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C 2 CELL STRUCRURE AND CELL ORGANISATION

a) Identify the cellular components of animal cell and plant cell :Plasma membrane
Separates the cell from the surrounding
environment
Thin, flexible layer surround the
Acts as selective barrier for the import and
cytoplasm of a cell
export of materials
Semi permeable/Selectively permeable
Regulates the movement of substances
Consists of phospholipids and proteins
entering and leaving the cell
Protective and selective outer barrier
Allows the exchange of nutrients, respiratory
gases and waste product between the cell
and its environment.
Cytoplasm
Provides cell organelles with substances
obtained from the external environment.
Rest of the material of the cell within
Acts as a medium where biochemical
the plasma membrane
reactions and living processes occur within
Consists of a fluid portion called the
cell.
cytosol ( cytosol mainly composed of
Provides support, shape and protects the cell
water with free-floating molecules )
organelles.
Jelly-like medium in which the
Stores water, enzymes, nutrient, salts and
organelles are suspended
dissolved gases.
Contains cytoskeleton fibers// organic
and inorganic substances
Nucleus
Core or the central part of cell
Largest// Membrane-bounded organelle
Dense and spherical
Consists of 3 main components:
1.) Nuclear envelope separates the
contents of nucleus from cytoplasm.
2.) Chromatin contains the genetic
material in the form of DNA.
3.) Darker region called nucleolus.
Cell Wall
Rigid and tough cellulose layer
surrounding the plasma membrane
Composed of cellulose ( a tough and
fibrous carbohydrate)
Permeable to all fluids because it has
tiny pores that allow substances to move
freely through the cell wall.
Vacuoles
Fluid-filled sacs enclosed by semipermeable membrane = tonoplast
Fluid is called cell sap
Formed through the fusion of multiple
membrane vesicles

Maintains the integrity of DNA.


Controls cellular activities (metabolism,
growth, and reproduction by regulating gene
expression).
Contains DNA which determines the
characteristics of a cell and its metabolic
functions.
The information carried by DNA controls the
activities of the cell.
>>> DNA: a double-stranded nucleic acid that
contains the genetic information.

Provides mechanical strength and supports


the cell

Maintains the shape of cell.

Prevents the cell from busting due to


excessive intake of water.

Isolates/ Separates materials that might be


harmful to the cell.
Maintains internal hydrostatic pressure.
Exports unwanted substances from the cell
Stores chemicals such as organic acids,
sugars, amino acids, mineral salts, oxygen,

<<< Tonoplast: The cytoplasmic


membrane surrounding the vacuole,
separating the vacuolar contents from
the cytoplasm in a cell.
Chloroplasts
Contains chlorophyll, provide the green
pigment
Have a double membrane
Lens-shaped organelles
Bounded by two membranes enclosing
a fluid-filled stroma that contains
enzymes.

Mitochondria
Cylindrical-shaped / Spherical or rodshaped
Have double membrane
Contain respiratory enzymes ( for
respiration )

Ribosomes
Sphere-shaped structure
Compact, spherical organelle
Composed of 2 sub-units (each
contains ribonucleic acid [RNA] &
protein)
Occur freely in the cytoplasm & are
attached to the nuclear membrane or to
the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Membrane-bounded organelle that
forms interconnected tubes & sacs that
is connected to the nuclear membrane
The outer surface of RER is covered
with ribosomes, SER does not have
ribosomes

Centrioles

carbon dioxide, waste materials, pigments


and metabolic by-products.
<<< By-product: a product of a chemical reaction
or industrial process which is different from the
desired product.
The thylakoids and grana (singular =
granum) where photosynthesis takes place.
Membranes inside the stroma are organized
into thylakoids that house chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll traps the energy from sunlight
and converts light energy into chemical
energy during photosynthesis.
Carbohydrates are made in the stroma.
<<< Stroma: The matrix of the chloroplast which is
a thick fluid in between grana where various
enzymes, molecules and ions are found where the
dark reaction (or carbohydrate formation
reactions) of photosynthesis occurs.
Sites of cellular respiration.
Vitals energy source for cellular processes.
Produces large amounts of energy through
oxidation of glucose // oxidative
phosphorylation of organic molecules.
Energy that generated in form of ATP
(adenosine triphosphate).
Uses glucose and oxygen to produce energy
(and releasing carbon dioxide and water in
the process) for metabolic process.
Site of protein synthesis.
Instruction required for the synthesis of
proteins is stored in the chromatin.

