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Comparative Police System

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Japans Police
a political body under the general supervision of an independent agency, the
National Police Agency.
National Organization
National Public Safety Commission
- It exercises administrative supervision over the National police Agency under the
jurisdiction of the Prime Minister.
- Authority to appoint or dismiss senior police officers.
- the commission consists of a chairman who holds the rank of Minister of
State and five members appointed by the prime minister with the consent of both
houses of the Diet. The commission operates independently of the cabinet, but
coordinates with it through the Minister of State.

National Public Safety Commission


headquartered in the 2nd Building of the Central Common Government Office at 21-2 Kasumigaseki in Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo.

National Police Agency (Keisatsu-ch)


-as the central coordinating body for the entire police system, the National Police
Agency determines general standards and policies; detailed direction of operations
is left to the lower echelons.

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-headed by a Commissioner General who is under the administrative supervision of


the Commission, administers the agency's operations, appoints and dismisses
agency employees and supervises and controls prefectural police organizations
within the agency's defined duties.
Organizations attached to the National Police Agency
1) National Police Academy - provides training to senior police officers
and carries out academic research.
2) National Research Institute of Police Science - conducts research in
forensic science and applies the result of such research in the examination
and identification of evidence collected during police investigations
3) Imperial Guards Headquarters - provides escort to the Emperor,
Empress, Crown Prince and other Imperial Family members. It is also
responsible for the security of the Imperial Palace and other Imperial
Facilities. It consists of the Imperial Police Administration, the Imperial
Security and the Imperial Escort Department.

National Organization
1. Police Administration Bureau
is concerned with police personnel, education, welfare, training, and unit
inspections.
2. Criminal Investigation Bureau
is in charge of research statistics and the investigation of nationally important and
international cases. This bureau's Safety Department is responsible for crime
prevention, combating juvenile delinquency, and pollution control.
In addition, the Criminal Investigation Bureau surveys, formulates, and
recommends legislation on firearms, explosives, food, drugs, and narcotics. The
Communications Bureau supervises police communications systems.
3.Traffic Bureau
-licenses drivers, enforces traffic safety laws, and regulates traffic.
-Intensive traffic safety and driver education campaigns are run at both national
and prefectural levels.
-the bureau's Expressway Division addresses special conditions of the nation's

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growing system of express highways.


4.Security Bureau
- formulates and supervises the execution of security policies. It conducts research
on equipment and tactics for suppressing riots and oversees and coordinates
activities of the riot police.
-is also responsible for security intelligence on foreigners and radical political
groups, including investigation of violations of the Alien Registration Law and
administration of the Entry and Exit Control Law.
-implements security policies during national emergencies and natural disasters.
5. Regional Public Safety Bureaus
-each responsible for a number of prefectures.
-headed by a Director and they are organized similar to the Central Office. They
are located in major cities of each geographic region.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department and Hokkaido Prefectural Police
Headquarters are excluded from the jurisdiction of RPBs.
Headed by a Director General, each RPB exercises necessary control and
supervision over and provides support services to prefectural police within its
jurisdiction, under the authority and orders of NPA's Commissioner General.
Attached to each Regional Police Bureaus is a Regional Police School which
provides police personnel with education and training required of staff officers as
well as other necessary education and training.
Police Community Divisions
Metropolitan Tokyo and the island of Hokkaid are excluded from the regional
jurisdictions and are run more autonomously than other local forces, in the case of
Tokyo, because of its special urban situation, and of Hokkaid, because of its
distinctive geography.
The National Police Agency maintains police communications divisions in these two
areas to handle any coordination needed between national and local forces.
Who provides personal security for the Emperor, Crown Prince and other members
of the Imperial Family of Japan?
Answer: Imperial Guard

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LOCAL ORGANIZATION
forty-three prefectutal (ken) police forces;
Tokyo Metropolitan (to) police force, in Tokyo;
two urban prefectural (fu) police forces, in Osaka and Kyoto; and
one district (d) police force, in Hokkaid.
Prefectural Police
Headquarters contains administrative division corresponding to those of the
bureaus of the National Police Agency.
It is staffed by specialist in basic police functions and administration and are
commanded by an officer appointed by the local office of the National Public
Safety Commission
More arrest and investigation are performed
Japans police are organized on a prefectural basis. Prefectural police are
placed in each Prefecture to perform various police activities under the
supervision of the Prefectural Public Safety Commission
Under the National Public Safety Commission, the National Police Agency
(NPA) is set up to supervise these Prefectural Police or adjust their activities
from the national standpoint.

