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MECHANICS DEPARTMENT

HDA Javi Cerrada

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Index of contents

My car needs to be serviced


Motorbikes
Vocabulary worksheets
Appendices
o Extra readings
o Extra Grammar
Glossary
Notes

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Vocabulary worksheets

Automobile: road vehicle that is motor-driven and is used for transporting people.
Hub cap: piece of metal covering the hubs.
Tail light: rear light.
Back fender: side rear part of the body that covers the wheel.
Roof post: vertical structure that supports the top of the car.
License plate: piece of metal that carries a number used to identify the automobile.
Window: mounted pane of glass.
Outside mirror: external mirror used for looking backwards.
Roof: upper part of a car, covering the passenger compartment.
Door post: vertical structures that encase the windows.
Wheel: round object that turns around a central axel and allows the car to advance.
Door: opening used to enter the passenger compartment.
Front fender: side fore part of the body that covers the wheel.
Trunk: place for stowing baggage.
Shield: movable apparatus that protects against bumps.
Indicator light: amber light that is used to signal changes in the car's direction.
Head light: front light of a car.
Quarter window: window pane situated approximately above the rear wheel.
Hood: cover of the engine compartment at the front of a car.
Windshield wiper: movable device, made partly of rubber, that wipes the windshield and rear window
of a car.
Outside mirror: external mirror used for looking backwards.
Grill: plastic or metal decoration over the radiator.
Bumper: apparatus at the front and rear of a vehicle that protects the body from minor bumps.
Windshield: the front window of a car.
Sun roof: movable part that allows the roof of a car to be partially opened.
Door handle: part of the door used to open it.

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Anatomy of an automobile: road vehicle that is motor-driven and is used for transporting
people.

Alternator: generator that produces an alternating current.


Seat: type of armchair in the passenger compartment of a car.
Tail light: rear light.
Wheel: round object that turns around a central axel and allows the car to advance.
Muffler: device used to reduce engine noise.
Body side moulding: decorative moulding on the side of a car.
Trunk: place for stowing baggage.
Disk brake: mechanism that slows and stops a car by friction, by pressing a disk against the
axel of a wheel.
Oil filter: device that removes impurities from oil passing through it.
Window frame: border around a window.
Radiator: apparatus that cools the motor.
Line shaft: axle on which mechanical power is transmitted to the wheels.
Battery: device that generates electric current.
Air filter: device that remove impurities from air passing trough it.
Distributor: case that is used to fire the cylinders.
Windshield washer: liquid used to clean the windows.
Spare wheel: wheel of a car used to replace a damaged wheel.
Steering wheel: device used to handle a car in conjuction with steering and gear systems.
Windshield wiper: movable device, made partly of rubber, that wipes the windshield and rear
window of a car.
Transmission: automobile apparatus that transmits mechanical power to the wheels.
Rearview mirror: inside mirror used for looking backward.

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Automobile (view from below): road vehicle that is motor-driven and is used for
transporting people.
Crankcase: metal envelope protecting the clutch.
Power steering: mechanism that automatically amplifies the movements of the
steering wheel.
Exhaust system: network of pipes through which spent gas is expelled.
Gas tank: container used for storing extra gas.
Rear axle: bar that crosses the bottom rear part of a vehicle. The rear wheels are
attached to its ends.
Line shaft: axle on which mechanical power is transmitted to the wheels.
Tire: band of rubber composed of a casing of textile and iron, covered with rubber and
containing a air tube.
Radiator: apparatus that cools the motor.
Hydraulic converter: device using static energy to modify the electric current.
Differential: gear system connecting the two axles of a car.
Transmission: device carrying engine power to axles.
Shock absorber: device for reducing shocks.
Oil pan: liquid tight metal envelope containing oil.
Master cylinder: type of container in which the piston is moving

