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You are on page 1of 112

Peter DAntonio

RPG Diffusor Systems, Inc.

Upper Marlboro, MD

Design Variables

Variables:

Room

oo d

dimension

e so a

and

d geo

geometry

e y

Number and configuration of speakers

Listening positions

Dedicated low frequency surface treatment

Equalization

Design Process

Using the maximum and minimum room dimensions

to determine optimal dimensional ratios, using

Room Sizer

Using allowable speaker and listener locations,

optimize locations for speakers and listener, using

Room Optimizer

Minimize SBIR and maximally excite modes: optimally

placed multiple in-phase subs

Minimize

Mi i i SBIR and

d minimally

i i ll excite

it modes:

d

optimally

ti ll

placed multiple in-phase subs

Apply

pp y low frequency

q

yp

passive absorption

p

at optimal

p

positions in desired frequency bands

Use parametric digital equalization as needed

Reflected waves combine causing both

constructive and destructive interference

leading to nulls and peaks. These are often

g waves or room modes

called standing

The resonant frequency and distribution of room

modes is determined byy the rooms dimensions

The degree of excitation depends on the

positions of the loudspeakers

The degree of audibility depends on the

positions of the listeners

Dimensioning Comparison

Characteristic

Rigid Rectangle

Room Sizer

Metric

Algorithm

Absorption

Modal Weighting

Modal Overlap

Room Volume

Perception

Constraints

c

f =

2

nx n y nz

+ +

Lx L y Lz

2

FFT {E (t , r , r0 ) = Rn2,i

nx

ny

n z i=1

1

}

d n2,i

shifting and broadening

Ignores absorption

modes

Impulse response properly

g

weighting

g

g of axial,

and inherentlyy weights

g

Ignores

tangential and oblique modes modes

Ignores and groups modes

into 1/3 octave bins

Accounts for modal overlap

Ignores room volume

Accounts for room volume

Modal spectrum more

Modal spacing several steps closely related to

removed from modal spectrum perception

Includes minimum and

maximum room

dimensions

Ignores

Rectangular Descriptions

Th

The rectangular

l room iis a special

i l case where

h

the

h

image model is an exact solution to the wave

equation and can be used for all frequencies in a

5

Modal Summation

perfectly reflecting room

An ( r , r0 )

4

p( r , ) = 2

2

(

nx n y nz

n j 2 n n )

3

Image Model

2

1

FFT {E (t , r , r0 ) = R

2 }

d n ,i

n x n y n z i=1

2

n ,i

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

Time (s)

0.04

Start

Choose room

dimensions

randomly

More Accurate

Modal

Calculator

Calculate

modal

response

Calculate

figure of

merit

Standard

Deviation of the

Modal Response

Minimum in

figure of

merit?

Yes

End

Change

room

dimensions

No

Intelligent Search

Engine

Performance Index

N

= ( L p ,n mf n + c) 2

n =1

100

Best fit line

90

Leve

el (dB)

80

70

(Lp,n - fn)

60

50

40

0

40

80

120

f (Hz)

160

200

Bolt Comparison

110

Level ((dB)

100

90

80

70

60

0

50

100

150

Frequency (Hz)

Worst found

Optimised

Bolt 2:3:5

200

standard room size of 7 x 5.3 x 2.7m (23 x 17.4 x 8.9 ft)

Room Sizer

Non-rectangular Study

15

19

Rectangular room

Skew room

14

24

R l ti IImmunity

Relative

it tto change

h

+// 2 ffeett

10

9

7

6

5

4

Immunity to change

3

2

1

0

15

'0

"

15

'5

15 "

'1

0"

16

'3

"

16

'8

"

17

'1

"

17

'6

17 "

'1

1"

18

'4

"

18

'9

"

19

'2

"

19

'7

"

20

'0

"

20

'5

20 "

'1

0"

21

'3

"

21

'8

"

22

'1

"

22

'6

22 "

'1

1"

23

'4

"

23

'9

"

Stan

ndard Deviattion

Figure of merit

standard deviation 20-200Hz

Nice Start!

