for magnetic repulsion.

16. An electric engine as recited in claim 15, wherein: said means for discharging said charged
capacitor means comprises voltage breakdown switch means.

17. An electric engine as recited in claim 16, wherein:

said voltage breakdown switch means includes at least one terminal movable with at least one of
said movable electromagnets for breaking down when said at least one of said movable
electromagnets is in alignment with a said fixed electromagnet.

18. An electric engine as recited in claim 17, wherein:

said voltage breakdown switch means comprises a spark gap means.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

49
1. Field of the Invention

There is no known engine or motor operated on the principle of the present invention, that a
capacitor charged to a relatively high voltage from a low-voltage d-c source is discharged across a
spark gap to provide current through motor drive coils in the discharge path, these being solenoids
which generate motion by magnetic repulsion of juxtaposed pairs of cores. The solenoids are
preferably configured in motor and stator assemblies to effect motion of the rotor element with
respect to the stator.

The present invention utilizes this principle to provide a rotary motion machine or engine which
can develop considerable torque through the magnetic repulsion action of rotor and stator cores
wound with coils through which capacitors are discharged synchronously with the positioning of
the rotor coils opposite particular stator coils. Similarly, a linear action can be achieved with a
stationary electromagnet juxtaposed against a movable electromagnet and the movable
electromagnet can perform work with a tool or piston attached thereto.

A novel control mechanism is associated with the rotor is the engine to position discharge elements
appropriately to create the desired discharge through the electromagnet coils when the juxtaposed
rotor and stator electromagnets are in alignment. The electromagnets in the stator and rotor are so
arranged that the control mechanism can advance or retard the discharge points relative to rotor-
stator positions for control of rotational speed.

The discharge overshoot or back e.m.f. from the collapsing fields in the coils from the capacitor
discharge is used to energize external batteries for conservation of power. The recovered energy
thus stored may be used to operate equipment associated with the engine or motive force producing
device.

The engine or rotary electric machine of the invention is believed to operate on the principle of
conservation of energy, in that once rotation is achieved, current is needed only at the instant of a
capacitor discharge in order to advance the rotor. The rotor moves to the next discharge point on
the inertia of the repulsion action. The capacitor is recharged during the interval and stores the
energy until discharge at the next rotor-stator coil coincidence. Thus, the new engine produces
torque and stores the excess energy for subsequent use.

In a linear motion device according to the invention, only a single pulse discharge is needed to
perform work.

The applications of the engine include use as an electric automotive engine which is economical and
which can regenerate a part of the energy consumed to provide power for other loads in the
automotive electric vehicle. As a linear actuator an economical use of power is possible because
each stroke will result from a single discharge pulse of a capacitor through a coil.

2. Prior Art

Heretofore, electric engines or motors have operated on the principle that a conductor carrying a
current in a magnetic field tends to move perpendicularly to that field; the electromagnetic torque
developed by an armature or rotating portion of the motor is proportional to the magnetic flux in
the stationary field and to the armature current.

In direct current motors the field is created by current through two or more field coils disposed in
50
opposing magnetic relationship in the motor casing, while current through a rotatable armature
positioned in the field is alternatingly reversed in polarity to provide continuous motion. The
polarity reversing mechanism is a commutator. Some d-c motors have their field windings
electrically in parallel with the rotor armature winding and are called "shunt-wound" motors.
Other d-c motors have field and armature windings connected in series. In both series and shunt
motors commutators are used for reversing the magnetic polarity of the armature to maintain
rotation within the field.

A third type of d-c motor utilizes a permanent magnet field so that the operating current passes
only through the armature winding. Such motors also use polarity reversing commutators to
maintain direction of rotation. Reversal of direction of motion is effected by reversing the polarity
of applied d-c potential.

Control of speed of d-c motors is accomplished basically by decrease or increase of magnetic field
flux or the current through the armature. Either or both of these effects can be accomplished by
raising or lowering the applied potential. In shunt motors, a series resistance may be varied to
produce speed changes. In a permanent magnet motor or series motor, speed variation is best
accomplished by voltage variation with a variable resistance in series with the motor d-c supply.

In alternating current motors, as is well known, a rotating magnetic field is created in the stator,
and the rotor may be wound with as many poles as there are in the stator, with terminals connected
with slip rings, or the rotor may consist of solid bars shorted by rings on each end to form a
"squirrel cage" configuration. The speed of an a-c motor depends on the frequency of the applied a-
c energy, if the motor is synchronous.

"Universal" motors are operable on either a-c or d-c energy.

In stepping motors, a rotor is moved from one pole to the next adjacent pole with each application
of current, the rotor remaining at that position until a next application of current. This is
accomplished by switching the current on and off or by pulsing the current. Examples of stepping
motors are described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,467,902 to Shimizu, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 3,462,667 to
Jackson, and U.S. Pat. No. 3,599,069 to Welch.

Operation of the a-c and d-c motors described above involves the consumption of substantial
electric current. These motors can generate electric current when driven externally by a mechanical
force. External energy to rotate the generator rotors can be provided by hydroelectric and steam
sources or by other electric motors. In some of these systems, a d-c motor source drives an a-c
generator for conversion of d-c energy to a-c energy or a d-c motor may drive a d-c generator which
delivers a higher voltage than the source.

An extensive prior art search by the applicant uncovered no capacitor-discharge-operated motor


resembling that of the present invention. All motors of the patents located in the search employed
direct electrical connection between coils and electric power sources. Where selective switching is
involved, semiconductor devices are employed, such as silicon-controlled rectifiers. Capacitors are
used only for starting and phasing purposes, and not for basic motor operation from the discharge
thereof, as in this invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to electric motors or engines, and more particularly to a new electric machine
51
including electromagnetic poles in a stator configuration and electromagnetic poles in a rotor
configuration wherein in one form thereof the rotor is rotatable within the stator configuration and
where both are energized by capacitor discharges through rotor and stator electromagnets at the
instant of the alignment of a rotor electromagnet with a stator electromagnet. The rotor
electromagnet is repelled from the stator electromagnet by the discharge of the capacitor through
the coils of both the stator and rotor electromagnets at the same instant.

In an exemplary rotary engine according to this invention, rotor electromagnets may be disposed
120.degree. apart on a central shaft and major stator electromagnets may be disposed 40.degree.
apart in the motor housing about the stator periphery. Other combinations of rotor elements and
stator elements may be utilized to increase torque or rotation rate.