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Automobile dashboard: the control panel of a car. Contains gauges used to measure
speed, distance traveled, etc. It is generally located in front of the driver.
Turn signal level: control that operates the turn signals.
Mirror: polished glass object that reflects an image.
Windshield wiper controls: hand lever controlling the windshield wiper.
Rearview mirror: mirror used for looking backward.
Glove compartment: storage compartment at the front of the passenger
compartment.
Radio controls: button used to control the radio.
Accelerator pedal: foot-operated control that accelerates a vehicle.
Vent: opening that allows air to circulate in the passenger compartment.
Brake pedal: foot-operated control that slows and stops a vehicle.
Heating controls: button used to control the different heating systems of a car.
Instrument panel: set of dials and pictograms that give information on the state of a
vehicle.
Steering column: set of mechanisms used for steering a car.
Cigarette lighter: device used for lighting cigarette.
Sun visor: movable device that shields against the sun.

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Front frame of an automobile: set of metal parts forming the framework supporting
the front wheels.
Rubber pad: elastic plate that absorbs shocks.
Brake: mechanism used to slow or stop a car.
Front frame: the front part of the frame of a car.
Lower control arm: part of the framework that gives flexibility to a car.

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Types of bodies: shell forming the exterior of a car.

Four-door sedan: passenger compartment with four doors and four side windows.
Hatchback: two-door passenger compartment with a door at the back.
Convertible: car with a removable roof.
Limousine: large, six-seated passenger compartment.
Pick-up truck: a small truck.
Hardtop: two-door passenger compartment.
Sports car: small, two-seated automobile.
Van: small vehicle used to carry baggage; a small van.

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Automobile engine: apparatus that converts fuel to mechanical energy to power a


car.
Air filter: device that removes impurities from air passing trough it.
Pulley: small wheel with a grooved rim, bitted with a belt, that turns the cooling fan.
PVC hose: vinyl tube.
Cylinder head cover: removable cover on the upper part of the motor.
Spark plug cable: cable connecting the spark plug to the distributor cap.
Filter hole: cylindrical part forming the opening of the oil container.
Spark plug cover: spark plug cover.
Exhaust manifold: system that collects spent gases.
Dip stick: instrument that measures the level of oil in a motor.
Flywheel: wheel that, while turning, regulates the speed of the engine.
Spark plug: ignition device of an internal combustion engine.
Engine block: set consisting the motor, the clutch and the gearbox.
Valve spring: mechanism that keeps the valve closed.
Exhaust pipe: pipe through which spent gas is expelled.
Oil filter: device that removes impurities from oil passing through it.
Gas pump: device that moves gas from the gas tank to the engine.
Oil drain plug: cylindrical part that is removed to drain oil from the engine.
Alternator: generator that enables current in both directions.
Gas line: network of hoses that transports the gas.
Radiator hose: treated rubber tube that connects the lines of a combustion engine.
Fan belt: piece of rubber that wraps around the pulleys and turns the cooling fan.
Water pump: device that circulates water through the radiator.
Fan: apparatus that feed in oxygen the engine's combustion.
Distributor: case that enables engine's ignition.

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Types of motors: devices that transform different types of energy into mechanical
energy, creating motion of an automobile.
Flywheel: wheel that, while turning, regulates the speed of the engine.
Piston rod: rod that transmits the movement of the pistons to the engine.
Crankshaft: collection of rods that transforms the rectilinear displacement of the
pistons into rotary motion.
Counterweight: weight that counterbalances the weight of the cylinder.
Piston: cylindrical part moving up and down un a tube that receives pressure from the
fuel.

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Air filter: device that removes suspended particles from a liquid or gas.
Air filter: apparatus through which air is passed to remove impurities.
Cover: metal part protecting the air filter.
Nut: metal part used to close the cover of the air filter.
Vacuum hose: tubes used to expel air.
Shutter: jointed flap that regulates air intake.
Vacuum control: device that regulates pressure.
Heater pipe: hose that uses the heat of the motor to warm air that enters the filter.
Collar: adjustable metal circle that can be tightened to hold a hose in place.
PVC filter: vinyl filter.
Thermostatic valve: valve used to maintain a constant temperature.
Air intake: place where air enters to be filtered.
Clamp: collar that holds the cover in place

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Filters for small motors: apparatus used to remove suspended particles from a gas or
liquid.