Rough ER:
Transports proteins made by ribosomes
throughout the cell.
Smooth ER:
Synthesises lipids (phospholipids & steroids)
Carries out detoxification of drugs &
metabolic by-products.
Composed of a complex arrangement of

Small cylindrical structures


Not present in plant cells
Golgi Apparatus
composed of membrane-bound stacks
known as cisternae
New membrane is continuously added
to one end of G.A and buds off as
vesicles at the other end
Lysosomes
Small, spherical sacs surrounded by a
single membrane
contain hydrolytic enzymes (digestive
enzymes)

b)

microtubules.
Form spindle fibres during cell division in
animal cells.
Modifies proteins & carbohydrates.
Transports proteins throughout the cell.
Creation of lysosomes.
Sorts & packages protein into secretory
vesicles.
Function as digestive compartments in a cell.
Hydrolytic enzymes digest & break down
complex organic molecules (protein, nucleic
acid, lipid, polysaccharides).
Unicellular organism, lysosomes fuse with
food vacuoles & release their enzymes into
these vacuoles to digest the contents of
vacuoles. The breakdown products are
absorbed into cytoplasm of cell.
Hydrolytic enzyme also break down
unwanted structures (old organelles or whole
cells).

Compare and contrast an animal and plant cell :


comparison between the structure of an animal cell and plant cell
c)
Relate the density of certain organelles with the function of specific cells
Organelles
Types of cells
Functions
found
Mitochondria

Sperm cells

a)

Require energy to swim through the uterus


towards the Fallopian tubes, so that fertilisation
can take place.

Muscle cells

b)

Pancreatic cells

a)

Cells in salivary glands

b)

Contract and relax to enable movement &


flight.
Require large amounts of energy during active
cell division to produce new cells.
Synthesise and secrete enzymes and
hormones.
Synthesise and secrete enzymes.

Interstitial & stomach


epithelium
Goblet cells

c)

Secretes digestive enzymes.

a)

Secrete mucus.

Cells in the root cap

b)

Secrete a slimy lubricant that helps the


movement of roots between soil particles.

Meristematic cells (plant) c)


RER & G.A

G.A

SER

Interstitial cells in testes


& adrenal glands
Liver cells

Chloroplasts

d)

Palisade mesophyll cells

2. General characteristics: Irregular in shape.


Consists of a single cell surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Changes shape constantly when meets obstacles & responds to stimuli.
Gel-like outer part of cytoplasm ectoplasm, inner part endoplasm.

3. Living processes: Locomotion


Moves & feeds by using pseudopodia.
Moves by cytoplasmic projection (extending pseudopodia or false feet towards the
direction it wants to move).
Follow by the flow of cytoplasm into the pseudopodia.
This locomotion ameboid movement.

Synthesise and secrete steroids & hormones.

Feeding
Feed on bacteria & diatoms.
Method of engulfing food is called phagocytosis.
Carbohydrate metabolism & detoxification of drugs
i.
Approaches the food particle.
and poisons.
ii.
Two pseudopodia extend out & enclose the food particle.
iii.
Food particle is packaged in a food vacuole which fuses with a lysosome
containing a hydrolytic enzyme called lysozyme.
Absorb sunlight during photosynthesis.
iv.
Food particle is digested by the lysozyme. The nutrients diffuse into cytoplasm and
are assimilated.
v.
Undigested material is left behind when Amoeba moves away.
Respiration
Exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide by simple diffusion.