In another form, a second electromagnet is positioned to one side of each of the major stator
electromagnets on a center line 131/3.degree. from the center line of the stator magnet, and these
are excited in a predetermined pattern or sequence. Similarly to one side of each major rotor
electromagnet is a second electromagnet spaced on a 131/3.degree. center line from the major rotor
electromagnet. Electromagnets in both the rotor and stator assemblies are identical, the individual
electromagnets of each being aligned axially and the coils of each being wired so that each rotor
electromagnetic pole will have the same magnetic polarity as the electromagnet in the stator with
which it is aligned and which it is confronting at the time of discharge of the capacitor.

Charging of the discharge capacitor or capacitors is accomplished by an electrical switching circuit


wherein electrical energy from a battery or other source of d-c potential may be applied in
alternating polarity to ignition coils or other voltage step-up arrangements from which a high
voltage d-c potential is derived through rectification by diodes.

The capacitor charging circuit comprises a pair of high frequency switchers which feed respective
automotive-type ignition coils employed as step-up transformers. The "secondary" of each of the
ignition coils provides a high voltage square wave to a half-wave rectifier to generate a high voltage
output pulse of d-c energy with each switching alternation of the high frequency switcher. Only one
polarity is used so that a unidirectional pulse is applied to the capacitor bank being charged.

Successive unidirectional pulses are accumulated on the capacitor or capacitor bank until
discharged. Discharge of the bank of capacitors occurs across a spark gap by arc-over. The gap
spacing determines the voltage at which discharge or arc-over occurs. An array of gaps is created
by fixed elements in the engine housing and moving elements positioned on the rotor shaft. At the
instant when the moving gap elements are positioned opposite fixed elements during the rotor
rotation, a discharge occurs through the coils of the aligned rotor and stator electromagnets to
produce the repulsion action between the stator and rotor electromagnet cores.

A plurality of fixed gap elements are arrayed in the motor housing to correspond to the locations of
the stator electromagnets in the housing. The rotor gap elements correspond to the positions of the
rotor electromagnets on the rotor so that at the instant of correct alignment of the gaps the
capacitors are discharged to produce the necessary current through the stator and rotor coils to
cause the electromagnets to repel one another.

The charging circuits are arranged in pairs, and are such that the discharge occurs through both
rotor and stator windings of the electromagnets, which are opposite one another when the spark
gap elements are aligned and arc-over.

52
The speed of the rotor can be changed by means of a clutch mechanism associated with the rotor.
The clutch shifts the positions of the rotor gap elements so that the discharge will energize the stator
coils in a manner to advance or retard the time of discharge with respect to the normal rotor/stator
alignment positions. The discharge through the rotor and stator then occurs when the rotor has
passed the stator 62/3.degree. for speed advance.

By causing the discharge to occur when the rotor position is approaching the stator, the repulsion
pulse occurs 62/3.degree. before the alignment position of the rotor and stator electromagnets, thus
slowing the speed.

The clutch mechanism for aligning capacitor discharge gaps for discharge is described as a control
head. It may be likened to a firing control mechanism in an automotive combustion engine in that it
"fires" the electromagnets and provides a return of any discharge overshoot potential back to the
battery or other energy source.

The action of the control head is extremely fast. From the foregoing description, it can be
anticipated that an increase in the speed or a decrease in speed of rotation can occur within the
period in which the rotor electromagnet moves between any pair of adjacently located
electromagnets in the stator assembly, which are 40.degree. apart in the exemplary engine
according to the invention. Thus, speed changes can be effected in a maximum of one-ninth of a
revolution.

The rotor speed-changing action of the control head and its structure are believed to be further
novel features of the invention, in that they maintain normal 120.degree. firing positions during
uniform speed or rotation conditions, but shift to .+-.62/3.degree. longer or shorter intervals for
speed change by the novel shift mechanism in the rotor clutch assembly.

Accordingly, the preferred embodiment of this invention is an electric rotary engine wherein motor
torque is developed by discharge of high potential from a bank of capacitors through stator and
rotor electromagnet coils when the electromagnets are in alignment. The capacitors are charged
from batteries by a switching mechanism, and are discharged across spark gaps set to achieve the
discharge of the capacitor charge voltage through the electromagnetic coils when the gaps and
predetermined rotor and stator electromagnet pairs are in alignment.

Exemplary embodiments of the invention are herein illustrated and described. These exemplary
illustrations and description should not be construed as limiting the invention to the embodiments
shown, because those skilled in the arts appertaining to the invention may conceive of other
embodiments in the light of the description within the ambit of the appended claims.

BREIF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an explanatory schematic diagram of a capacitor charging and discharging circuit utilized
in the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an exemplary engine system according to the invention;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a typical engine system according to the invention, coupled to an
automotive transmission;

FIG. 4 is an axial sectional view taken at line 4--4 in FIG. 3;


53
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken at line 5--5 in FIG. 4;

FIGS. 6 and 7 are fragmentary sectional views, corresponding to a portion of FIG. 5, illustrating
successive advanced positions of the engine rotor therein;

FIG. 8 is an exploded perspective view of the rotor and stator of the engine of FIGS. 3 and 4;

FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken at line 9--9 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 10 is a partial sectional view, similar to the view of FIG. 9, illustrating a different
configuration of electromagnets in another engine embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken at line 11--11 in FIG. 3, illustrating the control head or novel speed
change controlling system of the engine;

FIG. 12 is a sectional view, taken at line 12--12 in FIG. 11, showing a clutch plate utilized in the
speed change control system of FIG. 11;

FIG. 13 is a fragmentary view, taken at line 13--13 in FIG. 12;

FIG. 14 is a sectional view, taken at line 14--14 in FIG. 11, showing a clutch plate which cooperates
with the clutch plate of FIG. 12;

FIG. 15 is a fragmentary sectional view taken at line 15--15 of FIG. 13;

FIG. 16 is a perspective view of electromagnets utilized in the present invention;

FIG. 17 is a schematic diagram showing cooperating mechanical and electrical features of the
programmer portion of the invention;

FIG. 18 is an electrical schematic diagram of an engine according to the invention, showing the
electrical relationships of the electromagnetic components embodying a new principle of the
invention; and

FIG. 19 is a developed view, taken at line 19--19 of FIG. 11, showing the locations of displaced
spark gap elements of the speed changing mechanism of an engine according to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

As hereinbefore mentioned, the basic principle of operation of the engine of the invention is the
discharge of a capacitor, across a spark gap through an inductor. When a pair of inductors is used,
and the respective magnetic cores thereof are arranged opposite and another in magnetic polarity
repulsion relation, the discharge through them causes the cores to repel each other with
considerable force.