Washer: round, thin metal part, hollow un the center.


Housing: metal casing protecting the filter.
Wing nut: winged piece of metal, to be turned by thumb and finger.
Foam pad: a mass of spongy material used for filtering a liquid or gas.
Gasket: lining that seals a joint.
Filtering element: part through which liquid passed to be clean of its impurities.
Pan: small container.
Cover: piece of metal closing the filter.
Filter: surface pierced with little holes.
Cover: piece of metal closing the filter.

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Negative terminal: place where a current conducting wire, the cathode, is attached.
Automobile battery: group of similar elements that generates an electric charge.
Plates and separator: thin, flat, rigid separator sheet.
Vent caps: row of screwed-on cylindrical pieces that close the openings of a battery.
Positive terminal: place where a current-conducting wire, the anode, is attached.
Separator: partition that separates the compartments of a battery.
Battery case: casing that protects the parts of a battery.

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Hex nut: hexagonal piece of metal used to screw in a spark plug.


Ceramic insulator: pottery support for the parts that conduct electricity.
Automobile spark plug: electric part generating sparks to ignite an internal
combustion engine.
Spline: hollow channel.
Resistance: device that controls the strength of the current.
Spark plug gap: space separating the current conductors.
Ground electrode: current device that unites the electrodes.
Center electrode: central current conductor.
Terminal: place where a current-conducting wire is attached.
Gasket: spot where two part join together.
Spark plug body: metal part of the spark plug.

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Types of brakes: apparatuses used to slow or stop a moving vehicle.


A - Disk brake: mechanism that slows and stops a car by friction, by pressing a disk against the
wheel axel.

B - Drum brake: mechanism that slows and stops a car by fiction, by pression brake shoes against a
drum.

Brake lining: frictional part on the outside edges of the brake shoes.
Drum: cylindrical part attached to the wheel, against which the brake shoes are pressed to stop the
car.

Return spring: part of the brake mechanism that returns the brake shoes to their initial
position.
Piston: cylindrical part that transmits the pressure to and receives pressure from the brake
shoes.
Wheel cylinder: type of roller that applies a uniform pressure to the wheel then the brake is
activated.
Brake pads: part activated by the piston.
Wheel hub: central part crossed by the axel.
Stud: metal pin.
Disk: round, flat, piece of metal, pressed against the wheel to slow or stop the car.
Brake line: system liquid-transporting tubes.
Brake shoe: part on which the brake lining is mounted.
Splash shield: protector that prevents dirt from fouling the braking system.

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Tire: hollow, elastic casing enclosing an air-filled cavity.


Tread pattern: raised designs on the surfaces of a tire.
Side wall: side of the tire.
Radical body cords: arched frame of the tire.
Special high stiffness apex: filling material.
Bead wire: wire moulding a tire.
Belt: layers of different thicknesses that cover the frame of the tire.
Tread design: part of the tire that comes into contact with the road.

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Windshield wiper: mechanical sweeper that wipes water off a windshield.


Arm: movable part.
Articulation: part that attaches the wipes blade to the arm.
Wiper rubber: piece of rubber used to wipe the window.
Blade: part that supports the wiper and is attached to the wiper arm.
Fluted shaft: grooved axle that rotates the wiper arm.

Crank: arm perpendicular to an axel, used to create circular motion.


Pivot: axis of rotation.
Automobile Jack: a device equipped with a crank that is used to raise an automobile.
Lever: solid movable part attached to a fixed point, used to increase an applied force.

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Gasoline pump: device used to dispense gas to car drivers.


Windshield washer: squeegee.
Pump nozzle: apparatus at the end of the pump hose for pouring gas.
Oil display rack: storage rack for oil containers.
Trash can: garbage container.
Pump attendant: person who pump gas.
Safety post: metal post that prevent car from coming too close to the gas pumps.

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Motorcycle: two-wheeled motor vehicle with a capacity greater than 125 cm .