State the necessity for cell specialization in unicellular organism :


Amoeba
1.
Habitat: Lives in freshwater lakes, ponds, marine environment & also in damp soil.
Most species of Amoeba are free-living while others are parasites.

Excretion

Carbon dioxide & ammonia are excreted by diffusion.

Contractile vacuole is involved in osmoregulation.

Water diffuses into the cell & fills the contractile vacuole.

When vacuole is filled to its maximum size, it contracts to remove its contents from
time to time.
Reproduction
Reproduces asexually by binary fission & forming spores.
Environment is not conducive for reproduction not enough food and the condition is dry,
Amoeba forms spores. The spores germinate when the environment becomes
conducive again.
Responses to stimuli
Move towards to favourable stimuli (food).
Move away to adverse stimuli (bright light, acidic condition).

iv.
Growth
Grows by synthesising new cytoplasm.

Nutrients from digested food dissolve & diffuse into cytoplasm and used to generate
energy.
The undigested contents are released through the anal pore.

v.

Respiration
Gaseous exchange occurs by diffusion.

Paramecium
1. Habitat: Lives in freshwater ponds rich in decaying organic matter.

2. General characteristics: Has a fixed slipper-like shape.


Surface covered by numerous rows of cilia.
Cilia are short hair-like outgrowths * involved in locomotion & feeding.
Has 2 nuclei Macronucleus controls cellular metabolism of cell + asexual reproduction.
Micronucleus required for sexual reproduction.

3. Living processes: Locomotion


Moves by means of the regular beating of cilia.
Enables to move forward while rotating & spiralling along its axis.
Feeding
Feed on microscopic organisms.
Nutrition in Paramecium:
i.
Regular beating of cilia along a mouth-like opening (oral groove) sweeps water and
suspended food particles into the cytostome.
ii.
In the cytostome, food vacuoles containing the food particles are formed.
iii.
Food particles in the food vacuoles are digested by hydrolytic enzymes from
cytoplasm.

Excretion

Carbon dioxide & waste products are excreted by simple diffusion.

Control of water balance (osmoregulation) is aided by 2 contractile vacuoles ( anterior


& posterior end).

Water enters the cell constantly from the hypotonic environment by osmosis.
(a) Excess water in the cell enters the contractile vacuole by osmosis.
(b) Contractile vacuole enlarges.
(c) Contractile vacuole contracts & eliminates excess water to surroundings.
Contractile vacuole expand, filling with water, contract to eliminate their contents to
exterior of cell.
>>> Osmoregulation: The process of regulating water potential in order to keep fluid and
electrolyte balance within a cell or organism relative to the surrounding.
>>> Contractile vacuole: A specialized vacuole of eukaryote cells, that fills with water from
the cytoplasm and then discharges this externally by the opening of a permanent narrow
neck. Function is probably osmoregulatory.
Reproduction
Reproduces asexually & sexually.
In favourable environment reproduces rapidly by binary fission.
Sexual reproduction is known as conjugation when environment condition is not
favourable.
Responses to stimuli
Cilia functions as sensory structures.
Sensitive to chemicals, O2 & CO2, pH and physical stimuli ( light, contact, temperature).
Moves in the opposite direction contact with negative stimulus.
Growth
Grows to a certain size by synthesising new cytoplasm.

e)

Describe cell specialization in multicellular organisms


Multicellular organism consists of many cells or more than one cell.
Differentiation = A single-celled zygote develops into a multicellular embryo. The cells
grow, change size//shape & adapt to carry out specific functions.
Cells differentiate & become more specialised in order to perform specific tasks more
efficiently.

f)

Describe cell organisation in multicellular organisms


CELL ORGANISATION
Cells:
- become more specialised to carry out particular tasks are organised into
tissues.

5. Sperm cell
<<< Mature male gamete or
reproductive cell.

- has long tail & a high density of mitochondria


- allow to swim towards the ovum.
- nucleus contains one set of chromosomes.