Koban/ Police Boxes


is a small neighborhood police station found in Japan.
smallest organizational unit in today's Japanese police system.
in addition to central police stations, Japanese uniformed police work is done
from small buildings located within the community, a form of community
policing.
as of 2007, there are about 6,000 kban all over Japan.
form the first line of police response to the public
is staffed by relatively small number of police officers (3-5 officers in usual),

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Riot Police ( Kidotai)


Within their security divisions, each prefecture level police department and
the Tokyo police maintain Kidotai, special riot units.
In handling demonstrations and violent disturbances, riot units are deployed
en masse, military style. It is common practice for files of riot police to line
streets through which demonstrations pass. If demonstrators grow
disorderly or deviate from officially sanctioned areas, riot police stand
shoulder-to-shoulder, sometimes three and four deep, to push with their
hands to control the crowds. Individual action is forbidden..
Police brutality is rarely an issue. When excesses occur, the perpetrator is
disciplined and sometimes transferred from the force if considered unable to
keep his temper.
Although many police are assigned riot duty, only a few are volunteers. For
many personnel, riot duty serves as a stepping stone because of its
reputation and the opportunities it presents to study for the advanced police
examinations necessary for promotion. Because riot duties demands physical
fitnessthe armored uniform weighed 6.6 kilogramsmost personnel are
young, often serving in the units after an initial assignment in a koban.
Special Police
in addition to regular police officers, there are several thousand officials
attached to various agencies who perform special duties relating to public
safety.
they are responsible for such matters as forest preservation, narcotics
control, fishery inspection, and enforcement of regulations on
maritime, labor, and mine safety.
The NPA Commissioner General holds the highest position in the Japanese
police. His title is not a rank but rather denotes his position as head of the NPA.
On the other hand, the MPD Superintendent General represents not only the
highest rank in the system but also assignment as head of the Tokyo Metropolitan
Police Department
Chief of the National Police Agency?
Commissioner General OR Keisatsu-ch Chkan
Lowest Rank?
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Police Officer Or Junsa


Tokyo Police Department
The largest urban Police Force in the world.

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Singapore Police Force


(SPF)

is the Republic's main police agency tasked with maintaining law and
order in the island city-state.
Formerly known as the Republic of Singapore Police
Force is split between staff and line functions, roughly modeled after
military.
It has grown from an 11-man organization to a 38,587 strong force.
Motto: Loyalty and Service
Current Commissioner of Police?
Hoong Wee Teck
SENIOR OFFICER RANKS
Commissioner of Police
Deputy Commissioner of Police
Senior Assistant Commissioner
Assistant Commissioner
Deputy Assistant Commissioner
Superintendent
Deputy Superintendent
Assistant Superintendent
Chief Inspector
Inspector
POLICE OFFICER RANKS
Senior Station Inspector 2
Senior Station Inspector
Station Inspector
Senior Staff sergeant
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
Corporal
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Constable

