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Engineering

by

Humboldt Fellow, JSPS Fellow, BOYSCAST Fellow

Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India.

Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in

URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

Lecture 35

Module 9

Seismic Analysis and

Design of Various

Geotechnical Structures

IIT Bombay, DC

Seismic Design of

Retaining Wall

IIT Bombay, DC

Earth pressures at rest earth pressure

active earth pressure

passive earth pressure

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

designed to resist additional destabilizing earthquake forces.

(Source: http://www.geofffox.com)

(Source: http://www.parmeleegeology.com/)

Seismic analysis/design of retaining walls mainly consists of

during an earthquake

Determining seismic active and passive earth pressures due to all

destabilizing forces (static + seismic)

Design section based on above parameters using

1. Force based approach

2. Displacement based approach for performance based

design

Pseudo-static Method

application of DAlemberts principle of mechanics.

slope stability analysis

(Towahata, 2008)

DAlemberts principle of

mechanics

Tokyo, Japan.

Questions: Value of kh and kv to be used for design?

Soil amplification?

Variation of seismic acceleration with depth and time?

Effect of dynamic soil properties? etc.

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Available Literature

Mononobe-Okabe (1926, 1929)

Madhav and Kameswara Rao (1969)

Richards and Elms (1979)

Saran and Prakash (1979)

Prakash (1981)

Nadim and Whitman (1983)

Steedman and Zeng (1990)

Ebeling and Morrison (1992)

Das (1993)

Kramer (1996)

Kumar (2002)

Choudhury and Subba Rao (2005)

Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2006)

And many others..

Pseudo-static Method

Richards and Elms (1979) proposed a method for seismic design of

gravity retaining walls which is based on permanent wall

displacements. (Displacement based approach)

Displacement

should

be

calculated

by

against allowable displacement.

d pem

2

3

vmax

amax

0.087

a y4

retaining wall

Richards and Elms (1979)

yield acceleration for the wall-backfill system.

Richards, R. Jr., and Elms, D. G. (1979). Seismic behavior of gravity retaining walls. Journal of

10

Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 105: 4, 449-469.

Pseudo-static Method

Choudhury and Subba Rao (2002) gave design charts for the

estimation of seismic passive earth pressure coefficient for negative

wall friction case. (Canadian Geotech. Journal, 2002)

The application of this case is for anchor uplift

capacity.

Design charts are given for calculation of various

parameters like kpd, which can be used to

compute seismic passive resistance, which is

given by,

Ppd = 2cHK pcd +qHK pqd

1

1

2

H K pd

2

cos

Kpd, Kpqd, and Kpcd are the seismic

passive earth pressure coefficients.

Choudhury, D. and Subba Rao, K. S. (2002). Seismic passive earth

resistance for negative wall friction, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39:5,

11

971981.

Pseudo-static Method

Choudhury et al. (2004) presented a comprehensive review for

different methods to calculate seismic earth pressures and their

point of applications. (Current Science, 2004)

Expression for the point of application of

seismic passive resistance by,

hd

H 2 cos

2

2 H cos

2 Vs

(2004). Seismic design of earth retaining structures and

foundations. Current Science, India, 87:10, 1417-1425.

and

H sin

(sin

(cos

cos t )

sin t )

2 Vp

shear and primary wave velocities

respectively, H is height of retaining wall.

12

Subba Rao, K. S., and Choudhury, D. (2005). Seismic passive earth pressures in soils.

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131:1, 131- 135.

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

13

Pseudo-static Method

Subba Rao and Choudhury (2005) gave design charts for

seismic passive earth resistance coefficients by using a

composite failure surface for positive wall friction angle. (Jl. of

Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engg., ASCE, 2005)

Design charts were proposed for the

earth resistance coefficients for various

input parameters.

The application of this case is for bearing

capacity of foundations.

14

Pseudo-static Method

Shukla et al. (2009) have described the derivation of an analytical

expression for the total active force on the retaining wall for c- soil

backfill considering both the horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients.

The seismic active earth pressure is given by,

1

Pae H 2 (1 kv ) K ae cHK aec

2

where,

sin( )

tan c

cos( )

K ae

tan

kh

1 kv

and

K aec

cos (1 tan 2 c )

resistance of soil

Shukla, S. K., Gupta, S. K. and Sivakugan, N. (2009). Active earth pressure on retaining wall

for c- soil backfill under seismic loading condition. Journal of Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 135:5, 690696.

Pseudo-static Method

Major limitations

Representation of the complex, transient, dynamic effects

of earthquake shaking by single constant unidirectional

pseudo-static acceleration is very crude.