Referring to the electrical schematic diagram of FIG. 1, a battery 10 energizes a pulse-producing


vibrator mechanism 16, which may be of the magnetic type incorporating an armature 15 moving
between contacts 13 and 14, or of the transistor type (not shown) with which a high frequency
bipolar pulsed output is produced in primary 17 of transformer 20. The pulse amplitude is stepped-
54
up in secondary 19 of transformer 20. Wave form 19a represents the bidirectional or bipolar pulsed
output. A diode rectifier 21 produces a unidirectional pulse train, as indicated at 21a, to charge
capacitor 26. A delay coil 23 is connected in series with the unipolar pulsed output to capacitor 26.
Successive unidirectional pulses of wave 21a charge capacitor 26 to a high level, as indicated at 26a,
until the voltage amplitude at point A reaches the breakdown potential of spark gap 30. At the
breakdown of spark gap 30, capacitor 26 discharges across the arc created through the inductor
coil 28. A current pulse is produced which magnetizes core 28a. Simultaneously, another
substantially identical charging system 32 produces a discharge through inductor 27 across spark
gap 29 to magnetize core 27a. Cores 28a, 27a are wound with coils 28, 27 so that their magnetic
polarities are the same. As the cores 27a, 28a confront one another, they tend to fly apart when the
discharge occurs through coils 27 and 28 because of repulsion of identical magnetic poles, as
indicated by arrow 31. If core 28a is fixed or stationary and core 27a is movable, then core 27a may
have tools 33 attached to it to perform work when the capacitor discharges.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, a d-c electrical source or battery 10 energizes pulsators 36 (including at
least two vibrators 16 as previously described) when switch 11 between the battery 10 and pulsator
36 is closed, to apply relatively high frequency pulses to the primaries of transformers 20. The
secondaries of transformers 20 are step-up windings which apply bipolar pulses, such as pulses 19a
(FIG. 1) to the diodes in converter 38. The rectified unidirectional pulsating output of each of the
diodes in converter 38 is passed through delay coils 23, 24, thus forming a harness 37 wound about
the case of the engine, as hereinafter described, which is believed to provide a static floating flux
field. The outputs from delay lines 37 drive respective capacitors in banks 39 to charge the
capacitors therein to a relatively high charge potential. A programmer and rotor and stator magnet
control array 40, 41, 42 is formed by spark gaps positioned, as hereinafter described, so that at
predetermined positions of the rotor during rotation of the engine, as hereinafter described,
selected capacitors of capacitor banks 39 will discharge across the spark gaps through the rotor and
stator electromagnets 43, 44. The converters 38, magnetic harness 37, capacitor banks 39,
programmer 40, and controls 41, 42 from a series circuit path across the secondaries of
transformers 20 to the ground, or point of reference potential, 45. The capacitor banks 39 are
discharged across the spark gaps of programmer 40 (the rotor and stator magnet controls 41, 42).
The discharge occurs through the coils of stator and rotor electromagnets 43, 44 to ground 45.
Stator and rotor electromagnets are similar to those shown at 27, 27a, 28, 28a in FIG. 1.

The discharge through the coils of stator and rotor electromagnets 43, 44 is accompanied by a
discharge overshoot or return pulse, the output of which is applied in an appropriate polarity to a
secondary battery 10a to store this excess energy. The overshoot pulse returns to battery 10a
because after discharge the only path open is that to battery 10a, since the gaps in 40, 41 and 42
have broken down, because the capacitors in banks 39 are discharged and have not yet recovered
the high voltage charge from the high frequency pulsers 36 and converter rectifier units 38.

In the event of a misfire in the programmer control circuits 40, 41, 42, the capacitors are discharged
through a rotor safety discharge circuit 46 and returned to batteries 10-10a, adding to their
capacity. The circuit 46 is connected between the capacitor banks 39 and batteries 10, 10a.

Referring to FIG. 3, a motor or engine 49 according to the present invention is shown connected
with an automotive transmission 48. The transmission 48 represents one of many forms of loads to
which the engine may be applied. A motor housing 50 encases the operating mechanism hereinafter
described. The programmer 40 is axially mounted at one end of this housing. Through apertures 51,
52 a belt 53 couples to a pulley 57 (not shown in this view) and to an alternator 54 attached to
housing 50. A pulley 55 on the alternator has two grooves, one for belt 53 to the drive pulley 58 on
55
the shaft (not shown) of the engine 49, and the other for a belt 58 coupled to a pulley 59 on a pump
60 attached to housing 50. A terminal box 61 on the housing interconnects means between the
battery assembly 62 and motor 49 via cables 63 and 64.

An intake 65 for air is coupled to pump 60 via piping 68, 69 and from pump 60 via tubing or piping
66, 70 to the interior of housing 50 via coupling flanges 67 and 71. The air flow tends to cool the
engine, and the air may preferably be maintained at a constant temperature and humidity so that a
constant spark gap discharge condition is maintained. A clutch mechanism 80 is provided on
programmer 40.

Referring to FIGS. 4, 5 and 9, rotor 81 has spider assemblies 83, 84 with three electromagnet coil
assembly sets mounted thereon, two of which are shown in FIG. 4, on 85 at 85a and 85b, and on 86
at 86a and 86b. One of the third electromagnet coil assemblies, designated 87a, is shown in FIG. 5,
viewed from the shaft end. As more clearly shown in the perspective view of FIG. 8, a third spider
assembly 88 provides added rigidity and a central support for the rotor mechanism on shaft 81.

The electromagnet sets 85a and 85b, 86a and 86b, 87a and 87b, disposed on rotor 81 and spiders 83,
84, and 88 each comprise pairs of front units 85a, 86a, 87a and pairs of rear units 85b, 86b, 87b.
Each pair consists of a major electromagnet and a minor electromagnet, as hereinafter described,
which are embedded in an insulating material 90, which insulates the electromagnet coil assemblies
from one another and secures the electromagnets rigidly in place on the spider/rotor cage 81, 83, 84,
88.

The interior wall 98 of housing 50 is coated with an electrically insulating material 99 in which are
embedded electromagnet coils, as hereinafter described, and the interiors of end plates 100, 101 of
the housing 50. On the insulating surface 98 of housing 50 is mounted a series of stator
electromagnet pairs 104a, identical with electromagnet pairs 85a, 86a, 87a, etc. Electromagnet pairs
such as 104a or 105a are disposed every 40.degree. about the interior of housing 50 to form a stator
which cooperates with the rotor 81-88. An air gap 110 of very close tolerance is defined between the
rotor and stator electromagnets, and air from pump 65 flows through this gap.

