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Low Frequency Control Options in

Surround Sound Critical Listening Rooms


Peter DAntonio
RPG Diffusor Systems, Inc.
Upper Marlboro, MD

Design Variables
Variables:
Room
oo d
dimension
e so a
and
d geo
geometry
e y
Number and configuration of speakers
Listening positions
Dedicated low frequency surface treatment
Equalization

Design Process
Using the maximum and minimum room dimensions
to determine optimal dimensional ratios, using
Room Sizer
Using allowable speaker and listener locations,
optimize locations for speakers and listener, using
Room Optimizer
Minimize SBIR and maximally excite modes: optimally
placed multiple in-phase subs
Minimize
Mi i i SBIR and
d minimally
i i ll excite
it modes:
d
optimally
ti ll
placed multiple in-phase subs

Apply
pp y low frequency
q
yp
passive absorption
p
at optimal
p
positions in desired frequency bands
Use parametric digital equalization as needed

Dimensional Ratios:Room Modes


Reflected waves combine causing both
constructive and destructive interference
leading to nulls and peaks. These are often
g waves or room modes
called standing
The resonant frequency and distribution of room
modes is determined byy the rooms dimensions
The degree of excitation depends on the
positions of the loudspeakers
The degree of audibility depends on the
positions of the listeners

Dimensioning Comparison
Characteristic

Rigid Rectangle

Room Sizer

Metric

Evenly spaced modes

Flattest modal spectrum

Algorithm

Absorption

Modal Weighting
Modal Overlap
Room Volume

Perception

Constraints

c
f =
2

nx n y nz
+ +

Lx L y Lz
2

FFT {E (t , r , r0 ) = Rn2,i
nx

ny

n z i=1

1
}
d n2,i

Accounts for absorption


shifting and broadening
Ignores absorption
modes
Impulse response properly
g
weighting
g
g of axial,
and inherentlyy weights
g
Ignores
tangential and oblique modes modes
Ignores and groups modes
into 1/3 octave bins
Accounts for modal overlap
Ignores room volume
Accounts for room volume
Modal spectrum more
Modal spacing several steps closely related to
removed from modal spectrum perception
Includes minimum and
maximum room
dimensions
Ignores

Rectangular Descriptions
Th
The rectangular
l room iis a special
i l case where
h
the
h
image model is an exact solution to the wave
equation and can be used for all frequencies in a
5
Modal Summation
perfectly reflecting room

An ( r , r0 )
4
p( r , ) = 2
2
(

nx n y nz
n j 2 n n )
3

Image Model
2

1
FFT {E (t , r , r0 ) = R
2 }
d n ,i
n x n y n z i=1

2
n ,i

0
0.01

0.02

0.03
Time (s)

0.04

Room Sizer Flow Chart


Start

Choose room
dimensions
randomly

More Accurate
Modal
Calculator

Calculate
modal
response

Calculate
figure of
merit

Standard
Deviation of the
Modal Response

Minimum in
figure of
merit?

Yes

End

Change
room
dimensions

No

Intelligent Search
Engine

Performance Index
N

= ( L p ,n mf n + c) 2
n =1

100
Best fit line

90

Leve
el (dB)

80
70

(Lp,n - fn)

60
50
40
0

40

80

120
f (Hz)

160

200

Bolt Comparison
110

Level ((dB)

100
90
80
70
60
0

50

100

150

Frequency (Hz)
Worst found

Optimised

Bolt 2:3:5

200

Variation of room quality for 100m3 (3531 ft3 ) room. S indicates


standard room size of 7 x 5.3 x 2.7m (23 x 17.4 x 8.9 ft)

Room Sizer

Non-rectangular Study
15

19
Rectangular room

Skew room

14

24

Effect on Standard Deviation


R l ti IImmunity
Relative
it tto change
h
+// 2 ffeett
10
9

7
6
5
4

Immunity to change

3
2
1
0
15
'0
"
15
'5
15 "
'1
0"
16
'3
"
16
'8
"
17
'1
"
17
'6
17 "
'1
1"
18
'4
"
18
'9
"
19
'2
"
19
'7
"
20
'0
"
20
'5
20 "
'1
0"
21
'3
"
21
'8
"
22
'1
"
22
'6
22 "
'1
1"
23
'4
"
23
'9
"