6. Epithelial cell
<<< Cells that cover the surface of the
body and line its cavities.

- with simple glands are found in intestines.


- function is to secrete mucus.
- highly folded with secretory cells arranged
compactly to increase the surface area for mucus
secretion.
>>> Gland: organ specialised for secretion by the
infolding of an epithelial sheet.

Differentiation/ Specialisation

Tissues:
- a group of cells which are similar in structure & perform same function.
Organs:
- a group of different tissues that work together to carry out a function.
Systems:
- several organs are organised into a system.
Organism:
-various systems make up the organism.
g) Describe the necessity for cell organisation & cell specialisation.
Cell specialisation : a process of change & adaptation that a cell undergoes to give it special
structure and specific functions.
Cells
Characteristics
1. Nerve cell
<<< Neurons can be the longest cells
known, a single axon can be several
metres in length.
2. Muscle cell
<<< Formed by fusion of embryonic
myoblasts.

- has long, thin fibres called axons.


- specialise to conduct nerve impulses.
- carry nerve impulses throughout body.

3. Red blood cell


<<< Specialised for oxygen transport &
high concentration of haemoglobin in
the cytoplasm.
4. White blood cell
<<< The blood cells that lack
haemoglobin, colourless and with
nucleus.

- biconcave disc shape & does not have nuclei.


- this increases the surface area of cell & allows
oxygen to diffuse into cell at a faster rate.

h)

Describe cell organisation in the formation of tissues, organs and system in


multicellular organisms
TISSUES
Tissues are groups of specialised cells with same structure & function.
Epithelial tissues
- consist of 1 or more layers of cells.
- tightly interconnected, with little space between them.
- form a continuous later over body surfaces & inner lining of cavities (digestive tract, lungs).
- form glands (exocrine & endocrine glands).
___________________________________________________________________________
Protective covering against entry of pathogens & water loss
Regulates movement of gases, nutrients & wastes
Ciliated epithelium traps dust & microbial spores
Glandular epithelium secretes enzymes, hormones, sweat & sebum
Epithelial tissues
Adaptations & Functions
Surface of skin &
Lining of mouth // oesophagus

Form a protective barrier against infections, mechanical,


injuries, chemicals & dehydration
Regulate body temperature

Lining of body cavities


(heart, blood vessels, lungs)

Line the alveoli of lungs & form walls of blood capillaries


- thin, flattened & arranged in a single layer
Allow the exchange of gases take place efficiently

Lining of small intestine

Absorb nutrient after completed digestion


Undergo modification to form mucus-secreting goblet cells
( secrete mucus into the digestive tract )

- long with multiple nuclei & contain protein fibres.


- fibres can contract to produce movement.

- can change shape easily to move through the


walls of blood vessels
- can migrate to the sites of injuries to fight
infections.

>>> Goblet cells :cells within the epithelium of the

respiratory system which secrete mucus in order to remove


dirt and bacteria from the air entering the lungs.

Lining of glands, ducts, kidney


tubules

Modified to form glands in the skin


e.g. : sweat glands, sebaceous glands (oil-secreting)
>>> Sebaceous glands: A cutaneous gland that secretes
sebum for lubricating hair and skin.

Lining of trachea

Fibrous connective tissue


<<< Contains fibroblasts, and also the fibrils
and fibres of connective tissue formed by such
cells.
<<< White fibrous tissue or white fibre:
for example: ligaments and tendons
Adipose Tissue
<<< Contains adipocytes (fat cells). The tissue
stores energy in the form of fat within the
adipocytes. The tissue is also used for
cushioning, thermal insulation of vital organs,
lubrication (chiefly in the pericardium), and
producing hormones (such as leptin).