As shown in FIG. 8, the electromagnet assemblies, such as 85 through 87, of the rotor and magnet
assemblies, such as 104a in the stator are so embedded in their respective insulative plastic carriers
(rotor and stator) that they are smoothly rounded in a concave contour for the stator, and in a
convex contour on the rotor to permit smooth and continuous rotation of rotor 81 in stator housing
50. The air gap 110 is uniform at all positions of any rotor element within the stator assembly, as is
clearly shown in FIG. 16.

The rotor 81 and spiders 83, 84, 88 are rigidly mounted on a shaft 111 journaled in bearing
assemblies 112, 113 which are of conventional type, for easy rotation of the rotor on shaft 111
within housing 50.

Around the central outer surface of housing 50 are wound a number of turns of wire 23, 24 to
provide a static flux coil 114 as hereinbefore described, which is a delay line, as previously
described.

FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 9 are cross-sectional views of the rotor assembly 81-88, arranged to show the
positioning and alignment of the rotor and stator electromagnet coil assemblies at successive stages
of the rotation of rotor 81-88 through a portion of a cycle of operation thereof. For example, in FIG.
5 the rotor assembly 81-88 is shown so positioned that a minor rotor electromagnet assembly 91 is
56
aligned with a minor stator electromagnet assembly 117.

As shown in further detail in FIG. 16, minor electromagnet assembly 117 consists of an iron core
118, grooved so that there may be wound thereabout a coil of wire 119. Core 118 is the same in
stator electromagnet 117 as it is in rotor electromagnet 91.

As a position 131/3.degree. to the right of rotor electromagnet 91, as viewed in FIGS. 5 and 16, there
is a second or major rotor electromagnet 121 which has a winding 123 about its core 122. The
electromagnets 91, 121 are the pair 85a of FIGS. 4 and 8.

At a position 131/3.degree. to the left of stator electromagnet 117, as viewed in FIG. 5, there is a
second or major stator electromagnet 120 whose core 122 is of the same configuration as core 122 of
rotor electromagnet 121. A winding 123 about core 122 of electromagnet 120 is of the same
character as winding 123 on electromagnet 121.

Electromagnet assembly pair 85a on the rotor is identical in configuration with that of the
electromagnet stator assembly pair 104a except for the position reversal of the elements 117-120
and 91-121 of the respective pairs.

There are nine pairs of electromagnets 120-117 (104a) disposed at 40.degree. intervals about the
interior of housing 50. The center line of core 122 of electromagnet 120 is positioned 131/3.degree.
to the left of the center line of the core 118 of electromagnet 117. Three pairs of electromagnets 85a,
86a, 87a are provided on rotor assembly 81-88 as shown in FIG. 5.

Other combinations are possible, but the number of electromagnets in the rotor should always be
an integral fraction of the number of electromagnets in the stator. As shown in FIG. 8, for the rotor
assembly 85a, 85b, there are three of each of the front and back pairs of electromagnetic assemblies.
Similarly, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 8, there are nine front and back pairs of electromagnets in the
stator such as 104a and 104b.

In order to best understand the operation of the rotor 81-88 rotating within the stator housing 50 of
an engine according to this invention, the positions of rotor electromagnets 91 and stator
electromagnets 117 are initially exactly in line at the 131/3.degree. peripheral starting position
marked on the vertical center line of FIG. 5. The winding direction of the coils of these magnets is
such that a d-c current through the coils 119 will produce a particular identical magnetic polarity
on each of the juxtaposed surfaces 125 of magnet 117, and 126 of magnet 91, (FIG. 5). FIGS. 16 and
6 illustrate the next step in the motion wherein the two major electromagnets, 120 in the stator and
121 in the rotor, are in alignment.

When the d-c discharges from the appropriate capacitors in banks 39 occur simultaneously across
spark gaps through the coils 119 of electromagnets 117 and 91, at the instant of their alignment,
their cores 118 will repel one another to cause rotor assembly 81-88 to rotate clockwise in the
direction indicated by arrow 127. The system does not move in the reverse direction because it has
been started in the clockwise direction by the alternator motor 54 shown in FIG. 3, or by some
other starter means. If started counterclockwise, the rotor will continue to move counterclockwise.

As hereinbefore noted, the discharge of any capacitor occurs over a very short interval across its
associated spark gap, and the resulting magnetic repulsion action imparts motion to the rotor. The
discharge event occurs when electromagnets 117 and 91 are in alignment. As shown in FIG. 5, rotor
electromagnet 91a is aligned with stator electromagnet 117c, and rotor electromagnet 91b is aligned
57
with stator electromagnet 117e at the same time that similar electromagnets 117 and 91 are aligned.
A discharge occurs through all six of these electromagnets simultaneously (that is, 117, 91; 117c,
91a, 117e and 91b). A capacitor and a spark gap are required for each coil of each electromagnet.
Where, as in the assembly shown in FIG. 8, front and back pairs are used, both the axial in-line
front and back coils are energized simultaneously by the discharge from a single capacitor or from
a bank of paralleled capacitors such as 25, 26 (FIG. 1). Although FIGS. 4 and 8 indicate the use of
front and back electromagnets, it should be evident that only a single electromagnet in any stator
position and a corresponding single electromagnet in the rotor position, may be utilized to
accomplish the repulsion action of the rotor with respect to the stator. As stated, each
electromagnet requires a discharge from a single capacitor or capacitor bank across a spark gap for
it to be energized, and the magnetic polarity of the juxtaposed magnetic core faces must be the
same, in order to effect the repulsive action to produce the rotary motion.

Referring to FIGS. 5 and 6, the repulsion action causes the rotor to move 131/3.degree. clockwise,
while electromagnets 91, 91a and 91b move away from electromagnets 117, 117c and 117e to bring
electromagnets 121, 121a and 121b into respective alignment with electromagnets 120a, 120d and
120f. At this time, a capacitor discharge across a spark-gap into their coils 123 occurs, thus moving
the rotor. Another 131/3.degree. ahead, as shown in FIG. 7, major electromagnets 121, 121a and
121b come into alignment with minor electromagnets 117a, 117d and 117f, at which time a
discharge occurs to repeat the repulsion action, this action continuing as long as d-c power is
applied to the system to charge the capacitors in the capacitor banks.