Stan
ndard Deviattion

Figure of merit
standard deviation 20-200Hz

standard deviation 20-100Hz

Nice Start!
This is a nice start. We now know all of the modes that the
room can support.
However,
However the speakers will unfortunately not be in one
corner and the listener in the opposite diagonal corner!
The speaker positions will determine which modes are
excited and the listening position will determine which
modes are heard.
We now have to take into consideration the following:
The positions of the sub-woofers
The position of the listeners

We
e have
a e two
o cchoices:
o ces
Optimally activate the modes with the subs (Room Optimizer) for a
given listening position
Nullify
y all modes with the subs and listener p
placement for wide area
uniformity (Null-mode placement) as suggested by Todd Welti and
Floyd Toole

Axial Standing Waves


Remember:
Speaker placement
d t
determines
i
which
hi h
modes are energized

Listener placement
determines which
modes are heard

Abscissa identifies L,
W and H mode null
positions in the room
and their frequency

Speaker Placement
When a speaker is placed
2 into the room, the
f th order
fourth
d mode
d iis nott
energized
When a speaker is placed
3 from the side wall, the
second order mode at 81
Hz is not energized
When a subwoofer is
placed 5 above the floor
the first order mode at 57
Hz is not energized

Listener Placement
Wh
When a lilistener
t
iis placed
l
d7
or 12 into the room the
fourth order mode at 119
Hz is not heard
When a listener sits in the
middle of room width, the
odd order modes are
inaudible
When a listener is placed
near the mid height
position, the odd order
modes are inaudible
When the listener is at the
rooms centroid, only even
order modes are heard!

Optimal Sub and Listen Positions


Optimally activate the modes with the subs
((Room Optimizer)
p
) for a g
given listening
g
position
Optimally cancel all modes up to roughly 80
Hz
Must simultaneously minimize the short term
speaker boundary response and the modal
response

Speaker Boundary Interference


20
1 Boundary X=4'

15

VIRTUAL IMAGE
(3,3,14)

2 Boundaries X=4', Y=4'


10

3 Boundaries X=4', Y=4', Z=4'


3 Boundaries X=1', Y=1', Z=1'

-5

-10

ORIGIN OF SOUND SOURCE


(3,3,3)

-15

-20

VIRTUAL IMAGE
(
(3,-3,3)
)

-25

VIRTUAL IMAGE
(-3,3,3)

WALL

FLOOR
VIRTUAL IMAGE
(3 3 3)
(3,3,-3)

Buy one get 4 free!

Frequency, Hz

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

0
100

CEILING

Energy, dB

Room Optimizer
SIMPLEX SEARCH
ENGINE FOR NEW
TRIAL LOCATIONS

E
Energy

CURRENT LOCATIONS

IF ERROR
IS LESS THAN
TOLERANCE THEN END,
ELSE TRY NEW
LOCATION

Time

Level (dB)

Level (dB)

IMPULSE RESPONSE

F
Frequency

F
Frequency

SPEAKER BOUNDARY
INTERFERENCE

MODAL RESPONSE

CALCULATE
COMBINED STANDARD
DEVIATION ERROR

Image Source Method


5

li
listener
4

source
3

One image source

0
0.01

listener

source

0.02

0.03
Time (s)

0.04

Combined Standard Deviation


N

100

( Lp, nf Lp ) 2

80
Level (dB))

nf =1

i =

Best fit line

90

N 1

70

(Lp,n - fn)

60
50

= w s + (1 w) l

40
0

40

80

120

160

f (Hz)

100

90

90

80

Level (dB
L

Level (dB
L

80

70

70

60

60
Best case
Worst case

Best case
Worst case

50

50
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Frequency (Hz)

Short Term Transient Spectra


(64 ms time window)

50

100

150

200

Frequency (Hz)

Long Term Spectra

250

300

200

Room/Speaker Interface
To optimize the room/speaker interface you need to
simultaneously optimize the following
L, W, H (rectangular room +/- 2 feet)
Sn(x,y,z) location of each speaker
Ln(x,y,z) location of each listener

