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Geotechnical Earthquake

Engineering
by

Dr. Deepankar Choudhury


Humboldt Fellow, JSPS Fellow, BOYSCAST Fellow

Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India.
Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in
URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/
Lecture 35

Module 9
Seismic Analysis and
Design of Various
Geotechnical Structures
IIT Bombay, DC

Seismic Design of
Retaining Wall

IIT Bombay, DC

Earth Pressures on Retaining Walls


Earth pressures at rest earth pressure
active earth pressure
passive earth pressure

Earth pressure conditions


D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Failure of Retaining Walls

Retaining walls may fail during an earthquake, if they are not


designed to resist additional destabilizing earthquake forces.

Failure of gravity retaining wall


(Source: http://www.geofffox.com)

(Source: http://www.parmeleegeology.com/)

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls


Seismic analysis/design of retaining walls mainly consists of

Determining magnitude of additional destabilizing forces that act


during an earthquake
Determining seismic active and passive earth pressures due to all
destabilizing forces (static + seismic)
Design section based on above parameters using
1. Force based approach
2. Displacement based approach for performance based
design

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Pseudo-static Method

Theoretical background of seismic coefficient lies in the


application of DAlemberts principle of mechanics.

Example of elementary seismic


slope stability analysis
(Towahata, 2008)

DAlemberts principle of
mechanics

Towhata, I., (2008), Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Springer,


Tokyo, Japan.

Conventional Seismic Design of Retaining Walls

Pseudo-Static Approach Proposed by Mononobe-Okabe (1929)


Questions: Value of kh and kv to be used for design?
Soil amplification?
Variation of seismic acceleration with depth and time?
Effect of dynamic soil properties? etc.
D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Available Literature
Mononobe-Okabe (1926, 1929)
Madhav and Kameswara Rao (1969)
Richards and Elms (1979)
Saran and Prakash (1979)
Prakash (1981)
Nadim and Whitman (1983)
Steedman and Zeng (1990)
Ebeling and Morrison (1992)
Das (1993)
Kramer (1996)
Kumar (2002)
Choudhury and Subba Rao (2005)
Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2006)
And many others..

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Pseudo-static Method
Richards and Elms (1979) proposed a method for seismic design of
gravity retaining walls which is based on permanent wall
displacements. (Displacement based approach)
Displacement

should

be

calculated

by

following formula, and should be checked


against allowable displacement.

d pem

2
3
vmax
amax
0.087
a y4

where, vmax is the peak ground velocity, amax

Seismic forces on gravity


retaining wall
Richards and Elms (1979)

is the peak ground acceleration, ay is the


yield acceleration for the wall-backfill system.

Richards, R. Jr., and Elms, D. G. (1979). Seismic behavior of gravity retaining walls. Journal of
10
Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 105: 4, 449-469.

Pseudo-static Method
Choudhury and Subba Rao (2002) gave design charts for the
estimation of seismic passive earth pressure coefficient for negative
wall friction case. (Canadian Geotech. Journal, 2002)
The application of this case is for anchor uplift
capacity.
Design charts are given for calculation of various
parameters like kpd, which can be used to
compute seismic passive resistance, which is
given by,
Ppd = 2cHK pcd +qHK pqd

1
1
2
H K pd
2
cos

where Ppd is seismic passive resistance,


Kpd, Kpqd, and Kpcd are the seismic
passive earth pressure coefficients.
Choudhury, D. and Subba Rao, K. S. (2002). Seismic passive earth
resistance for negative wall friction, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39:5,
11
971981.

Pseudo-static Method
Choudhury et al. (2004) presented a comprehensive review for
different methods to calculate seismic earth pressures and their
point of applications. (Current Science, 2004)
Expression for the point of application of
seismic passive resistance by,

hd

H 2 cos
2
2 H cos

2 Vs

Choudhury, D., Sitharam, T. G. and Subba Rao, K. S.