This is a nice start. We now know all of the modes that the

room can support.

However,

However the speakers will unfortunately not be in one

corner and the listener in the opposite diagonal corner!

The speaker positions will determine which modes are

excited and the listening position will determine which

modes are heard.

We now have to take into consideration the following:

The positions of the sub-woofers

The position of the listeners

We

e have

a e two

o cchoices:

o ces

Optimally activate the modes with the subs (Room Optimizer) for a

given listening position

Nullify

y all modes with the subs and listener p

placement for wide area

uniformity (Null-mode placement) as suggested by Todd Welti and

Floyd Toole

Remember:

Speaker placement

d t

determines

i

which

hi h

modes are energized

Listener placement

determines which

modes are heard

Abscissa identifies L,

W and H mode null

positions in the room

and their frequency

Speaker Placement

When a speaker is placed

2 into the room, the

f th order

fourth

d mode

d iis nott

energized

When a speaker is placed

3 from the side wall, the

second order mode at 81

Hz is not energized

When a subwoofer is

placed 5 above the floor

the first order mode at 57

Hz is not energized

Listener Placement

Wh

When a lilistener

t

iis placed

l

d7

or 12 into the room the

fourth order mode at 119

Hz is not heard

When a listener sits in the

middle of room width, the

odd order modes are

inaudible

When a listener is placed

near the mid height

position, the odd order

modes are inaudible

When the listener is at the

rooms centroid, only even

order modes are heard!

Optimally activate the modes with the subs

((Room Optimizer)

p

) for a g

given listening

g

position

Optimally cancel all modes up to roughly 80

Hz

Must simultaneously minimize the short term

speaker boundary response and the modal

response

20

1 Boundary X=4'

15

VIRTUAL IMAGE

(3,3,14)

10

3 Boundaries X=1', Y=1', Z=1'

-5

-10

(3,3,3)

-15

-20

VIRTUAL IMAGE

(

(3,-3,3)

)

-25

VIRTUAL IMAGE

(-3,3,3)

WALL

FLOOR

VIRTUAL IMAGE

(3 3 3)

(3,3,-3)

Frequency, Hz

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

0

100

CEILING

Energy, dB

Room Optimizer

SIMPLEX SEARCH

ENGINE FOR NEW

TRIAL LOCATIONS

E

Energy

CURRENT LOCATIONS

IF ERROR

IS LESS THAN

TOLERANCE THEN END,

ELSE TRY NEW

LOCATION

Time

Level (dB)

Level (dB)

IMPULSE RESPONSE

F

Frequency

F

Frequency

SPEAKER BOUNDARY

INTERFERENCE

MODAL RESPONSE

CALCULATE

COMBINED STANDARD

DEVIATION ERROR

5

li

listener

4

source

3

0

0.01

listener

source

0.02

0.03

Time (s)

0.04

N

100

( Lp, nf Lp ) 2

80

Level (dB))

nf =1

i =

90

N 1

70

(Lp,n - fn)

60

50

= w s + (1 w) l

40

0

40

80

120

160

f (Hz)

100

90

90

80

Level (dB

L

Level (dB

L

80

70

70

60

60

Best case

Worst case

Best case

Worst case

50

50

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Frequency (Hz)

(64 ms time window)

50

100

150

200

Frequency (Hz)

250

300

200

Room/Speaker Interface

To optimize the room/speaker interface you need to

simultaneously optimize the following

L, W, H (rectangular room +/- 2 feet)