P
Prediction
di ti Al
Algorithm:
ith Image
I
model
d l is
i a perfect
f t solution
l ti off the
th
wave equation for a elastically reflecting rectangular room
Metric: Simultaneously minimize the modal frequency
response and
d th
the speaker
k b
boundary
d
iinterference
t f
response
Optimization Algorithm: Downhill Simplex or Genetic
Algorithm
We
W ffound
d iit practical
i l to di
divide
id this
hi program iinto the
h room
dimensioning optimization and speaker/listener location
optimization

Room Pressure Response

rr
p(r|r0) =

n x ny y n z n x ny y0 n z
cos z cos x 0 cos
cos z 0
cos x cos
2r
2 L L L L L L
k k
x
z
x
z
y
y
nx =ny =nz = n

Qs
i
LxLyLzxyz

n y
nx
nz
2

+
k nr =
+

L
Lx
Lz
y
2

Low Frequency Optimization


Downhill
D
hill
Simplex
or
S IM P L E X S E A R C H

C U R R EN T LO C AT IO N S

Genetic
Algorithm

Energgy

E N G I N E Engine
FOR NEW
Search
T R IA L L O C A T IO N S

IF E R R O R
IS L E S S T H A N
TO LERAN CE TH EN END ,
E LSE TR Y N EW
LO C ATIO N

T im e

IM P U L S E R E S P O N S E

100
Best fit line

Level (dB)

80

F r e q u e n cy

F re q u e n c y

SP EA K E R B O U ND AR Y
IN T E R F E R E N C E

M O D A LResponse
R ES PO N SE
Modal

SBIR

Level (dB)

Level (dB)

90

70

(Lp,n - fn)

60
50

CALCULATE
C O M B IN E D S T A N D A R D
D E V IA T IO N E R R O R

Fitness Metric

40
0

40

80

120
f (Hz)

160

200

Genetic Algorithm

A genetic
ti algorithm
l ith mimics
i i th
the
process of evolution that occurs in
biology, wherein the variables, namely
th coordinates
the
di t off th
the speakers,
k
listeners and room dimensions
comprise the genes
The genes are simply a set of numbers
which describe the room
A population of individuals (surround
configurations) is randomly formed,
and the traits of each room are
determined by their genes
Offspring are produces with traits of
their parent rooms and mutation is
introduced to allow features not present
in the initial room population

Gene 1= Length1, Width1,


Height1, Sn1(x), Sn1(y),
Sn1(z), Ln1(x), Ln1(y),
Ln1(z) etc
Ln1(z),
etc.

Gene 2 = Length2,
Width2, Height2, Sn2(x),
Sn2(y) Sn2(z)
Sn2(y),
Sn2(z), Ln2(x)
Ln2(x),
Ln2(y), Ln2(z), etc.

Last Gene

Survival of the Fittest


In biological evolution
evolution, the fittest
are most likely to breed and
pass on their genes, and the
least fit the most likely to die,
this is also true in an artificial
genetic algorithm
g
g
used in
numerical optimisation
By these principles, the fitness
off successive
i populations
l ti
should improve.
This process is continued until
the population becomes
sufficiently fit so that the best
room produced can be classified
as optimum

Room Optimizer
Automatically optimizes the locations of the
p
, listener and acoustical surface
loudspeakers,
treatment

Multichannel SBIR

Multichannel Modal

Nullify Modes
Nullify all modes with the subs and listener
placement for wide area uniformity (Null-mode
placement) as suggested by Todd Welti and
Floyd Toole

In Phase Subs Cancel Odd Orders


R
Remember:
b

Speaker
placement
determines
which modes
are energized
Listener
placement
determines
which modes
are heard

1st and 3rd order modes are cancelled by placement at positive and negative parts
off the
th respective
ti modes.
d
The
Th second
d order
d mode
d is
i nott energized,
i d because
b
the
th
sub is positioned at a null.

4 Subs at Positions
__
__

+
+
+

__
L1 & L3 cancelled

+
+

L2 not energized
Uniform LF F/B

W1 & W3 cancelled
W2 not energized

Uniform LF across
console

H1 not heard

Optimal In-Phase Sub Locations


Should result in cancellation
of all odd order axial modes
and cancellation of first even
mode (subs are at nulls)
Floor/ceiling axial modes are
not cancelled, however, these
modes do not vary over a
large seating area, assuming
ear height
h i ht doesnt
d
t change.
h

However, these locations are not very favorable in practical


applications, so lets examine other locations that may not be
intuitive and are more practical.

