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What is the difference between saltwater, brackish water and brine?

The primary difference between these categories of water is the dissolved salt content.
The most common source of saltwater is seawater that contains about 35,000 mg/L of
dissolved solids. Any water that contains over 10,000 mg/L of dissolved solids is
generally referred to as salt water, while water containing between 1,000 and 10,000
mg/L of dissolved solids is referred to as brackish water and water with less than 1,000
mg/L of dissolved solids is referred to as freshwater. Salt saturated water is generally
referred to as brine. Some use the following water salinity classification scheme: brine,
greater than 50,000 mg/L; saline, 30,000 to 50,000 mg/L; brackish, 5,000 to 30,000 mg/L;
and fresh, less than 5,000 mg/L.

The primary difference between the types of water mentioned above is in the amount of
total dissolved solids (TDS) they contain. Brackish water typically contains TDS in
concentrations ranging from 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l) to 10,000 mg/l. Saline water
or salt water has more than 10,000 mg/l TDS. And, brine is very salty water (TDS
greater than 35,000 mg/l). Seawater typically is very salty (TDS >35,000 mg/l). In a
reverse-osmosis system, the greater the TDS concentration of the water, the higher the
pressure needed for the pumps to push water through the membranes, and
consequently, the higher the energy costs. Desalinating seawater is, therefore, usually
more costly than desalinating brackish water

Brine is a solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. In different contexts, brine
may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater,
or the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated
solution, depending on temperature).

Brine is used to preserve vegetables, fruit, fish and meat in a process known as brining.
Brine is also commonly used to age halloumi and feta cheeses, or for pickling foodstuffs,
as a means of preserving them (or increasing taste). Brine is a common fluid used in
large refrigeration installations for the transport of thermal energy from place to place. It
is used because the addition of salt to water lowers the freezing temperature of the
solution and the heat transport efficiency can be greatly enhanced for the comparatively
low cost of the material. The lowest freezing point obtainable for NaCl brine is 21.1 C
(6.0 F) at 23.3wt% NaCl.[1] This is called the eutectic point. In colder temperatures,
brine can be used to de-ice or reduce freezing temperatures on roads.[2]

Brine also refers to naturally occurring salt water. The brine outcropping at the surface
as saltwater springs are known as "licks" or "salines".[3] The contents of dissolved solids
in groundwater vary highly from one location to another on earth, both in terms of
specific constituents (e.g. halite, anhydrite, carbonates, gypsum, fluoride-salts, and
sulfate-salts) and regarding the concentration level. Using one of several classification of
groundwater based on Total Dissolved Solids, brine is water containing more than
100,000 mg/L TDS.[4] Brine is commonly produced during well completion operations,
particularly after the hydraulic fracturing of a well.

0 F was initially set as the zero point in the Fahrenheit temperature scale, as it was the
coldest temperature that Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit could reliably reproduce by
freezing brine.[5]
At 100 C (373.65 K, 212 F), saturated sodium chloride brine is about 28% salt by
weight i.e. 39.12 g salt dissolves in 100 mL of water at 100 C. At 0 C (273.15 K, 32 F),
brine can only hold about 26% salt.[6]
Water salinity based on dissolved salts
Fresh water Brackish water Saline water Brine
< 0.05%

0.05% 3%

3% 5%

> 5%