Sn(x,y,z) location of each speaker

Ln(x,y,z) location of each listener

P

Prediction

di ti Al

Algorithm:

ith Image

I

model

d l is

i a perfect

f t solution

l ti off the

th

wave equation for a elastically reflecting rectangular room

Metric: Simultaneously minimize the modal frequency

response and

d th

the speaker

k b

boundary

d

iinterference

t f

response

Optimization Algorithm: Downhill Simplex or Genetic

Algorithm

We

W ffound

d iit practical

i l to di

divide

id this

hi program iinto the

h room

dimensioning optimization and speaker/listener location

optimization

rr

p(r|r0) =

n x ny y n z n x ny y0 n z

cos z cos x 0 cos

cos z 0

cos x cos

2r

2 L L L L L L

k k

x

z

x

z

y

y

nx =ny =nz = n

Qs

i

LxLyLzxyz

n y

nx

nz

2

+

k nr =

+

L

Lx

Lz

y

2

Downhill

D

hill

Simplex

or

S IM P L E X S E A R C H

C U R R EN T LO C AT IO N S

Genetic

Algorithm

Energgy

E N G I N E Engine

FOR NEW

Search

T R IA L L O C A T IO N S

IF E R R O R

IS L E S S T H A N

TO LERAN CE TH EN END ,

E LSE TR Y N EW

LO C ATIO N

T im e

IM P U L S E R E S P O N S E

100

Best fit line

Level (dB)

80

F r e q u e n cy

F re q u e n c y

SP EA K E R B O U ND AR Y

IN T E R F E R E N C E

M O D A LResponse

R ES PO N SE

Modal

SBIR

Level (dB)

Level (dB)

90

70

(Lp,n - fn)

60

50

CALCULATE

C O M B IN E D S T A N D A R D

D E V IA T IO N E R R O R

Fitness Metric

40

0

40

80

120

f (Hz)

160

200

Genetic Algorithm

A genetic

ti algorithm

l ith mimics

i i th

the

process of evolution that occurs in

biology, wherein the variables, namely

th coordinates

the

di t off th

the speakers,

k

listeners and room dimensions

comprise the genes

The genes are simply a set of numbers

which describe the room

A population of individuals (surround

configurations) is randomly formed,

and the traits of each room are

determined by their genes

Offspring are produces with traits of

their parent rooms and mutation is

introduced to allow features not present

in the initial room population

Height1, Sn1(x), Sn1(y),

Sn1(z), Ln1(x), Ln1(y),

Ln1(z) etc

Ln1(z),

etc.

Gene 2 = Length2,

Width2, Height2, Sn2(x),

Sn2(y) Sn2(z)

Sn2(y),

Sn2(z), Ln2(x)

Ln2(x),

Ln2(y), Ln2(z), etc.

Last Gene

In biological evolution

evolution, the fittest

are most likely to breed and

pass on their genes, and the

least fit the most likely to die,

this is also true in an artificial

genetic algorithm

g

g

used in

numerical optimisation

By these principles, the fitness

off successive

i populations

l ti

should improve.

This process is continued until

the population becomes

sufficiently fit so that the best

room produced can be classified

as optimum

Room Optimizer

Automatically optimizes the locations of the

p

, listener and acoustical surface

loudspeakers,

treatment

Multichannel SBIR

Multichannel Modal

Nullify Modes

Nullify all modes with the subs and listener

placement for wide area uniformity (Null-mode

placement) as suggested by Todd Welti and

Floyd Toole

R

Remember:

b

Speaker

placement

determines

which modes

are energized

Listener

placement

determines

which modes

are heard

1st and 3rd order modes are cancelled by placement at positive and negative parts

off the

th respective

ti modes.

d

The

Th second

d order

d mode

d is

i nott energized,

i d because

b

the

th

sub is positioned at a null.

4 Subs at Positions

__

__

+

+

+

__

L1 & L3 cancelled

+

+

L2 not energized

Uniform LF F/B

W1 & W3 cancelled

W2 not energized

Uniform LF across

console

H1 not heard

Should result in cancellation

of all odd order axial modes

and cancellation of first even

mode (subs are at nulls)

Floor/ceiling axial modes are

not cancelled, however, these

modes do not vary over a

large seating area, assuming

ear height

h i ht doesnt

d

t change.

h

applications, so lets examine other locations that may not be

intuitive and are more practical.