(4) at of Room Dimensions

No Modal Excitation
(4) Speakers at:
100
(1/4L, 1/4W, 0.75')
(1/4L, 3/4W, 0.75')
(3/4L,
95 1/4W, 0.75')
(3/4L, 3/4W, 0.75')
g mode
Onlyy 4th length
90
remains and first-order
height mode

(
(4,0,0)
)
(0,0,1)

Level, dB
B

85
Moving Listener to
center of the room
(L/2, W/2, H/2),
removes the first
g
order Floor/Ceiling
mode

80

75

70

By moving the Listener to the


5L/8, W/2, H/2 location, the
g mode ((4,0,0))
fourth-order length
is no longer a problem.

6
65

60
0

20

40

60

80

100

Frequency, Hz
4 Speakers @ 1/4

4 Speakers @ 1/4, Listener Centered

4 Speakers @ 1/4, Listener @5L/8, W/2, H/2

All Modes

120

What Are Practical Sub Locations?


, , placement is not very practical
Todd Welti expanded on the Room Optimizer
approach for a listening area and evaluated
the most effective number and position of 4
in-phase subs

Courtesy Todd Welti, Harman International www.harman.com/wp/pdf/multsubs.pdf -

Response of 1-4 Subs

Summary

Courtesy Todd Welti, Harman International www.harman.com/wp/pdf/multsubs.pdf -

Equalization

Low Frequency Absorbers


We have examined the effect of the room
y
dimensions on modal density
We have examined the optimal placement of
subs and listener for optimal excitation or
optimal nullifying of the modes
Now we examine possible dedicated low
frequency absorbers

Proof of Performance Testing


The international acoustics community relies on
proof-of-performance testing standards set by
the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).
(ISO)
The ISO standards level the playing field
field. They
make transparent the requirements that products
must meet in world markets, as well as the
conformity assessment mechanisms for checking
that those products measure up to standards.
This protects end users of these products and
allows manufacturers to compete on an equal
basis.
basis

Absorption Measurements
Random Incidence Rev Room Test: ISO 354
20 eigenfrequencies in 1/3-octave band: sample on floor as per ISO.
For 200 m3 lower freq limit 100-125 Hz 1/3- octave
5-20
5 20 eigenfrequencies
i
f
i iin 1/3
1/3-octave
t
band:
b d sample
l iin corner
<5 eigenfrequencies in 1/3-octave band:
Sine wave excitation of each eigenfrequency separately
T-Room
Room (Nocke) 3x4x5 m room with low frequency limit of roughly 30 Hz
T

Normal Incidence Impedance Tube Test: ISO 10534


Lower frequency limit is based on the wavelength equal to 20 times the
microphone spacing. 24 long tube valid between 20-250 Hz.

In-Situ: Near Field Mommertz Method: ISO 13472-1


Free Field: 2 or more Microphone Method

Rev Room Method to Measure


Integrated impulse response

Room impulse response


dB

[i]

-10

-20

[i]

[ii]

-4

[ii]

-30

-8
-40
50

100

150

ms

50

100

150

ms

Diffusors

Microphones

Loudspeakers

Material Sample [ii]


No Sample [i]

Rev Room With E mount Sample


Measurements
(100 5,000 Hz)

Binary Modex

1.000
0.900
0.800

Absorptio
on Coefficient

0.700
0.600
0.500
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
100

125

160

200

250

315

400

500

630

800

Frequency, Hz

1000

1250

1600

2000

2500

3150

4000

5000

Rev Room Lower Limit


Typical room volume of 200 m3, the
lower frequency limit is between 100
and 125 Hz
Hz.

300

Frequencyy, Hz

250

In critical listening rooms we need


additional testing methods below 100
Hz, in the modal frequency range

200
150
100
50
0
10

100

1000
Volume m3

10000

Rev Room- Fraunhofer Institute


Volume: 392 m

T-Room 3 x 4 x 5m
Microphone
Position

Mode
(X,Y,Z)

1
1
2
3
4
5
4
1
6
7
8

1,0,0
0,1,0
110
1,1,0
0,0,1
1,0,1
2,0,0
0,1,1
111
1,1,1
2,1,0
0,2,0
2,0,1

Frequency(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Measured
34
42
541
54.1
56.9
66.1
67.6
70.8
784
78.4
79.9
84
88.5

Measures down to 34 Hz!

