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Name

_ Date

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

_ Class

Chapter Test A

Solids, Liquids, and Gases


Multiple Choice

Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left.
1. All of the following are measurements used when working with a gas except
a. length.
c. temperature.

b. volume.
d. pressure.

2. A liquid has a
a.
b.
c.
d.

constant temperature.
definite shape.
crystal structure.
definite volume.

3. The change from a gas to a liquid is called


a. evaporation.
c. melting.

b. condensation.
d. sublimation.

4. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of crystalline


solids?
a.
b.
c.
d.

particles arranged in repeating patterns


becomes softer and softer as temperature rises
made up of crystals
has a distinct melting point

5. Boyle's law states that as the pressure of a gas increases, its


a.
b.
c.
d.

volume increases.
temperature increases.
volume decreases.
temperature decreases.

6. Which of the following is NOT an example of vaporization?


a.
b.
c.
d.

water rising into dry air that moves over the ocean
bubbles forming as water boils
wet pavement drying after a rain shower
water droplets forming on a mirror

7. A substance which takes the shape and volume of its container is a


a. solid.
c. gas.

b. liquid.
d. crystal.

8. Because of surface tension, a liquid


a.
b.
c.
d.

resists flowing.
forms a crystalline solid.
takes the shape of its container.
forms droplets.

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30

Name

_ Date

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

_ Class

Chapter Test A

9. As the gas in a rigid container is heated, its


a.
b.
c.
d.

pressure increases.
volume increases.
pressure decreases.
volume decreases.

10. A liquid with a low viscosity


a.
b.
c.
d.

has a definite shape.


flows quickly.
flows slowly.
fills its container.

Completion

Fill in the blank to complete each statement.


11. According to Charles's law, when the temperature of a gas increases in
a flexible container, its
increases.
12. The faster gas particles are moving, the
energy and the

their
the temperature.

13. At its
, the particles of a solid are vibrating so
fast that they break free from their fixed positions.
14.

occurs when the particles on the surface of a


solid are directly released as a gas.

15. When the temperature of a gas in a rigid container increases, its


_____________________
increases.
True or False

If the statement is true, write true. If it isfalse, change the underlined word or words
to make the statement true.
_________________

16. Bubbles of air exhaled by an underwater


swimmer increase in volume as they rise to the
water's surface.

_________________

17. The volume of a gas is the result of gas particles


pushing on the walls of the container.

______________

18. During boiling, only particles on the surface of


the liquid gain enough energy to become gas.

__________

19. The change from a solid to a liquid is


condensation.

__________

20. Gas pressure is found by dividing the force of its


outward push by the area it pushes on.

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31

Name

_ Date

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

_ Class

Chapter Test A

Using Science Skills: Interpreting

Diagrams

The diagrams below show an experiment to measure the change in the pressure of a
gas as its volume decreases. The weights on the piston compress the gas in the
cylinder. Study the diagram and answer the questions below.

600
500
400
Volume (mL) 300
200
100

600
500
400
300
200
100 Eo~~::::.'::g

r::=:====::?1
0000

00
0

~ooo
000> 000

<XD0

00

00

00

0000000000
000

pressure

100 kPa

pressure

= 200

kPa

pressure = 300 kPa

pressure = 400 kPa

21. Complete the data table below for the experiment shown.
Volume (mL)

Pressure (kPa)

22. Graph the data above to show how the volume of


a gas is related to its pressure. Be sure to label the
axes andto include units of measurement.
23. What will the volume be when the pressure is
500 kPa?

-- ---1---

---~--

---

---~--

---

"

"

-__

--~--"
"
"

---1---

"
"
"

-- --,--"
"

--

--~---

--

"
"
--~---

--

"
---1---

1-

Write an answer for each of the following questions on a


separate sheet of paper.
24. Explain how a hot-air balloon rises.
25. Compare and contrast the arrangement and
movement of particles in a solid, liquid, and gas.

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32

"

-1

"
"

,,

---r----~--

-----

---~--

---

---1---

---

"
____

,
,
,
---1--,,
1

"
"

Essay

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---.---

---:--,
,
---1--,,
,
,
,L

,,

Name

_ Date

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

_ Class

Chapter Test A

Using Science Skills

Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.


Changes of State
of the Chemical Benzene
90
80
.........
l;J 70
-.....;
~ 60

I
-1

__

E 40
~

30
20
10

I
.l.