No Modal Excitation

(4) Speakers at:

100

(1/4L, 1/4W, 0.75')

(1/4L, 3/4W, 0.75')

(3/4L,

95 1/4W, 0.75')

(3/4L, 3/4W, 0.75')

g mode

Onlyy 4th length

90

remains and first-order

height mode

(

(4,0,0)

)

(0,0,1)

Level, dB

B

85

Moving Listener to

center of the room

(L/2, W/2, H/2),

removes the first

g

order Floor/Ceiling

mode

80

75

70

5L/8, W/2, H/2 location, the

g mode ((4,0,0))

fourth-order length

is no longer a problem.

6

65

60

0

20

40

60

80

100

Frequency, Hz

4 Speakers @ 1/4

All Modes

120

, , placement is not very practical

Todd Welti expanded on the Room Optimizer

approach for a listening area and evaluated

the most effective number and position of 4

in-phase subs

Summary

Equalization

We have examined the effect of the room

y

dimensions on modal density

We have examined the optimal placement of

subs and listener for optimal excitation or

optimal nullifying of the modes

Now we examine possible dedicated low

frequency absorbers

The international acoustics community relies on

proof-of-performance testing standards set by

the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO).

(ISO)

The ISO standards level the playing field

field. They

make transparent the requirements that products

must meet in world markets, as well as the

conformity assessment mechanisms for checking

that those products measure up to standards.

This protects end users of these products and

allows manufacturers to compete on an equal

basis.

basis

Absorption Measurements

Random Incidence Rev Room Test: ISO 354

20 eigenfrequencies in 1/3-octave band: sample on floor as per ISO.

For 200 m3 lower freq limit 100-125 Hz 1/3- octave

5-20

5 20 eigenfrequencies

i

f

i iin 1/3

1/3-octave

t

band:

b d sample

l iin corner

<5 eigenfrequencies in 1/3-octave band:

Sine wave excitation of each eigenfrequency separately

T-Room

Room (Nocke) 3x4x5 m room with low frequency limit of roughly 30 Hz

T

Lower frequency limit is based on the wavelength equal to 20 times the

microphone spacing. 24 long tube valid between 20-250 Hz.

Free Field: 2 or more Microphone Method

Integrated impulse response

dB

[i]

-10

-20

[i]

[ii]

-4

[ii]

-30

-8

-40

50

100

150

ms

50

100

150

ms

Diffusors

Microphones

Loudspeakers

No Sample [i]

Measurements

(100 5,000 Hz)

Binary Modex

1.000

0.900

0.800

Absorptio

on Coefficient

0.700

0.600

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

100

125

160

200

250

315

400

500

630

800

Frequency, Hz

1000

1250

1600

2000

2500

3150

4000

5000

Typical room volume of 200 m3, the

lower frequency limit is between 100

and 125 Hz

Hz.

300

Frequencyy, Hz

250

additional testing methods below 100

Hz, in the modal frequency range

200

150

100

50

0

10

100

1000

Volume m3

10000

Volume: 392 m

T-Room 3 x 4 x 5m

Microphone

Position

Mode

(X,Y,Z)

1

1

2

3

4

5

4

1

6

7

8

1,0,0

0,1,0

110

1,1,0

0,0,1

1,0,1

2,0,0

0,1,1

111

1,1,1

2,1,0

0,2,0

2,0,1

Frequency(Hz)

Frequency

(Hz)

Measured

34

42

541

54.1

56.9

66.1

67.6

70.8

784

78.4

79.9

84

88.5

Calculated

33.6

41.6

537

53.7

56.8

66

67.2

70.5

781

78.1

79.2

83.7

88

3

8

4

5

6

7

2

effff

V 1 1

= 55.3

cS T2 T1

Measurements (20-285 Hz)

p( x1 )

p ( x2 )

e

e

ik 1

ikx

ik 1

ikx

Re

Reikx2

ikx2

ikx1

ikx 2

e

Se

R=

ik 2

ikx

ik 1

ikx

Se e

=1 R

Modex Study

Length: 8 m (26.2)

Opening: 1.6 x 1.2 m (5.2 x 3.93).