FIG. 18 further illustrates the sequencing of the capacitor discharges across appropriate spark gap
terminal pairs. Nine single stator coils and three single rotor coils are shown with their respective
interconnections with the spark gaps and capacitors with which they are associated for discharge.
When the appropriate spark gap terminals are aligned, at the points in the positioning of the rotor
assembly for most effective repulsion action of juxtaposed electromagnet cores, the discharge of the
appropriate charged capacitors across the associated spark gap occurs through the respective coils.
The capacitors are discharged in sets of three through sets of three coils at each discharge position,
as the rotor moves through the rotor positions. In FIG. 18, the rotor electromagnets are positioned
linearly, rather than on a circular base, to show the electrical action of an electric engine according
to the invention. These motor electromagnets 201, 202, and 203 are aligned with stator
electromagnets 213, 214 and 215 at 0.degree., 120.degree. and 450.degree. respectively. The stator
electromagnets are correspondingly shown in a linear schematic as if rolled out of the stator
assembly and laid side by side. For clarity of description, the capacitors associated with the rotor
operation 207, 208, 209 and 246, 247, 248, 249, 282 and 283 are arranged in vertical alignment with
the respective positions of the rotor coils 201, 202, 203 as they move from left to right, this
corresponding to clockwise rotation of the rotor. The stator coils 213, 214, 215, 260, 261, 262, 263,
264, 265, 266, etc. and capacitor combinations are arranged side by side, again to facilitate
description.

An insulative disc 236 (shown in FIG. 17 as a disc, but opened out linearly in FIG. 18) has mounted
thereon three gap terminal blocks 222, 225 and 228. Each block is rectangularly U-shaped, and
each interconnects two terminals with the base of the U. Block 222 has terminals 222a and 222b,
block 225 has terminals 225a and 225b, and block 228 has terminals 228c and 228d. When
insulative disc 230 is part of the rotor, as indicated by mechanical linkage 290, it can be seen that
terminal U 222 creates a pair of gaps with gap terminals 223 and 224, respectively. Thus, when the
voltage on capacitor 216 from charging circuit 219 is of a value which will arc over the air spaces
between 222a and 223, and between 222b and 224, the capacitor 216 will discharge into the coil of
electromagnet 213 to ground. Similarly gap terminal U 225 forms a dual spark gap with gap
58
terminals 226 and 227 to result in arc-over when the voltage on capacitor 217, charged by charging
circuit 220, discharges into the coil of electromagnet 214. Also, U-gap terminal 228 with terminals
228c and 228d, creates a spark gap with terminals 229 and 230 to discharge capacitor 218, charged
by charging circuit 221, into coil 215. At the same time, rotor coils, 201, 202 and 203 across gaps
201a-204, 202b-205 and 203c-206 each receives a discharge from respective capacitors 207, 208, and
209.

When the electromagnet coils 213, 214, 215 and 201, 202, 203 are energized, the repulsion action
causes the rotor assembly to move to position 2 where a new simultaneous group of discharges
occurs into rotor coils 201, 202, and 203 from capacitors 246, 248, and 282 across gaps 201a-240,
202b-242 and 203c-244. Simultaneously, because gap-U-elements 222, 225 and 228 have also moved
to position 2 with the rotor assembly, capacitor 261 is discharged through electromagnet coil 260,
capacitor 265 is discharged through electromagnet coil 264, and capacitor 269 is discharged
through electromagnet coil 268 in alignment with position 2 of the rotor electromagnet coils, thus to
cause the rotor electromagnets to move to position 3 where the discharge pattern is repeated now
with capacitors 247, 249 and 283 discharging through the rotor electromagnet coils 201, 202, 203,
and the capacitors 263, 267 and 281 discharging respectively through stator electromagnet coils
262, 266 and 280.

After each discharge the charging circuits 219-221 and 272-277 for the stator capacitors, and 210-
212 and 284-289 for the rotor capacitors, are operated continuously from a battery source, as
described earlier with reference to FIG. 1, to constantly recharge the capacitors to which each is
connected. Those versed in the art will appreciate that, as each capacitor discharges across an
associated spark gap, the resulting drop in potential across the gap renders the gap an open circuit
until such time as the capacitor can recharge to the arc-over level of the gap. This recharge to a
discharge potential occurs before a rotor element arrives at the next position in question.

The mechanical schematic diagram of FIG. 17 further clarifies the operation of the spark-gap
discharge programming system. A forward disc 236 of an electrically insulative material, has
thereon the set of U-shaped gap terminal connectors previously described. These are positioned at
0.degree., 120.degree. and 240.degree. respectively. In FIG. 17, schematic representations of the
position of the coil and capacitor arrangements at the start of a cycle are shown to correspond to
the description hereinabove with reference to FIG. 18. Accordingly, the coil and capacitor
combinations 213/216, 214/217, and 215/218 are shown connected with their gap terminals,
respectively, 223/224, 226/227 and 229/230. On the rotor coil and capacitor connection three
separate discs 291, 292 and 293 are shown, each with a single gap terminal. The discs 291-293 are
rotated so as to position their respective gap terminals 201a, 202b and 203c at 120.degree.
increments, with the 0.degree. position corresponding to the 0.degree. position of U-gap terminal
222 on disc 230.

Representative gap terminals are shown about the peripheries of discs 230, 291-293 to clearly
indicate how, as the discs turn in unison, the gap alignments correspond so that three rotor
coil/capacitor positions always line up with three stator coil/capacitors at 120.degree. intervals
about the rotary path, producing an alignment every 40.degree., there being nine stator coils. Thus
there are three simultaneous discharges into stator coils and three into rotor coils at each 40.degree.
position. Nine positions displaced 40.degree. apart provide a total of 27 discharge points for
capacitors into the rotor coils and 27 discharge points for capacitors into the stator coils in one
revolution.

It will be understood that, as illustrated in FIGS. 17 and 18, nine individual electromagnet coils are
59
shown in the stator and three in the rotor, in order to show in its simplest form how the three rotor
electromagnets are stepped forward from alignment with three of the stator electromagnets, when
the appropriate spark gaps are in alignment, to effect the discharge of capacitors through
juxtaposed pairs of rotor/stator electromagnets. The repulsion moves the rotor electromagnet from
the stator electromagnet to the next alignment position advanced at an arc of 40.degree. from the
preceding alignment position. In the interval until another rotor electromagnet, 120.degree.
removed, is aligned with the stator electromagnet that had just been excited, the associated
capacitor is recharged to a potential which will cause the spark gap to break down to produce
another discharge of this capacitor on the next revolution. Thus the rotor moves from one position
to the next, with capacitor discharges occurring each 40.degree. of rotation, a total of nine per
revolution. It should be obvious that, with other rotor/stator combinations, the number of
electromagnet coincidences and spark-gap discharges will vary. For example, with the coil pairs
shown in FIGS. 4 through 8, a total of 27 discharges will occur. Although there are 18 stator
electromagnets and three rotor electromagnets, the discharge pattern is determined by the specific
spark gap arrangement.