Forms tendons & Ligament


Tendons: Connect bones to muscles.
Ligament: Connect bones to bones
A lot of closely-packed collagenous
fibres
Store fat
Stores energy & insulates the body

Line the trachea consists of elongated cells with hair-like


projections called cilia
Cilia secrete mucus
Mucus traps dust particles while cilia sweep the impurities
away from lungs
>>> Mucus: The free slime of the mucous membranes,
composed of secretion of the glands, along with various
inorganic salts, desquamated cells and leucocytes.
Protective secretion of the mucous membranes; in the gut
it lubricates the passage of food and protects the epithelial
cells; in the nose and throat and lungs it can make it
difficult for bacteria to penetrate the body through the
epithelium.
A slimy, sticky material.

Nerve tissues
Functions
Consists neurons// nerve cells
Specialised in transmitting nerve impulses.
Each neuron consists of a cell body & nerve Control & coordinate activity of the body.
fibres dendrites & axons
3 Type of neurones:
-Afferent neurone
-Efferent neurones
-Interneurones
Type of connective tissues
Functions
Loose connective tissue

Found in the spaces between organs


<<< Holds organs and epithelia in place, and
Hold the organs together
has a variety of proteinaceous fibers, including
Most widespread
collagen and elastin. It also surrounds the blood Binds epithelia to underlying tissues and
vessels and nerves. The cells of this tissue are
holds organs
loosely separated in the rich extracellular
matrix.

Type of connective tissues


Cartilage
Strong and flexible
<<< Dominated by extracellular matrix
containing collagen type II and large
amounts of proteoglycan, particularly
chondroitin sulphate.

Bone (Rigid tissue)


Form the skeleton
Cells located deep in collagen matrix,
hardened by calcium
Harder than cartilage
<<< Bone tissues consist of collagen fibers
and ground substance containing calcium,
magnesium, and phosphate ions that
chemically combine and harden into a
mineral, hydroxyapatite. The combination of
hard mineral and flexible collagen makes
bone harder than cartilage without being

Functions
Collagen fibres are densely packed to form
tendons & ligaments
Tendons attach muscles to bones
Ligaments attach bones to bones
Provide support to nose, ears and covers
bone ends at joints
Forms discs between vertebrae ( acts as
cushions to absorb pressure )
Provides protection to organs & supports
body
Involves in body movement

brittle.

Nervous
tissue

Blood
Consist of R.B.C & W.B.C & platelet ( Cell
fragment ), suspended in a fluid called blood
plasma
Manufactured in the bone marrow, located
at the ends of long bones
<<< The circulating fluid ( blood plasma) and
suspended formed elements, such as red
blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Transports nutrients throughout the body


Carries and delivers oxygen to the cells
Removes carbon dioxide and waste products
through excretion
Regulates the body pH and temperature
Protected against // immune defense against
pathogenic and harmful antigens.
Blood clot formation

Type of muscle tissues


Smooth muscles
-- Found along the walls of digestive tract, blood
vessels, bladder & reproductive tract.
<<< A muscle that contracts without conscious
control and found in walls of internal organs
such as stomach and intestine and bladder and
blood vessels (excluding the heart). Has the
form of thin layers or sheets.
Skeletal muscles
-- Attached to the bones of the skeleton.
<<< A muscle that is connected at either or both
ends to a bone and so move parts of the
skeleton.
Cardiac muscles
-- Form the contractile wall of heart.

Functions
Responsible for the involuntary actions of
body. ( When the smooth muscle of the
intestine contract, food moved to the
digestive tract. )
Responsible for the churning action of
stomach & the constriction of arteries.
Responsible for the voluntary movement of
body.
Contractions of skeletal muscles produce
movements of various body parts.
Contract to pump blood to all parts of body.
Contractions are involuntary

Tissue

Function

Example

Epithelial
tissue

Forms thin sheets that line and cover


body structure; The function depends on
its location in an organ

Ciliated cells that line


the respiratory tract

Connectiv
e tissue

Holds the body together

Bone, cartilage, blood,


tendon, ligament

Muscular
tissue

Contract to produce movement

Skeletal muscles,
smooth muscle, cardiac
muscle

Conduct nerve impulses

ORGANS
The Skin as an Organ

SYSTEM
Organ System
Circulatory system
Heart, blood vessels

Densely packed nerve


cells

Covers the entire body & protects it against


infections, physical trauma & water loss.
The largest organ of body.
Because it consists of various types of tissues
combined together to perform specific
functions.
Epidermis: outermost, thinner layer
Dermis: connective/nerve/epithelial/muscle
tissues.