Frequency Range:

20 200 Hz with one mic

20 400 Hz d/4 mics

fu

c

0.5

d

For d= 200 mm

(7 87) the

(7.87)

th upper

frequency is 850 Hz.

the

h fifirst and

d third

hi d

modes cancel when

summed and the

second mode has a

null.

Therefore, we can

quadruple the upper

frequency from 850

Hz to 3400 Hz

5

4

3

Characteristic Im pedance of Air (Norm alized to 1)

IIm pedance

2

1

0

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

-11

-2

-3

146 Hz Resonance

-4

-5

Frequency, Hz

real(impedance)

imaginary(impedance)

260

280

300

Absorption Coefficient

1

0.9

Absorption Coefficient

0.8

0.7

06

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

50

100

150

Frequency, Hz

Membrane 2" Cavity Depth

200

250

300

Point mic plus speaker away from wall to measure the transfer function of the

mic/speaker

Gate direct and scattering sound

Deconvolve each with the mic/speaker

p

transfer function

Calculate the reflection factor

Determine the absorption coefficient

Acoustic Absorbers

Low Frequency

Anechoic Wedges

Corner Bass Traps

Helmholtz Resonators

Microperforated/slotted

Mi

f t d/ l tt d R

Resonators

t

Membrane Resonators

Plate

Pl t R

Resonators

t

Active Absorbers

Anechoic Wedges

Wedge vs ASA_BCA_CPA

This is actually a misnomer,

because it actually absorbs

at all frequencies, and only

extends

t d to

t lower

l

frequency

f

because of its increased

thickness.

For a porous absorber,

absorber

maximum absorption

occurs when the particle

velocity is a maximum

maximum, ii.e.

e

at a quarter wavelength.

In the corner there is zero

particle velocity!

Optimal Placement

Porous absorbers are most efficient when

placed at the maximum particle velocity

position for a given frequency, namely

wavelength

Maximum

M i

efficiency

ffi i

achieved

hi

d spaced

d ffrom a

boundary

placed at maximum pressure locations,

namely at a monohedral

monohedral, dihedral or trihedral

boundary

Maximum efficiency achieved at wall-wall,

wall wall, wallwall

floor or wall-wall-ceiling/floor intersections

Acoustic Absorbers

Helmholtz Resonators

=2a

D

Perforated sheet

Porous absorbent

t

d

Rigid backing

S0

b

S

d

Cylindrical holes

Slits ((slotted

slotted panel)

panel )

A)

Porous

material

Panel

B)

Fabric

(resistance)

Panel

C)

Microperf.

panell

Surface Impedance

z1 = rm + j[m c cot(kd )]

The resistance or real

term, which is associated

with energy loss

term is associated with phase

change or resonant frequency

k=2/

d the cavity depth;

m the acoustic mass per unit area of the panel;

the angular frequency = 2

2ff

the density of air, and

c the speed of sound in air

Resonant Frequency

At resonance, the imaginary term goes to zero

w m = 2p fm = rc cot(kd )

The cavity size is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength, i.e.

kd<<1, so that cot(kd)1/kd

c

f =

2p

r

md

Helmholtz Membrane and Plate resonators

Helmholtz,

rD2

m=

2

pa

8n

t r D 2t

t + 2d a +

1 + =

2

w

2a p a

The last term in the equation is due to the boundary layer effect, and

is the kinematic viscosity of air. This last term is often not significant

unless the hole size is small, say sub-millimetre in diameter.

is the end correction factor (not allowing for mutual interaction),

which to a first approximation is usually taken as 0.85 and derived by

considering the radiation impedance of a baffled piston

piston. Other more

accurate formulations exist.

f

c

2

md

c

2

2 '

D t

2

a

with the end corrections (end corrections

allow for the radiation impedance of the

orifices)

t and a are assumed to be much

smaller than wavelength of sound in air.