Calculated
33.6
41.6
537
53.7
56.8
66
67.2
70.5
781
78.1
79.2
83.7
88

3
8
4

5
6

7
2

Effective Absorption Coefficient

effff

V 1 1
= 55.3
cS T2 T1

T-Room- Plate Resonator

Low Frequency Impedance Tube


Measurements (20-285 Hz)

p( x1 )
p ( x2 )

e
e

ik 1
ikx

ik 1
ikx

Re
Reikx2

ikx2

ikx1

ikx 2

e
Se
R=
ik 2
ikx
ik 1
ikx
Se e

=1 R

Modex Study

Walk-In Impedance Tube


Length: 8 m (26.2)
Opening: 1.6 x 1.2 m (5.2 x 3.93).
Frequency Range:
20 200 Hz with one mic
20 400 Hz d/4 mics

Extended Frequency Range


fu

c
0.5
d

For d= 200 mm
(7 87) the
(7.87)
th upper
frequency is 850 Hz.

When mics are at d/4,


the
h fifirst and
d third
hi d
modes cancel when
summed and the
second mode has a
null.
Therefore, we can
quadruple the upper
frequency from 850
Hz to 3400 Hz

Complex Impedance of a Membrane


5
4
3

Maxim um Absorption w hen Real Part Equals the


Characteristic Im pedance of Air (Norm alized to 1)

IIm pedance

2
1

Characteristic Impedance of Air

0
100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

-11
-2
-3

146 Hz Resonance

-4

Resonance occurs w hen Im aginary Part Equals Zero

-5
Frequency, Hz
real(impedance)

imaginary(impedance)

260

280

300

Absorption Coefficient
1
0.9

Absorption Coefficient

0.8
0.7
06
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

50

100

150
Frequency, Hz
Membrane 2" Cavity Depth

200

250

300

In-Situ Absorption Measurement

Measure normal incidence impulse response


Point mic plus speaker away from wall to measure the transfer function of the
mic/speaker
Gate direct and scattering sound
Deconvolve each with the mic/speaker
p
transfer function
Calculate the reflection factor
Determine the absorption coefficient

Acoustic Absorber Design


Acoustic Absorbers
Low Frequency
Anechoic Wedges
Corner Bass Traps
Helmholtz Resonators
Microperforated/slotted
Mi
f t d/ l tt d R
Resonators
t
Membrane Resonators
Plate
Pl t R
Resonators
t
Active Absorbers

Anechoic Wedges

Wedge vs ASA_BCA_CPA

Corner Bass Trap


This is actually a misnomer,
because it actually absorbs
at all frequencies, and only
extends
t d to
t lower
l
frequency
f
because of its increased
thickness.
For a porous absorber,
absorber
maximum absorption
occurs when the particle
velocity is a maximum
maximum, ii.e.
e
at a quarter wavelength.
In the corner there is zero
particle velocity!

Optimal Placement
Porous absorbers are most efficient when
placed at the maximum particle velocity
position for a given frequency, namely
wavelength
Maximum
M i
efficiency
ffi i
achieved
hi
d spaced
d ffrom a
boundary

Resonant absorbers are most efficient when


placed at maximum pressure locations,
namely at a monohedral
monohedral, dihedral or trihedral
boundary
Maximum efficiency achieved at wall-wall,
wall wall, wallwall
floor or wall-wall-ceiling/floor intersections

Acoustic Absorbers
Helmholtz Resonators
=2a

D
Perforated sheet
Porous absorbent

t
d

Rigid backing

Common types of perforation

S0
b

S
d

Cylindrical holes

Slits ((slotted
slotted panel)
panel )

Simple practical solutions

A)

Porous
material
Panel

B)

Fabric
(resistance)
Panel

C)
Microperf.
panell

Surface Impedance
z1 = rm + j[m c cot(kd )]
The resistance or real
term, which is associated
with energy loss

The acoustic mass or imaginary


term is associated with phase
change or resonant frequency

k 2 / is the wavenumber in air;


k=2/
d the cavity depth;
m the acoustic mass per unit area of the panel;
the angular frequency = 2
2ff
the density of air, and
c the speed of sound in air

Resonant Frequency
At resonance, the imaginary term goes to zero

w m = 2p fm = rc cot(kd )
The cavity size is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength, i.e.
kd<<1, so that cot(kd)1/kd

c
f =
2p

r
md

This is the basic design equation for resonant absorbers, i.e.


