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International Congress Motor Vehicles & Motors 2012

Kragujevac, October 3rd-5th, 2012

MVM2012-039
Petrovi Saa
Peri Sreten2
Mitrovi Melanija3
Lozanovi-aji Jasmina4
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STATISTICAL ENGINE CRANKSHAFT ROTATION


ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT: Increasing requirements for a fuel economy, exhaust emissions and the output performance and
also the complexity of the automotive engines necessitate the development of a new generation of the engine
control functionality. It is known that engine revolution analysis is excellent tool for this purpose. Main goal in this
paper its to defining membership function for value distribution crank shaft signal for fault decision expert system
based on fuzzy logic. In combination with another data (for example O2 sensor or intake manifold embedded
sensors) the Quality decision may be strengthen.
KEYWORDS: statistical analysis, engine rotation, fault diagnosis.

INTRODUCTION
Increasing requirements for a fuel economy exhaust emissions and the output performance and also the
complexity of the automotive engines necessitate the development of a new generation of the engine control
functionality.
Engine torque estimation function is an important function for an engine torque model, misfire diagnostics and
dependability. The engine torque estimation function is based on monitoring of the cylinder individual fluctuations of
the high resolution engine speed signal [1].
The engine speed signal is based on the measurements of a passage time between two subsequent teeth on a
crank wheel.
The passage time decreases as the rotational speed increases thus the time interval errors increase. Moreover,
low frequency oscillations from the power train and high frequency oscillations due to the crankshaft torsion,
together with vibrations induced by the road, act as disturbances on the crankshaft. These disturbances influence
directly the performance of the engine speed signal and consequently the torque monitoring function.
Many misfire diagnostic functions utilize a low rate sampling of the engine crankshaft speed. Typically, the
crankshaft speed is sampled once per cylinder firing event.
The engine speed can be approximated by a trigonometric polynomial due to the periodic nature of both engine
rotational dynamics and combustion forces as functions of a crank angle [2].
Misfire is the state of an engine where the combustion does not occur due to the errors in fueling or ignition. As a
consequence, such misfires affect long term performance of the exhaust emission control system. The misfires
cause changes in the crankshaft rate of rotation, because the misfired cylinder is not able to provide the torque.
Engine misfire diagnostic functions are based on monitoring of the cylinder individual fluctuations of the high
resolution engine speed signal or a passage time between subsequent teeth on a crank wheel. The high resolution
engine speed signal is calculated as a ratio of the length of the angular segment on the crank wheel and the
passage time for this segment. The passage time becomes less as the rotational speed raises, thereby time
interval errors rise.
Petrovi Saa, M.Sc., Department of Logistics (J-4) General Staff of SAF Belgrade, Serbia, saskop@eunet.rs
Peri Sreten, Ph.D., University of Defence, Military Academy, Belgrade, Serbia, sretenperic@yahoo.com
3 Mitrovic Melanija, Ph.D., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Nis, meli@masfak.ni.ac.rs
3 Lozanovic-Sajic Jasmina, Ph.D., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Innovation Center,University of Belgrade
meli@masfak.ni.ac.rs
1
2

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Usually, measured signal in most cases are transformed to frequency signal.


In this paper we analyzed measured signal directly, without any transformation.

Figure 1. Types of sensors: a) variable reluctance sensor; b) Hall effect sensor


1400
1300
1200

RPM

1100
1000
900
800
700
600

20

40

60
Time/sample priod

80

100

120

Figure 2. The estimate circular velocity on the basis of data from sensors

PROBLEM STATEMENT
As a rule, a passage time between two teeth on a crank wheel is measured in production engines. The high
resolution engine speed signal is then calculated as a ratio of the length of the angular segment on the crank wheel
and the passage time for this segment.
For example, the AVL CONCERTO software tools which also can be used for evaluation of the frequency contents
of the engine signals require expensive license which should be annually renewed.

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Figure 3. Meny of AVL CONCERTO

We prepare hardware for measurement signal value in voltage from engine crankshaft sensor on real engine. For
this, we use universal measurement toll QUANTUM MX-840 and engine embedeed crank shaft speed sensor [3].
The sampling rate its very high in interest for high resolution of measurement.

Figure 4. The applied measuring system for data acquisition


Suppose that there is a set of the Crank Angle synchronized data
following points: x ,

yl , l = 1,, n (n < 15000) measured at the

x1 , x2 2,....xn n , =0,000417 s.

Misfire state it is controlled manually, for any cylinder (1st to 4th).

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Table 1. Measured data


normal state
0
-0.34135
0.000417 3.674666
0.000833 0.289516
0.00125 -1.05096
0.001667 3.290856
0.002083 0.85035
0.0025
-0.86523
0.002917 3.151368
0.003333 1.211538
0.00375 -1.40347
0.004167 3.067888

1st cyl disabled


0
3.025295
0.000417 1.620199
0.000833 -1.45069
0.00125 4.253419
0.001667 -0.63544
0.002083 1.482191
0.0025
2.984
0.002917 -1.86904
0.003333 3.738023
0.00375 0.649114
0.004167 0.193866

2nd cyl disabled


0
-6.24184
0.000417 -11.3549
0.000833 -2.03844
0.00125 1.352602
0.001667 10.69681
0.002083 3.597733
0.0025
2.470534
0.002917 -3.30137
0.003333 3.078322
0.00375 -2.19125
0.004167 0.889037

3th cyl disabled


0
-2.08619
0.000417 -3.41265
0.000833 -4.56775
0.00125 -0.94344
0.001667 -6.3695
0.002083 -0.25947
0.0025
-6.91866
0.002917 -0.93836
0.003333 -5.12115
0.00375 -3.04726
0.004167 -2.96356

4th cyl disabled


0
-2.22722
0.000417 -5.53553
0.000833 -3.39072
0.00125 -3.59625
0.001667 -4.99481
0.002083 -2.19339
0.0025
-6.96948
0.002917 -0.89454
0.003333 -7.48536
0.00375 -0.53651
0.004167 -6.83391

THE RESULTS OF ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


Measured signal it is not transformed in rotation speed or frequency signal, and its evaluated directly.