S=a2 is the area of the holes, and

V the volume=D2d of each unit cell

cell.

c

2

S

Vt '

2a

D

=

2a

D

c

f =

2

t' d

a

D

Acoustical Properties

Slotted/Unsealed

Slotted/Sealed

Absorption Coefficient

Unslotted/Unsealed Unslotted/Sealed

Transmission Loss

Hybrid LF Diffsorber

p

and the reflection p

phase g

grating

gp

provides

absorption

mid-high frequency diffusion

Empty Tube

1

A b s o r p t io n C o e f f ic ie n t

0.8

0.6

0.4

Empty Tub

0.2

0

0

50

100

150

-0.2

Frequency, Hz

200

250

300

Helmholtz Study

1

0.9

A b s o r p tio n C o e ffic ie n t

08

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

Frequency, Hz

Flat Panel 12" Cavity A

300

Absorption Mechanism

When surface perforations are

the same size as a boundary

l

layer

off air.

i

Viscous Losses

Incident Sound

Microperforated

p

Panel

0.5 mm diameter holes

Air Ca

avity

Reflected Sound

Glass

Microperforated Absorbers

rD

m=

2

pa

8n

t

t + 2d a +

1 +

w

2a

The last term in the equation is due to the boundary layer effect

effect, and

is the kinematic viscosity of air (1.8 x E-5 Kg/ms). This last term is

often not significant unless the hole size is small, say sub-millimetre

in diameter

diameter.

The end correction is increased by the boundary layer effect and

resonant frequency is reduced due to an increase in acoustic mass .

Losses

zh =

2wrh

rh z 1

j1.7wr

ra

+ - j rc cot(

t(kd ) +

2e

e

e

small and to get good absorption it is necessary to add

porous

po

ous material

ate a to tthe

e ca

cavity.

ty

However, when the holes are sub-millimeter the resistive

term (in red above) is very large

Consequently, no porous material is needed in the cavity

Microperforated Options

F

Foil:

il 0

0.1

1 mm

Panel: 2 mm 15 mm

Sh

Sheet:

t 1 mm

Honeycomb: 19 mm

Effect of Layers/Backing

Deamp Microslit

Theory

For an infinitely long slit:

Z = j t = j

0 t

k b

tan( )

2

1

k b

2

y

x

where

0

k =

j

12 t

1 t b 2 02 2

6

Z 2 +

+ j 0t

b

700

T.E. Vigrana and O.K.. Pettersenb, a Acoustic Group, NTNU Dept. Electronics and

Telecommunications;b SINTEF-ICT, Trondheim, Forum Acusticum 2005

Theory II

t

b

B

d

Z i = [ Z + j 0 (2t ) ] j Z 0 cot d

c0

1

a Acoustic Group, NTNU Dept. Electronics and Telecommunications;

b SINTEF-ICT, Trondheim

Absorption Data

Membrane

P

Porous

absorbent

b b t

ta

d

Rigid

g backingg

c

f =

2

md

60

f =

md

1.21 kg / m3

340 m / s

M

Membranesb

are essentially

i ll pressure

transducers. They operate where the pressure

is high and the particle velocity is low

low- I.e.

I e near a

boundary. They convert pressure fluctuations

into

to air

a movement

o e e t in a frequency

eque cy range

a ge

determined by the mass and compliance of the

membrane and the air cavity depth.

I

Impedance

d

T

Tube

b M

Measurements

t

Absorption

efficiency

decreases with

frequency,

because the

impedance of

the porous

material moves

further from the

characteristic

impedance of

air at low

frequencies.