(2004). Seismic design of earth retaining structures and
foundations. Current Science, India, 87:10, 1417-1425.

and

H sin
(sin

(cos
cos t )
sin t )

2 Vp

excitation frequency, Vs and Vp are


shear and primary wave velocities
respectively, H is height of retaining wall.
12

Seismic Passive Resistance by Pseudo-static Method

Subba Rao, K. S., and Choudhury, D. (2005). Seismic passive earth pressures in soils.
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131:1, 131- 135.
D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

13

Pseudo-static Method
Subba Rao and Choudhury (2005) gave design charts for
seismic passive earth resistance coefficients by using a
composite failure surface for positive wall friction angle. (Jl. of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engg., ASCE, 2005)
Design charts were proposed for the

direct computation of seismic passive


earth resistance coefficients for various
input parameters.
The application of this case is for bearing
capacity of foundations.

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

14

Pseudo-static Method
Shukla et al. (2009) have described the derivation of an analytical
expression for the total active force on the retaining wall for c- soil
backfill considering both the horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients.
The seismic active earth pressure is given by,
1
Pae H 2 (1 kv ) K ae cHK aec
2
where,

sin( )
tan c

cos (cos tan c sin )


cos( )

K ae

tan

kh
1 kv

and

K aec

cos (1 tan 2 c )

tan c (cos tan c sin )

and c is critical failure plane angle, shearing


resistance of soil

Shukla, S. K., Gupta, S. K. and Sivakugan, N. (2009). Active earth pressure on retaining wall
for c- soil backfill under seismic loading condition. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 135:5, 690696.

Pseudo-static Method
Major limitations
Representation of the complex, transient, dynamic effects
of earthquake shaking by single constant unidirectional
pseudo-static acceleration is very crude.
Relation between K and the maximum ground acceleration is
not clear i.e. 1.9 g acceleration does not mean K = 1.9

Advantages
Simple and straight-forward
No advanced or complicated analysis is necessary.
It uses limit state equilibrium analysis which is routinely
conducted by Geotechnical Engineers.
D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Development of Modern Pseudo-Dynamic Approach


Pseudo-Dynamic Approach by
Steedman and Zeng (1991),
Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2005)

ah(z, t) = {1 + (H z).(fa 1)/H}ah sin [{t (H z)/Vs}]

av(z, t) = {1 + (H z).(fa 1)/H}av sin [{t (H z)/Vp}]

Soil amplification is considered.

Frequency of earthquake excitation is considered.

Advantages Time duration of earthquake is considered.


Phase differences between different waves can be considered.
Amplitude of equivalent PGA can be considered.
Considers seismic body wave velocities traveling during earthquake.
Choudhury and Nimbalkar, (2005), in Geotechnique, ICE Vol. 55(10), pp. 949-953.

ah(z, t) = ah sin [{t (H z)/Vs}] and av(z, t) = av sin [{t (H z)/Vp}]


where = angular frequency; t = time elapsed; Vs = shear wave velocity;
Vp = primary wave velocity
H
ah
2 Hcosw (sin w sin wt )
Qh (t ) m(z)a h (z, t)dz =
2
4 g tan
0
where, = TVs is the wavelength of the vertically propagating
shear wave and = t-H/Vs.
H

Qv (t )

m(z)a
0

(z, t)dz

av

2 Hcos (sin sin t )


2
4 g tan

where, = TVp, is the wavelength of the vertically propagating primary


wave and = t H/Vp.

The total (static plus dynamic) passive resistance is given by,


W sin( ) Qh cos( ) Qv sin( )
Ppe
cos( )
Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2005), in Geotechnique, ICE London, U.K., Vol. 55, No. 10, 949-953.

The coefficient of seismic passive resistance (Kpe) is given by,

where

and

The seismic passive earth pressure distribution is given by,


p pe (t )

dPpe (t )
dz

z
sin( )
tan cos( )

kh z cos( )
z
sin t
tan cos( )
Vs

k z sin( )
z
v
sin t
V
tan cos( )
p

Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2005), in Geotechnique, London, U.K., Vol. 55, No. 10, 949-953.

Typical non-linear variation of seismic passive earth pressure


0.0

kv = 0.5kh, = 30 , = , H/ = 0.3, H/ = 0.16

0.2

0.4
z/H
0.6
kh=0.0
kh=0.1
kh=0.2

0.8

kh=0.3
1.0
0

ppe/H

Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2005)


Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2005), in Geotechnique, London, U.K., Vol. 55, No. 10, 949-953.