The rotor/stator configuration of FIGS. 5 and 8, involving the major and minor pairs of
electromagnets such as 85a and 104a (the terms "minor" and "major" referring to the difference in
size of the elements), include nine pairs of electromagnets in the stator, such as 104a, with three
electromagnet pairs of the rotor, such as 85a. Because of the 131/3.degree. separation between the
major and minor electromagnets in the rotor pair 85a, with the same separation of minor and
major electromagnets of the stator pair 104a, the sequence of rotation and discharge described
above, with respect to the illustrative example of FIG. 5, involves the following:

1. A minor element 117 of stator pair 104a is aligned with the minor element 91 of rotor pair 85a.
On the discharge, this moves the rotor ahead 131/3.degree..

2. The major rotor element 122 of the pair 85a now is aligned with the major stator element 120b of
the next stator electromagnet pair, in the stator array as shown in FIG. 6. On the discharge, the
rotor moves ahead 131/3.degree..

3. This brings the minor rotor electromagnet 91 into alignment with the major stator electromagnet
120b of pair 104d, and the major electromagnet 122 (just discharged) of pair 85a into alignment
with minor electromagnet 117b of pair 104d, and the rotor spark gap ements into alignment with a
different position of gap elements connected with capacitors not discharged in the previous position
of the rotor. It should be remembered at this point that it is the positioning of a rotatable spark gap
array, similar to that illustrated in FIGS. 17 and 18, which controls the time of discharge of
capacitors connected to these gap terminals. Therefore, any electromagnet can be energized twice
successively from separate capacitors as the rotor brings appropriate gap terminals into alignment
with the coil terminals of a particular electromagnet.

Thus, although major electromagnet 120b of pair 104d has just been energized as described above,
it can now be energized again along with minor rotor electromagnet 91 in step 3, because the rotor
moved to a new set of terminals of the spark gap arrays connected with capacitors not yet
discharged. These capacitors now discharge through rotor electromagnet 91 and stator
electromagnet 120b, causing rotor to move ahead another 131/3.degree., thus again aligning two
minor electromagnets again, these being 117b of stator pair 104d and 91 of rotor pair 85a. The
rotor has now moved 40.degree. since step 1 above. The sequence is repeated, and it is to be noted
that at each 131/3.degree. step, the discharges rotate the rotor another 131/3.degree.. There are 27
steps per revolution with nine stator coil pairs. The discharge sequence is not uniform, as is shown
60
in Table I. In the stator, three major electromagnets 120.degree. apart are energized twice in
sequence followed by a hiatus of one step while three minor electromagnets of the stator,
120.degree. apart, are energized during the hiatus. In the rotor the major electromagnets are
energized during a hiatus step following two minor electromagnet energization steps. A total of 27
energizations are thus accomplished in the nine pairs of coils of the stator.

In Table I, the leftmost column depicts the location of each rotor arm 85, 86, 87 at an arbitrarily
selected step No. 1 position. For example, in step 1 rotor arm 85 has a minor stator and minor rotor
electromagnet in alignment for capacitors to discharge through them simultaneously at the

61
31/3.degree. position.

62
Similarly, in step 1 rotor arm 86 is at the 1331/3.degree. position with a minor rotor and minor
stator electromagnet in alignment for discharge. Simultaneously, rotor arm 87 is at the
2531/3.degree. position with a minor rotor and minor stator in alignment for capacitor discharge
therethrough. The other steps of the sequence are apparent from Table I, for each position of the
three rotor arms at any step and the juxtapositions of respective stator and rotor electromagnet
elements at that position.

In the simplified motor arrangement shown in schematic form in FIG. 18, with single electromagnet
configuration the alignment is uniform and the discharge sequences follow sequentially.

As hereinbefore mentioned, a change in speed is effected by displacing the stator spark gap
terminals on the rotor (shown at 236 in FIGS. 17 and 18) either counter-clockwise or clockwise
62/3.degree. so that the discharge position of the stator electromagnets is displaced 62/3.degree.
either clockwise or counter-clockwise of a rotor electromagnet at the time of discharge. Referring to
FIGS. 11 to 15, the simultaneous discharge of selected capacitors into the electromagnets so
displaced results in a deceleration at the time the rotor electromagnet is just approaching the
associated stator, or an acceleration if the rotor electromagnet is just leaving its associated stator
electromagnet. In each event, there is a repulsive reaction between the stator and rotor
electromagnets, so that if the rotor is approaching the stator, there is a slow-down and if the rotor is
receding from the stator there is a speed-up.

Referring to FIG. 11, clutch mechanism 304 about shaft 111 is operated electromagnetically in
conventional manner to displace the spark-gap mechanism 236 which is operated normally in
appropriate matching alignment with the rotor spark-gap discs 291, 292, 293. Clutch 304 has a
fixed drive element 311 containing an electromagnetic drive coil (not shown) and a motor element
310 which, when the electromagnetic drive coil is energized, can be operated by a direct current.
The operation of motor element 310 brings into operation spark gap elements 224r, 223r or 223f,
224f of the system shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 8, as illustrated in FIG. 19.

The fixed stator coil spark gap terminal pairs 223, 224 and 266, 267 are arrayed about a cylindrical
frame 322 which is fabricated in insulative material. In the illustrative example of FIGS. 17 and 18,
there are nine such spark gap terminal pairs about the periphery of cylinder frame 324. In the
engine of FIGS. 4 to 8, a total of 27 such spark gap pairs are involved. In addition, although not
shown in the drawing, there are also pairs of terminals, such as 223r or f, 224r or f and 266r or f,
267r or f, displaced 62/3.degree. on either side of the pairs 223, 224 or 266, 267 and all other pairs in
the spark gap array, the letters r and f denoting "retard" and "faster." The latter displaced pairs of
used in the control of speed of the engine rotor. The displaced pairs not shown are involved with the
operation of cluth 304, the speed changing control element.

Clutch 304 is associated with shaft 111 in that the movable element 310 draws clutch disc element
316 on shaft 111 away from clutch disc element 322 when energized by a voltage of appropriate
polarity applied to its motor electromagnet 311. Such clutch drives are well known in the art.