Tail light: rear light.
Gas tank: container where gas is stored.
Passenger restraint handle: part passengers can grip to hold themselves in place.
Handlebar: metal tube commanding the front wheel.
Headlight: front light.
Telescopic shock absorber: piece formed of two parallel tubes, each consisting of two parts,
one enclosing the other. The wheel is fixed between the tubes.
Dashboard: set of information necessary for the functioning of an apparatus.
Wheel: round object that turns around a central axle and allows a vehicle to advance.
Disk brake: mechanism that slows and stops a vehicle by friction, by pressing a metal disk
against the axel of a wheel.
Frame: welded set forming the frame.
Main stand: central support, used to hold the motorcycle in a horizontal position.
Aluminum rim: round piece of metal forming the edge of a wheel.
Dual seat: two-person seat.
Exhaust pipe: tube with zigzagging internal passages that reduces the noise made by the
exhaust of spent gases from the motor. It is situated at the rears.
Front mudguard: piece covering the front of wheel and protecting the passenger from
splashes.
Spring suspension: mechanism that absorbs shocks.
Rear mudguard: piece covering the rear wheel and protecting the passenger from splashes.

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INFINITIVE

PAST

PAST PARTICIPLE

MEANING

Be
Become
convertirse
Begin
Bring
Build
Burn
Buy
Can
capaz
Catch
Choose
Come
Cost
Do
Draw
Drink
Drive
Eat
Fall
Feed
Feel
Find
Forbid
Forget
Fly
Get
Give
Go
Have
Hear
Hit
Hold
Hurt
Keep
Know
Learn
Leave
Lose

was/were
became

been
become

ser, estar
llegar a ser,

began
brought
built
burnt/burned
bought
could

begun
brought
built
burnt/burned
bought
been able (to)

empezar, comenzar
traer, llevar
construer
quemar
comprar
poder, saber, ser

caught
chose
came
cost
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
found
forbade
forgot
flew
got
gave
went
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
learnt
left
lost

caught
chosen
come
cost
done
drawn
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
found
forbidden
forgotten
flown
got
given
gone
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
learnt
left
lost

coger, atrapar
elegir, escoger
venir
costar
hacer
dibujar
beber
conducir
comer
caer
alimentar
sentir
encontrar
prohibir
olvidar
volar, pilotar
obtener, conseguir
dar
ir
tener, haber
or, escuchar
golpear
sostener, agarrar
herir, hacer dao
mantener, seguir
saber, conocer
aprender
marcharse, abandonar

perder

Make
Mean
Meet
Melt
Pay
Put
Read
Run
Say
See
Sell
Send
Shake
Share
Shave
Shoot
Sing
Sit
Sleep
Smell
Speak
Spell
Spend
Spin
Stand
Steal
Stick
Swim
Take
Teach
Tell
Think
Understand
Wake
Wear
Wet
Win
Write

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made
meant
met
melted
paid
put
read
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
shook
share
shaved
shot
sang
sat
slept
smelt/smelled
spoke
spelt/spelled
spent
spun
stood
stole
stuck
swam
took
taught
told
thought
understood
woke
wore
wet
won
wrote

made
hacer, fabricar
meant
significar, querer decir
met
conocer, encontrarse con alguien
melted/molten
derretirse, fundirse
paid
pagar
put
poner, colocar
read
leer
run
correr
said
decir
seen
ver
sold
vender
sent
enviar
shaken
agitar, sacudir
share
compartir
shaved
afeitar
shot
disparar
sung
cantar
sat
sentarse
slept
dormer
smelt/smelled
oler
spoken
hablar
spelt/spelled
deletrear
spent
pasar (tiempo), gastar (dinero)
spun
girar, dar vueltas
stood
permanecer, estar de pie
stolen
robar, hurtar
stuck
pegar(se)
swum
nadar
taken
coger, llevar
taught
dar clases, ensear
told
decir, contar
thought
pensar, creer
understood
entender, comprender
woken
despertar
worn
usar( ropa ), llevar puesto
wet
humedecer
won
ganar
written
escribir

Glossary

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Notes

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