Relation between K and the maximum ground acceleration is

not clear i.e. 1.9 g acceleration does not mean K = 1.9

Advantages

Simple and straight-forward

No advanced or complicated analysis is necessary.

It uses limit state equilibrium analysis which is routinely

conducted by Geotechnical Engineers.

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Pseudo-Dynamic Approach by

Steedman and Zeng (1991),

Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2005)

Phase differences between different waves can be considered.

Amplitude of equivalent PGA can be considered.

Considers seismic body wave velocities traveling during earthquake.

Choudhury and Nimbalkar, (2005), in Geotechnique, ICE Vol. 55(10), pp. 949-953.

where = angular frequency; t = time elapsed; Vs = shear wave velocity;

Vp = primary wave velocity

H

ah

2 Hcosw (sin w sin wt )

Qh (t ) m(z)a h (z, t)dz =

2

4 g tan

0

where, = TVs is the wavelength of the vertically propagating

shear wave and = t-H/Vs.

H

Qv (t )

m(z)a

0

(z, t)dz

av

2

4 g tan

wave and = t H/Vp.

W sin( ) Qh cos( ) Qv sin( )

Ppe

cos( )

Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2005), in Geotechnique, ICE London, U.K., Vol. 55, No. 10, 949-953.

where

and

p pe (t )

dPpe (t )

dz

z

sin( )

tan cos( )

kh z cos( )

z

sin t

tan cos( )

Vs

k z sin( )

z

v

sin t

V

tan cos( )

p

Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2005), in Geotechnique, London, U.K., Vol. 55, No. 10, 949-953.

0.0

0.2

0.4

z/H

0.6

kh=0.0

kh=0.1

kh=0.2

0.8

kh=0.3

1.0

0

ppe/H

Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2005), in Geotechnique, London, U.K., Vol. 55, No. 10, 949-953.

ah(z, t) = {1 + (H z).(fa 1)/H}ah sin [{t (H z)/Vs}]

6

0

kh = 0.2, kv = 0.0, = 30 , = 16

Kpe

fa=1.0

fa=1.2

fa=1.4

fa=1.8

fa=2.0

2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

H/TVs

Nimbalkar, S. and Choudhury, D. (2008), in Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Singapore, Vol. 2(1), 33-52.

with existing pseudo-static method Passive case

0.0

Mononobe-Okabe method

Present study

0.2

0.4

z/H

0.6

0.8

H/ = 0.3, H/ = 0.16

0

1.0

0

ppe/H

with existing pseudo-static methods Passive case

8

7

6

Kpe

5

4

Mononobe-Okabe method

Choudhury (2004)

Present study

3

2

0

0

0.0

0.1

0.2

kh

0.3

Choudhury and

Nimbalkar

(2005) in

Geotechnique

Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2006), Pseudo-dynamic approach of seismic active earth pressure behind retaining

wall, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Springer, The Netherlands, Vol 24, No.5, pp.1103-1113.

where = angular frequency; t = time elapsed; Vs = shear wave velocity;

Vp = primary wave velocity.

H

ah

2 Hcosw (sin w sin wt )

Qh (t ) m(z)a h (z, t)dz =

2

4 g tan

0

where, = TVs is the wavelength of the vertically propagating

shear wave and = t-H/Vs.

H

Qv (t )

m(z)a

(z, t)dz

av

2

4 g tan

wave and = t H/Vp.

Pae (t )

cos( )

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

K

ae

sin

tan cos

2 tan

2

where,

cos

TV sin m

tan H cos

k

2

t H TV

2 cos 2

T TV H

sin 2 t H sin 2

T TV

t H

T TV

s

TV

cos

t H

sin

2

sin 2

T TV

m 2 cos 2

TV

pae (t )

z

sin( )

tan cos( )

Pae (t )

k h z

cos( )

z

sin w t

tan cos( )

V

s

kv z

sin( )

z

sin w t

tan cos( )

V

D. Choudhury, IITB

0.0

seismic active earth pressure

0.2

kh=0.0

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering,

24(5), 1103-1113.

kh=0.1

z/H

kh=0.2

0.4

kh=0.3

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.8

Kae

pae/H

kh = 0.2, kv = 0.0, = 33 , = 16

fa=1.0

fa=1.2

fa=1.4

fa=1.8

fa=2.0

0.6

0.4

seismic active earth pressure

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

H/TVs

in Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, 2(1), 33-52.

0.8

0.9

1.0

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