The clutch mechanism 304 of FIGS. 11 and 19, when not energized is in the configuration shown in
FIG. 11. The energized configuration of clutch 304 is not specifically illustrated. Upon energization,
spark-gap element 222 on disc 236 is displaced rightward, as viewed in FIG. 11, by broken lines
236X, into alignment with the positions of fixed spark-gap terminals 223f, 224f and 267r, 266r.
When the disc is in position 236X, the flattened edge 332 of pin 330 in disc 325 rides on surface 350
of disc 322. Normally, the flattened edges 351 of pins 330 are engaged against the flat edge 352 in
recess 331 of disc 322. The displacement of disc 322 on shaft 111 is effected by the action of clutch
63
304 against spring 314 (FIG. 11). An electric switch (not shown) of clutch mechanism 304 energizes
it from a d-c power source, and has two positions, one for deceleration and one for acceleration. In
either position, clutch 304 is engaged to pull clutch disc 322 from clutch disc 325, momentarily. For
the decelerate or the accelerate position, the displaced alignment of spark gap elements 222 is with
the 224f, 223f and the 224r, 223r spark-gap terminal elements. However, only the 224f, 223f spark-
gap elements are switched into operation with appropriate capacitors for the accelerate position,
while in the decelerate position only the 223r and 224r spark-gap elements are switched into the
circuit with their associated capacitors.

Of course, when insulative disc 236 is displaced by clutch 304, its gap terminals 222, 225 and 228
(FIGS. 14 and 18) are all displaced into the alignment position of 236X so as to engage the r and f
lines of fixed spark gap elements. Although the accelerate and decelerate positions of disc 236 are
the same, it is the switching into operation of the 223, 224 or 266, 267 exemplary r or f pairs of
terminals which determine whether speed up or slow down action of the rotor will occur.

The momentary displacement of clutch disc 322 from clutch disc 325 results in rotation of disc 325
about disc 322 through an angle of 120.degree.. The detent ball and spring mechanism 320, 321 in
disc 325 positions itself between one detent dimple 328 and a succeeding one 328 at a position
120.degree. away on disc 325. As stated, flat 332 of pin 330 rides on surface 350 of disc 322, and pin
330 leaves the pin-holding groove 331/352 along ramp 333 in disc 322 during the momentary lifting
of disc 322 by clutch 304. Pin 330 falls back into the next groove 331 at a point 120.degree. further
on about disc 322. Pin 330 falls into place in groove 331 on ramp 334. Pins 330 are rotatable in their
sockets 353, so that for either clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation, the flat 351 will engage the
flat 352 by the particular ramp it encounters.

The deceleration or acceleration due to the action of clutch 304 thus occurs within a 120.degree.
interval of rotation of disc 325. Disc 322 during this interval may only move a fraction of this arc.

There has been described hereinabove an electromotive engine system wherein at least one
electromagnet is in a fixed position and a second electromagnet of similar configuration is
juxtaposed with it in a magnetic polarity relationship such that, when the cores of the
electromagnets are energized, the juxtaposed core faces repel one another. One core being fixed and
the second core being free to move, any attachments to the second electromagnet core will move
with it. Hence, if a plurality of fixed cores are positioned about a circular confining housing, and,
within the housing, cores on a shaft are free to move, the shaft is rotationally urged each time the
juxtaposed fixed and rotatable cores are in alignment and energized. Both the fixed and the
movable cores are connected to spark gap terminal elements, and the associated other terminal
elements of the spark gaps are connected to capacitors which are changed to a high voltage from
pulsed unipolar signal generators. These capacitors are discharged through the electromagnets
across the spark gaps. By switching selected groups of capacitors into selected pairs of spark gap
elements displaced from the normal uniformly positioned elements for discharge through the
electromagnets, the rotor of the circular array systems is accelerated and decelerated.

By confining a fixed electromagnet array in a linear configuration with a linearly movable


electromagnet to which a working tool is attached, exciting the juxtaposed pairs of electromagnets
by capacitor discharge results in the generation of linear force for such tools as punch presses or for
discharging projectiles with considerable energy.

*****

64
Section 7

EV Gray Media Articles

( Biography courtesy of Peter Lindemann's website at free-energy.ws )

Biography of Edwin Vincent Gray, Sr. (1925 -


1989)

Edwin Gray was born in Washington, DC in 1925. He was one of 14


children. At age eleven, he became interested in the emerging field
of electronics, when he watched some of the first demonstrations of
primitive radar being tested across the Potomac River.

He left home at 15 and joined the Army, attending their advanced


engineering school for one year before he was discovered and
honorably discharged for being under age. After the attack on Pearl
Harbor, he re-enlisted in the Navy and served three years of combat
duty in the Pacific.

After the War, he worked as a mechanic and continued his studies in electro-magnetics. After
experimenting for years, he learned how to "split the positive" in 1958 and had his first Electric
Magnetic Association (EMA) motor model running in 1961. His third EMA prototype was
successfully tested for 32 days straight before it was torn down for analysis. With this report in
hand, Gray started looking for serious funding. After being turned down by every major
corporation and venture capital group he approached, he formed his own Limited partnership in
1971. By early 1973, EVGray Enterprises, Inc. had an office in Van Nuys, California, hundreds of
private investors and a new (#4) EMA motor prototype. Ed Gray had also received a "Certificate of
Merit" from Ronald Reagan, then Governor of California.

By the summer of 1973, Gray was doing demonstrations of his technology and receiving some very
positive press. By later that year, Gray had teamed up with automobile designer Paul M. Lewis, to
build the first fuelless, electric car in America. But trouble was brewing.

On July 22, 1974, an unprovoked Los Angeles District Attorney's Office raided the office and shop
of EVGray Enterprises, and confiscated all of their business records and working prototypes. For 8
months, the DA tried to get Gray's stockholders to file charges against him, but none would. Gray
was eventually charged with "grand theft," but even this bogus charge couldn't stick and was
finally dropped. By March 1976, Gray pleaded guilty to two minor SEC violations, was fined, and
released. The DA's office never returned his prototypes.

In spite of these troubles, a number of good things were happening. His first U.S. Patent, on the
motor design, issued in June of 1975, and by February 1976, Gray was nominated for "Inventor of
the Year" for "discovering and proving a new form of electric power" by the Los Angeles Patent
65
Attorney's Association. Despite this support, Gray kept a much lower profile after this time. In the
late 1970's, Zetech, Inc. acquired Gray's technology and EVGray Enterprises ceased to exist. In the
early 1980's, Gray offered the U.S. Government his technology to augment Reagan's SDI program.
He actually wrote letters to every member of Congress, both Senators and Representatives, as well
as the President, Vice President, and every member of the Cabinet. Remarkably, in response to this
letter writing campaign, Gray did not receive a single reply or even an acknowledgment!