Respiratory system
Lung, trachea, nose

Function
Transport respiratory gases, nutrients/ hormones &
waste products throughout the body
Exchange gases between blood & external
environment
Allow uptake of oxygen & disposal of carbon dioxide

Digestive system
Break up food into small molecules by physical &
Mouth, oesophagus, stomach,
chemical means
liver, pancreas, small
Absorb nutrients from ingested food
intestine, large intestine
Excretory system
Remove metabolic wastes such as CO2 & urea
Kidney, urinary bladder, lung, Maintain homeostatic conditions in the body
skin
Skeletal system
Bone, cartilage, tendon,
ligament

Protect internal organs


Provide support for locomotion and movement

Muscular system
Skeletal muscle, smooth
muscle, cardiac muscle

Produce body movement by contraction & shortening of


muscles

Lymphatic system
Return excess tissue fluid to the circulatory system
Spleen, thymus gland, lymph Provide defenses to microbial infection & cancer
nodes, lymphatic vessel
Nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, nerve,
sense organ

Receive stimuli, integrate information & direct the body

Endocrine system
Endocrine gland (pancreas,
thyroid, adreanal, pituitary)

Coordinate the activities of the body in conjunction with


the nervous system

Reproductive system
Male: Testes, penis
Female, Ovaries, uterus, vagina
Integumentary system
Skin

i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)

Male: produce sperms & hormones


Female: produce ova & hormones
Carry out reproduction
Cover & protect the body

State the meaning of internal environment


Indentify factors affecting the internal environment
Explain the necessity to maintain optimal internal environment
Describe the involvement of various systems in maintaining optimal internal environment
Predict the state of certain cells without a particular cellular component
Illustrate that most cells are specialised for the job that they perform

Ques:
1.
Name the membrane valves that open and close for potassium efflux and sodium influx.
ion channels/ vacuoles/ capillaries/ cytokines
2.
What roles does the cytoskeleton play in a living cell?
= Maintaining cell shape,movement,contraction.
3.
A cell in interphase is sometimes said to be resting. Why is this misleading?
= Interphase cells are synthesizing RNA and proteins, and growing in size

Cell
Palisade Mesophyll Cell
Guard Cell
Xylem
Phloem

Cell Specialisation in Plant


Function
Carries out photosynthesis
Control the size of the stomata pore to allow gaseous
exchange.
Transport water and mineral salt
Transport dissolved food.

Name of organelle /
structure
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum

Function

Consequence if absent

Transporting proteins

No transportation of
proteins

Mitochondrion

Site for energy production

Energy cannot be
produced

Cell wall

Give fixed shape to the cell

Have irregular shape (e.g.


Animal cell)

Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum

Transport lipid and glycerol

Lipid and glycerol cannot


be transport

Nucleus

Control cell activities, contains


genetic material.

No cell division, all cell


activities stop.

Vacuole

Storing nutrients (sugar and


amino acid) in its sap.

Cannot store nutrients

Cytoplasm

Food storage, medium for


metabolic reaction

No site for metabolic


reaction

Plasma membrane

Controlling entry and exit of


substances

No selective barrier

Lysosomes

Releases enzymes outside the


cell.

No enzymes being
released

Chloroplast

Carries out photosynthesis

Photosynthesis cannot
occur

Golgi apparatus

Storing and transporting lipids.


Produces glycoprotein,
polysaccharide and secretory
enzyme.

Formation of lysosomes
will not happen