2" Cavity

0.9

4"

6"

0.8

6"+Damp

8"

10"

Abs

sorption Coefficie

ent

0.7

0.6

0.5

04

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

40

60

80

100

120

Frequency, Hz

140

160

180

Plate Resonators

High Pass

Broadband

Plate Resonators

Mechanisms

Steel Plate

Pistonic Resonance

P f Metal

Perf

M t l

Polyester

Diffraction

High Pass Broadband

from diffraction of the sound around the plate

into the porous absorber

Plate Parameters

steel density

melamine density

c in m/s

E steel, Pa

Kg/m3

Poissons ratio

Kg/m3

E melamine, Pa

melamine L, m W, m T, m

n

2.06E+11

7850

0.3

9.5

1.00E+06 324.44284

1

1.5 0.001 1

0 0025 2

0.0025

3

4

1mm, Hz

2.5, Hz

fR piston 1mm, Hz fR piston 2.5mm, Hz

3.52

8.79

179.63

113.61

14.07

35.17

31.66

79.14

56.28

140.69

m

1

2

3

4

Performance

16

1.6

oefficient

Absorption Co

1.4

Broadband

1.2

1

0.8

06

0.6

0.4

Plate

0.2

0

50

160

500

Frequency, Hz

1600

5000

In-wall installation

1,2

Reve

erberation tim

me [s]

08

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

32

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

Frequenzcy [Hz]

no Absorber

with Absorber

8000

Conclusion

Much time has been devoted to dimensional ratios,

however, however this is less important that the

optimal position of the low frequency speakers and

the listener (s).

Uniform

U if

llow ffrequency response up tto 80 H

Hz can b

be

achieved by using multiple in-phase subs

The

Th mostt effective

ff ti low

l

frequency

f

absorbers

b b

are

metal plate resonators and membrane absorbers

Diligent use of parametric equalization of low

frequency peaks is effective in fine tuning the room

response

Ray Tracing

Image Model

S1

1

d

R1

d

S

R2

Gray- good response

S

standard room size of 7 x 5.3 x 2.7m (23 x 17.4 x 8.9 ft)

B1 and B2 location of two ratios attributed to Bolt; L

location of best ratio of Louden. The triangular

regions are mapped out by standards equations.

Diffractal

1

0.9

A b s o r p t io n C o e f f ic ie n t

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

01

0.1

0

0

50

100

150

Frequency, Hz

Diffractal 12" Cavity

200

250

300

Table of Contents

How to optimize rectangular room dimensions and

speaker/listener positions

Low Frequency Surface Treatments

Proof of Performance Testing

Rev Room

Impedance Tube

T-Room

In-situ

Designs

Wedges

Helmholtz Resonators

Tuned Damped Membranes

Broadband Metal Resonators

Microperforated/slotted panels

Room Modes

Modal Response

Speaker Boundary Interference

Challenge:

Ch ll

They must be minimized simultaneously, as they

are independent

i d

d t variables

i bl

Time/Frequency Equivalence

100

Level (dB

B)

90

80

70

60

50

40

0

40

80

120

f (Hz)

Modal decomposition

Image source

Measured

BEM Predictions

Helmholtz-Kirchhoff prediction not restricted to rectangular rooms

G ( R, q)

P( q)

P ( R ) = Ps (Q , R ) + ( P( q)

G ( R, q )

) Sq

n( q)

n( q)

q

ikrQR

e

Ps =

4 rQR

ikr

e Rq

G ( R, q ) =

4 rRq

1 (1)

G ( R, q) = H 0 ( krRq )

4i

Non-Rectangular Rooms

We begin by comparing the Boundary Element

Method calculation with the Modal Decomposition

approach used in Room Optimizer

130

120

Level, dB

110

100

Lam's model

BEM

90

80

70

60

0

20

40

60

80

100

Frequency, Hz

120

140

160

180

200

Little effect at low frequency- Modal shifting at high

30

20

10

Level

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

0

50

100

150

200

Frequency, Hz

19'0"

19'1"

19'2"

19'3"

19'4"

19'5"

250

Low frequencies shifted, modal pattern complex

30

20

10

Level, dB

L

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

0

50

100

150

200

Frequency, Hz

19'0"

20'0"

21'0"

22'0"

23'0"

24'0"

250

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