Effect of amplification factor on seismic passive earth pressure


ah(z, t) = {1 + (H z).(fa 1)/H}ah sin [{t (H z)/Vs}]
6
0

kh = 0.2, kv = 0.0, = 30 , = 16

Kpe

fa=1.0
fa=1.2
fa=1.4
fa=1.8
fa=2.0

2
0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

H/TVs

Nimbalkar and Choudhury (2008)


Nimbalkar, S. and Choudhury, D. (2008), in Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, Singapore, Vol. 2(1), 33-52.

Comparison of proposed pseudo-dynamic method


with existing pseudo-static method Passive case
0.0

Mononobe-Okabe method
Present study

0.2

0.4

z/H
0.6

0.8

H/ = 0.3, H/ = 0.16
0

kh= 0.2, kv= 0.5kh, = 30 , = /2


1.0
0

ppe/H

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

Comparison of proposed pseudo-dynamic method


with existing pseudo-static methods Passive case
8
7
6

Kpe

5
4
Mononobe-Okabe method
Choudhury (2004)
Present study

3
2
0

= 35 , = /2, kv = 0.5kv, H/ = 0.3, H/ = 0.16

0
0.0

0.1

0.2

kh

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

0.3

Choudhury and
Nimbalkar
(2005) in
Geotechnique

Seismic Active Earth Pressure by Pseudo-Dynamic Approach

Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2006)


Choudhury, D. and Nimbalkar, S. (2006), Pseudo-dynamic approach of seismic active earth pressure behind retaining
wall, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Springer, The Netherlands, Vol 24, No.5, pp.1103-1113.

ah(z, t) = ah sin [{t (H z)/Vs}] and av(z, t) = av sin [{t (H z)/Vp}]


where = angular frequency; t = time elapsed; Vs = shear wave velocity;
Vp = primary wave velocity.
H
ah
2 Hcosw (sin w sin wt )
Qh (t ) m(z)a h (z, t)dz =
2
4 g tan
0
where, = TVs is the wavelength of the vertically propagating
shear wave and = t-H/Vs.
H

Qv (t )

m(z)a

(z, t)dz

av

2 Hcos (sin sin t )


2
4 g tan

where, = TVp, is the wavelength of the vertically propagating primary


wave and = t H/Vp.

The total (static plus dynamic) active thrust is given by,

W sin( ) Qh (t )cos( ) Qv (t )sin( )


Pae (t )
cos( )
D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay, India

The seismic active earth pressure coefficient, Kae is defined as


K

ae

sin

tan cos

2 tan
2

where,

cos

TV sin m

tan H cos

k
2

t H TV
2 cos 2

T TV H

sin 2 t H sin 2

T TV

t H

T TV
s

TV

cos

t H
sin
2

sin 2

T TV

m 2 cos 2


TV

The seismic active earth pressure distribution is given by,


pae (t )

z
sin( )
tan cos( )

Pae (t )


k h z
cos( )
z
sin w t

tan cos( )
V
s


kv z
sin( )
z

sin w t

tan cos( )
V

D. Choudhury, IITB

Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2006)

0.0

Typical non-linear variation of


seismic active earth pressure

kv=0.5kh, =30 , ,H/=0.3, H/=0.16

0.2
kh=0.0

Choudhury and Nimbalkar (2006), in


Geotechnical and Geological Engineering,
24(5), 1103-1113.

kh=0.1

z/H

kh=0.2

0.4

kh=0.3

0.6

ah(z, t) = {1 + (H z).(fa 1)/H}ah sin [{t (H z)/Vs}]

0.8

1.0
1.0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.8
Kae

pae/H

kh = 0.2, kv = 0.0, = 33 , = 16

fa=1.0
fa=1.2
fa=1.4
fa=1.8
fa=2.0

0.6

0.4

Effect of soil amplification on


seismic active earth pressure

0.2
0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

H/TVs

Nimbalkar and Choudhury (2008),


in Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, 2(1), 33-52.

D. Choudhury, IIT Bombay

0.8

0.9

1.0