Lowest Rank? Constable


Highest Rank ? Commissioner/ Commissioner of Police
MANPOWER
1. THE REGULARS
They are the uniformed, full-time officers
who constitute about 20% of the police's total workforce and number
approximately 8,000 in strength
- Basic training for all officers are conducted at the Home Team Academy
2. POLICE NATIONAL SERVICEMEN
The reservists who are augmented to the Singapore Police Force in 1975,
and given the primary function of guarding key installation and to act as a
reserve unit.
3. THE VOLUNTEERS
Formed in 1946, The Volunteer Special Constabulary (VSC) is an
important component of the Singapore Police Force, contributing more than
fifty years of volunteer service to the nation.
The VSC comprises of volunteers from all walks of life in Singapore, from
businessmen to blue-collar executives to even bus captains, bonded with the
same aspiration to serve the nation by complementing the Singapore Police
Force.
They are vested with equal powers of a police officer to enforce law and
order in Singapore. VSC Officers don the same police uniform and patrol the
streets, participate in anti-drug operations and sometimes even high-speed
sea chases.
4. CIVILIAN STAFF
Civilian staff in the Police Force are deployed in areas such as technology,
logistics, human resource and administrative and finance services as well as
planning and intelligence.
5. STAFF WELFARE
Aquatic Club
Home United Basketball Club (HUBC)
Home United Football Club (HUFC)
JOM - Clubhouse for Police Officers
Polwel Co-operative Society Limited
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Police Computer Club


Police Sports Association (PSA)
Police Welfare Division
Senior Police Officers' Mess (SPOM)
Singapore Police Co-operative Society Limited

Uniform
Uniforms of the Singapore Police Force are a Dark blue (or more
accurately Dacron blue), and have remained so continuously since 1969,
although the first police uniforms introduced in 1856 were also in the same colour.

Headquarter Location:
New Phoenix Park in Novena

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Hong Kong Police Force


Motto:
We Serve with Pride and Care
Who is the current Commisioner of Police?
Stephen Lo Wai-chung
The HKPF continues to use similar ranks and insignia to those used in British police
forces. Until 1997, the St Edward's Crown was used in the insignia, when it was
replaced with the Bauhinia flower crest of the Hong Kong government. The crest of
the force was modified in 1997:

Ranks
Commissioner of Police (General)
Deputy Commissioner of Police (Lt. Gen)
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (Maj. Gen)
Assistant Commissioner of Police (Brig. Gen)
Chief Superintendent of Police (Colonel)
Senior Superintendent of Police (Lt. Colonel)

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Superintendent of Police (Major)


Chief Inspector of Police (Captain)
Senior Inspector of Police (Lt. over a bar)
Inspector of Police (Lieutenant)
Probationary Inspector of Police (Second Lieutenant)
Station Sergeant ( Staff Sergeant)
Sergeant (Sergeant)
Senior Constable (Lance Corporal)
Police Constable
What is the highest rank?
Commissioner of

Police

What is the lowest rank?


Police Constable
Structure
Commissioner of Police - head of the Police
a. Deputy Commissioner Operations
-supervises all operational matters including crime
b. Deputy Commissioner Management
- is responsible for the direction and co-ordination of force management
including personnel, training, and management services.
Six Regions
Hong Kong Island
Kowloon East
Kowloon West
New Territories North
New Territories South
Marine Region
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CHINA

consists of an extensive public security system and a variety of


enforcement procedures used to maintain order in the country. The
country's judicial and public security agencies include the Ministry of Public
Security and the Ministry of State Security, with their descending
hierarchy of departments, bureaus, subbureaus, and stations.
CHINA POLICE SYSTEM

Police Structure
1. Public Security Police - are the largest and oldest components of Chinese
Police as to its organizational hierarchy it is consist of:
Ministry of Public Security - responsible for making nationwide regulations
concerning the law enforcements procedures, recruitment procedures, recruitment
standards, training requirements, an d promotion criteria. It represents the central
government in directing and regulating police work throughout the country.
Main domestic security in Peoples Republic of China.
Since the creation of the Ministry of State Security in 1983, the MPS has lost much
authority and does not undertake riot control functions, which are now within the
province of the People's Armed Police, nor does it generally conduct domestic
intelligence which since 1983 has been a primary responsibility of the Ministry of
State Security. Hong Kong and Macau have their own security bureaus/agencies
and police forces. As of 2012,
b. Provincial Public Security - at the provincial levels, it is accountable to the
ministry of public security at the same time it is also account able to the provincial
government.
c. Grassroots Level Public Security Bureaus - accountable to both higher level
public security bureaus and the peoples Government at the corresponding duties
of surprising connected offenders together with prison police.
In addition to law enforcement duties, Public Security Police also take full charge
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of supervising convicted offenders together with Prison Police.