J
1

1
..J

- - -t - - - or I

__

I
-1-

II

I
-

-,-

I
-,-

I
-1

I
~

I
1__

: B
I

- - -,I

___

- - T - -

I
I

I,'

.L

1__

ll

,'1

II
rI - -,,1-

-<

.V
- -,"
I

I
I

'-

I
I- -

I'I

tI

I
-

r - -

I
-1-

I
-

:
I
-1-

I
-4 _

I
\-

I
..1

I
I

l.-:---:--:t--:---:---:---:---:
I

I,

I'

r
I
f - - -,- - -

[
I

I
I

,'1

I
I

I
I

B.

- -, - - - T - -,'-,- - - I - - .-J
.J '
I
I

A.----------------------

- -,- - -1"- - -

-1_

I
l-

I,'
I
I
I
Ii - - -1- - - -; - - - r-

I'

I,

I,'

I
1
-1-

--L- __ l!-'"
J.'

I
l- __

I
I
-1- - -"'1 - - -

I
-

::J
.....,

~
50
Q)

- - -:- - -: - - -:-- - : - - ~- - - -:-- - I - ~/-:-

1 - - - ,-

c. ---------------------

Thermal Energy

26. Interpreting Data The graph above shows the changes in temperature
of a sample of benzene as its thermal energy is increased. Label sections
A, B, and C of the graph with the appropriate state of matter.
27. Drawing Conclusions Based on the graph, at what temperature would
you expect benzene to freeze?
_
Toboil?
_
28. Applying Concepts Describe what is happening to the particles of
benzene in the horizontal section of the line, between state C and state B.

Essay

Write an answer for each of the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
29. During long trips, the tires of a truck may reach extremely high
temperatures. Explain why truck drivers are encouraged to monitor and
adjust the air pressure in their tires during long trips.
30. Why do air travelers sometimes experience ear pain during takeoff and
landing?

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33

Chapter 3 Test A
1. a

23. About 120 mL; answers may vary slightly


based on Olive of student graph.
24. Heating causes the air inside the balloon to .
4.' b .
increase in volume because the particles move
5. c
faster. Some of the warm air leaves the balloon
6; d
through the bottom opening, leaving the all"
7. c
inside the balloon less dense than the air outside
8~ d
the balloon, and the balloon begins to rise.
9. a
25. The particles in a solid have a:fixed.closely
10.. b
packed arrangement and vibrate in place. The
11. volume"
particles .in.aliquid are closelypackedbut can
12. greaten higher
move around one another freely.The particles ill
13.. melting point
gas move about freely and colliderandomly;
14. Sublimation
.26~A. gas
.
.
15. pressure
. K liquid
16. true
C solid
17. pressure"
27.S"C; 80 e
.
18.. evaporation
28. The added thermal energy is making the
19~melting
particles vibrate faster and faster In place until.'
20..:true
they break free from their positions in the solid.
21. ..The
.temperaturestays.the same because the.
r-,----,.~-c-'~--'-,-,--_c--~'-~---'-_iirt~reasingeheigJds~beingUsedto rearrange the
Volume (ml.)
.-.,Pressure(kPa)
lparti4es rather than raise the temperature.
2. d
3. b

r-~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
'.600

.29.. As the tires heat up, the temperature of the

1-3~OO-"'''"'"''
-'---'----'---.:...+---'--...::..:....-'---...::..:....~~ air inside them-rises,This causesthe airpressure

in the tire to increase.In order to keep the tires


from explodingbecause of too much pressure;
r----',---,.c----'---'----I--'---'----'-~----,-l truck drivers should let some.airout of the tires..
150
30. Air pressure changes that take place inside
L..:-.'--'-_:.....l._......:..-'-....:...:._......:..~_-.J
the cabin of an airplane can create a difference
1--'--'----"'---'--'---+--"'---'--.-....;..---'-----'--1
200..

22..'
Relationship of Volume .
and Pressureofa Gas
'800
700

600
,...:...

j
I

......

."

I
I

li:. 500
.;:;.

!' 400

'\'

!' 300

f':

Q.

200

100

o
0100

<,

---

zoo soo 400 500 600 700 800


Volume (ml)

between the air pressure in the inner ear and the


surrounding air. This differencesometimes
causespairi that can be relieved by swallowing
to equalize the air pressure.