During the early 1980's, Gray lived in Council, Idaho, where he wrote and was granted his other
two U.S. Patents. By 1986, he had a facility in Grand Prairie, Texas, where a number of new
prototype EMA motors were built. By 1989, he was working on propulsion applications of the
technology, and maintaining his residence in Council, Idaho, as well as shop facilities in Council,
Grande Prairie, and Sparks, Nevada.

Edwin V. Gray died at his shop in Sparks, Nevada, in April, 1989, under mysterious circumstances.
He was 64 and in good health.

66
Section 8

Equipment hands on & Photos

Pancake Repulser Coil Side - Teflon Motor Front - Teflon Motor

High Voltage Repulsor bottom Coil &


Top Aluminum plate that hit the ceiling

Side Teflon Body Inner Pulser Coil All 3 Pulser Coils

Armature Armature Timing Plate End Support

67
Coil Closeup Contactor Contactor 4 Assemblies

EMA Motor Gray at bench Visitor at bench Gray cold circuit

EMS motor demo 1 Cold electric Bulb Repulsion EMS motor demo 2

68
Section 9

The Power Tube

Bedini's Power Tube Bastian's PT Schematic

Peter Lindemann has discovered an important connection between the mysterious power
conversion tube patented and used by Ed Gray with his high voltage pulse motors and Tesla's use of
unidirectional pulses to produce a wide range of phenomena as detailed in his new book and video
which are available on his website at free-energy.ws.

Additionally, Peter has posted many historical files about Gray, Tesla and other correlations to get
the ball moving to try to rediscover and duplicate the phenomena demonstrated by Ed Gray.

This file has the majority of information provided through the courtesy of John Bedini who met EV
Gray, studied his power converion tube and built this tube which is shown below with construction
details. John's website is listed below and you can click on his name if you want to email him with
specific questions.

Bedini has built many motors over the years and has freely posted the design and construction
details on his website. He has always shared information on the intricacies of building not only high
efficiency motors but in some cases, motors which recharge their batteries while sustaining loads.

John further ripped the veil of secrecy on the power tube by sending his 1979 experiment photo and
lab notes for everyone to study.

Here is a distillation of the EVGray circuit.. The commutator refers to an external commutator that
is seen on the left side of the EVA-6 photos.

The HV AC Osc (high voltage alternating current oscillator) is nothing more than an old induction
coil with a vibrating contact.. When you read the patent on the circuit you can follow along with
this one also... and it makes more sense.

69
70
Section 10

Possible Modern Duplication?

http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/0200wales/tm_objectid=15580050&method=full&siteid=
50082&headline=welsh-car-team-pioneer-electric-dream-name_page.htmlmick

07/29/05 - Revolutionary new Welsh Electric Motor


Imagine an electric car that produces hardly any noise, no air pollution, and is as
fast as a Ferrari. As well as high performance vehicles, there are plans for a
battery-powered family car with a range of hundreds of miles. The motor is
revolutionary in that it contains no bulky permanent magnets. Instead it relies on
transmitting electric pulses across up to seven rotors, arranged in different
phases. These are "fired up" in turn, much like the pistons of an internal
combustion engine. There are no gears - the motor provides enough torque at one revolution per
minute to put a vehicle into motion - and it spins at up to 2,500rpm. "Size for size, we can provide
400% more torque than any type of motor currently available," says managing director John
Bryant. At present, providing enough battery life is a problem. But battery technology is improving
all the time, and Mr Bryant does not see it as a major obstacle.

http://www.keelynet.com/evgray/evgray1.htm

07/29/05 - Is this Welsh motor the 'new' EV Gray motor?


The control unit, acting in a manner similar to that of a distributor in an internal combustion
engine, regulates the spikes, determines their polarity (whether they be north or south) and directs
their power to selected electro-magnets in the main unit.

While this occurs, the


recycle/regeneration system is recharging
the batteries with 60 to 120-amp pulses.
The electro-magnets are located on both
the rotor and stator of the large motor.
Attraction and repulsion between the two
sets of magnets causes the motor to
operate and generate horsepower. Note:
EV Gray used 3 phase, the Welsh motor
is using 7 phase.

http://www.ipwales.com/fe_news/news_details.asp?NewsID=107&noinc=true

07/30/05 - Another report on the Welsh engine


IMP has been working on the development and optimisation of a high torque, low speed silent
electric motor which was launched to great acclaim in Hanover in April this year. IP Wales has
given IMP help with taking out a patent for a new design of a 5-stage high torque electric motor.
71
The motor has no brushes, making it ideal for use in the petrochemical industry and other sectors
where sparks present a hazard - meaning it has a huge functional advantage over competitors’
products. The motor design offers several other important features, which include full torque from
0 rpm, and no gearbox is required. The motor also has 100 per cent speed control with the motor
only taking power as and when required. IP Wales has given IMP help with taking out a patent for
a new design of a 5-stage high torque electric motor. This will be extended to cover not only the UK
but also mainland Europe, USA and Hong Kong.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

72
Additional Information
#1 - Probe Article - scan 1 #9 - 2 Inventors - scan 2
#2 - Probe Article - scan 2 #10 - Smog Free Engine
#3 - Probe Article - scan 3 #11 - First Fuelless Engine - A
#4 - Probe Article - scan 4 #12 - First Fuelless Engine - B
#5 - Probe Article - scan 5 #13 - Electric Automobile
#6 - Probe Article - scan 6 #14 - Newsreal Article - scan 1
#7 - Probe Article - scan 7 #15 - Newsreal Article - scan 2
#8 - 2 Inventors - scan 1 #16 - Newsreal Article - scan 3

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Section 8

Equipment hands on & Photos

Pancake Repulser Coil Side - Teflon Motor Front - Teflon Motor

High Voltage Repulsor bottom Coil &


Top Aluminum plate that hit the ceiling

Side Teflon Body Inner Pulser Coil All 3 Pulser Coils

Armature Armature Timing Plate End Support

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Coil Closeup Contactor Contactor 4 Assemblies

EMA Motor Gray at bench Visitor at bench Gray cold circuit

EMS motor demo 1 Cold electric Bulb Repulsion EMS motor demo 2

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