-Public Security Police - supervised offenders serving community sentences such
as probation and parole.
-Prison Police - supervised incarcerated offenders; it is under the leadership of the
Ministry of the Justice.
NOTE:
Local Governments are responsible for determining the size of the public
force needed in the jurisdictions, and determining the local enforcement priorities.
2. Special Public Security Police - sound by rules and regulation issued by the
Ministry of Public Security but considered part of and under the direct leadership of
the corresponding government ministries.
a. Railway Police - maintains orders in trains and stations
b. Transportation Police - provides security in waterway transportation
c. Civil Aviation Police - maintain order in airports and provides for civilian Air
Transportation
d. Forest Police - patrol the national forest to prevent forest fires, illegal cutting,
and other activities by State Forest Law
3. Peoples Armed Police
In contrast to public security police, PAP servicemen, also called as "Armed
Policemen ()", wear olive green instead of the blue uniforms of the Public
Security Department People's Police and other branches of People's Police
function include patrol, maintaining security and order in border areas, guarding
high-ranking government officials and foreign dignitaries and providing security for
important government building and facilities. It is under the joint command of the
Ministry of Public Security and Central Military Committee.
-is a paramilitary police force under the authority of the Ministry of Public Security.
After a trial period in selected jurisdictions, it was officially established at the
national level in 1983. In line with the general policy of reducing the size of the
armed forces and transferring responsibilities to the civilian sector, the newly
established force was formed from internal security units reassigned from the PLA
to the Ministry of Public Security and from border defense (customs) and firefighting units. In 1985 the PAP consisted of approximately 600,000 volunteers and
conscripts. With a general headquarters at the national level and subordinate
division-level provincial or specialized units, regimental-level detachments, and
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battalion-level brigades, it retained its military organization.


The history of the People's Armed Police is as long as that of the People's Republic,
and its origin can be traced back to the People's Liberation Army, which was
responsible for both defending the nation from foreign invasions and internal
security. Although the force was officially established in 1982, its constituent units
stretch back to 1949. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it
was soon apparent that the different troops were required for the vastly different
missions, and the domestic security functions had to be removed from the People's
Liberation Army. As a result, the portion of People's Liberation Army responsible
for internal security and other domestic police missions branched out to form the
Public Security Army, under the administration of the Ministry of Public Security of
the People's Republic of China. Although under the Ministry of Public Security, the
Public Security Army troops were not exactly public security police officers because
in addition to regular police work, they were also tasked with secondary military
tasks which was not part of the responsibility of regular police officers of the public
security ministry.
After numerous name changes and reorganization, the PAP was created on June
19, 1982 by an amalgamation of the PLA's border control, internal security units
(domestic 'internal guard' or and fire department), as well as from Ministry of
Public Security units.
The PAP has a dual command structure including the Central Military
Commission (CMC) and the State Council through the Ministry of Public Security.

4. State Security Police - established in 1983, it is responsible to protect state


security by preventing foreign espionage, sabotage and conspiracies. Under the
leadership of the Ministry of the State Security, State Security Bureaus are
established in all provinces and some municipalities that have frequent contacts
with foreign countries.
Ranking System
The Peoples Police Ranking Regularities of 1992 established the following police
ranks:
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1. General Superintendent (conferred on individuals who hold minister-level


government post)
2. Deputy General Superintendent (conferred on individuals who hold deputyminister-level government post)
3. Superintendent (first, second, and third grade)
4. Inspector (first, second, and third grade)
5. Sergeant (first, second, and third grade)
6. Officer (first and second grade)

Headquarter?

Beijing, Haidian District, China

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