Figure 5. Interpretation of signals

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Figure 6. Normal working mode and one cylinder disabled


In next few figures are shown histograms of data distribution in normal mode or when some cylinders are disabled.

Figure 7. Signal data distribution

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And summary:

Figure 8. Data distribution for different variants of the engine work (normal work and one cylinder disabled)

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Normal work analysis for different sample of data:

Figure 9. Data distribution for the different sample sizes

And when 2nd cylinder are disabled:

Figure 10. Data distribution when is the second cylinder disabled


All measurements are performed by engine rotation speed of 1500 RPM.

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Figure 11. Uneven distribution of the measuring signal for normal engine work

Figure 12. Uneven distribution of the measuring signal for one cylinder disabled
In this sense exist one problem. When rotation speed rise, signal amplitude and frequency also raised [3] and
normally, distribution may be different.

Verifying data
First off all, we evaluated signal distribution for different samples [4].
Normal working condition are shown in figure 13.

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Figure 13. Analysis of different sample size (data)- function density for normal distribution
It is clear that function density for normal distribution it is same for different samples (3 groups).
Table 2. Normal working
A1: Mean:
0.100009 Variance:
A2: Mean:
-0.121623 Variance:
A3: Mean:
-0.120445 Variance:

6.5596
7.46086
7.08218

3nd cyl disabled (for example):

Figure 14. Analysis of different sample size (data)- function density for normal distribution (for 3 cylinder disabled)

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Mean values and variance of measured signal are shown in figure 15.

Figure 15. Function density distribution data for all variants of the engine work
nwc: Mean
Dis1: Mean
Dis2: Mean
Dis3: Mean
Dis4: Mean

-0.118227
-0.978992
-0.194629
-0.529648
-0.264108

Variance
Variance
Variance
Variance
Variance

6.80575 (normal working condition)


7.69948 (1st cylinder disabled)
8.35745 (2nd cylinder disabled)
8.44994 (3rd cylinder disabled)
8.6931 (4th cylinder disabled)

Estimation (simulated) for different rotation speed in reason of nature crank shaft sensor signal (induction sensor).
In interest it is value of mean.
sin(x) vs 5sin(2x)
5
sin(x)
5sin(2x)

4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Figure 16. Simulated signal from the engine crankshaft sensor for different working conditions

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Figure 17. Function density distribution data for simulated modes of the engine work

sin( x) , Mean: -1.72582e-0050 Variance: 0.500253


5sin(2 x) , Mean: -0.0001726760 Variance: 12.5063
After fitting data distribution histogram, it is clear that mean value and form of fitting curve are good start point for
defining membership function (MF) for fuzzy sets which may be used in expert system [5], [6], [7]. This expert
system then must be capable to make decision in case of misfire. One of mayor problem it is a calibration,
especially when we see figure 15.

Figure 18. Model systems for the detection of misfire

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CONCLUSIONS
Automotive makers are not published detailed engine onboard system for fault diagnosis. Complex algorithms for
evaluation engine proper or improper work are secret, for reason of expensive development, researching and
competition. It is known that engine revolution analysis is excellent tool for this purpose. Capability for capture real
data in working conditions, and analyzing them with existing software (for example Matlab) in combination with
simulating failures enabled possibility for education, scientific and other tasks.
Measurement data (signal) can be analyzed, transformed, filtered, and combined with commercial software.
Main goal in this paper it is how to determining membership function (MF) for data distribution signal for fault
decision expert system based on fuzzy logic. In combination with another data (for example O2 sensor or intake
manifold embedded sensors) the Quality of decision may be strength.
One of the key techniques used in this paper is the statistical techniques. A periodic nature of the engine rotational
dynamics and a cycle-to-cycle variability allows the presentation of the engine signals as statistical signals utilizing
such statistical variables as mean values and standard deviations. These statistical methods are the most future
prospective methods for a new generation of robust engine functionality.

REFERENCES
[1] U. Kiencke and L. Nielsen: Automotive Control Systems, For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle, ISBN 3-54023139-0.
[2] Alexander A. Stotsky: Automotive Engines, control, estimation, statistical detection, ISBN 978-3-642-00164-2,
2009

[3] M. Popovi: Senzori i merenja, (IV ), 2004.


[4] Statistic Tolbox Matlab User Guide
[5] T. Denton: Advanced Automotive Fault Diagnosis, ISBN-13: 978-0-75-066991-7.
[6] S.L. Kendal: An Introduction to Knowledge Engineering, ISBN 13: 978-1-84628-475-5.
[7] Allan W.M. Bonnick: Automotive computer controlled systems, ISBN 0 7506 5089 3.

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