Helmholtz Membrane and Plate resonators
Helmholtz,

Helmholtz Acoustic Mass/Unit Area


rD2
m=
2
pa

8n
t r D 2t
t + 2d a +
1 + =
2
w
2a p a

The last term in the equation is due to the boundary layer effect, and
is the kinematic viscosity of air. This last term is often not significant
unless the hole size is small, say sub-millimetre in diameter.
is the end correction factor (not allowing for mutual interaction),
which to a first approximation is usually taken as 0.85 and derived by
considering the radiation impedance of a baffled piston
piston. Other more
accurate formulations exist.

Helmholtz Resonant Frequency


f

c
2

md

c
2

2 '

D t
2
a

t is the thickness of the perforated sheet


with the end corrections (end corrections
allow for the radiation impedance of the
orifices)
t and a are assumed to be much
smaller than wavelength of sound in air.
S=a2 is the area of the holes, and
V the volume=D2d of each unit cell
cell.

c
2

S
Vt '

2a
D

Percent Open Area

=
2a
D

c
f =
2

t' d

a
D

The World of Blox

Acoustical Properties

Slotted/Unsealed

Slotted/Sealed

Absorption Coefficient

Unslotted/Unsealed Unslotted/Sealed

Transmission Loss

Hybrid LF Diffsorber

The Helmholtz resonator slots provide low frequency


p
and the reflection p
phase g
grating
gp
provides
absorption
mid-high frequency diffusion

Empty Tube
1

A b s o r p t io n C o e f f ic ie n t

0.8

0.6

0.4

Empty Tub

0.2

0
0

50

100

150

-0.2
Frequency, Hz

200

250

300

Helmholtz Study
1
0.9

A b s o r p tio n C o e ffic ie n t

08
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Frequency, Hz
Flat Panel 12" Cavity A

Topperfo 4" Cavity A

Topperfo 12" Cavity

Topperfo 12" Cavity Filled R19

300

Absorption Mechanism
When surface perforations are
the same size as a boundary
l
layer
off air.
i

Viscous Losses

Incident Sound

Microperforated
p
Panel
0.5 mm diameter holes

Air Ca
avity

Reflected Sound

Glass

Microperforated Absorbers

rD
m=
2
pa

8n
t
t + 2d a +
1 +
w
2a

The last term in the equation is due to the boundary layer effect
effect, and
is the kinematic viscosity of air (1.8 x E-5 Kg/ms). This last term is
often not significant unless the hole size is small, say sub-millimetre
in diameter
diameter.
The end correction is increased by the boundary layer effect and
resonant frequency is reduced due to an increase in acoustic mass .

Losses
zh =

2wrh
rh z 1
j1.7wr
ra
+ - j rc cot(
t(kd ) +
2e
e
e

Generally the resistive term in Helmholtz absorbers is very


small and to get good absorption it is necessary to add
porous
po
ous material
ate a to tthe
e ca
cavity.
ty
However, when the holes are sub-millimeter the resistive
term (in red above) is very large
Consequently, no porous material is needed in the cavity

Microperforated Options
F
Foil:
il 0
0.1
1 mm

Panel: 2 mm 15 mm

Sh
Sheet:
t 1 mm

Honeycomb: 19 mm

Effect of Layers/Backing

Deamp Microslit

Theory
For an infinitely long slit:

Z = j t = j

0 t

k b
tan( )
2
1
k b
2

y
x

where

0
k =
j

Low frequency approximation:

12 t
1 t b 2 02 2
6

Z 2 +
+ j 0t
b
700

T.E. Vigrana and O.K.. Pettersenb, a Acoustic Group, NTNU Dept. Electronics and
Telecommunications;b SINTEF-ICT, Trondheim, Forum Acusticum 2005

Theory II
t

b
B
d


Z i = [ Z + j 0 (2t ) ] j Z 0 cot d

c0
1

T.E. Vigrana and O.K.. Pettersenb


a Acoustic Group, NTNU Dept. Electronics and Telecommunications;
b SINTEF-ICT, Trondheim

Absorption Data

Limp Membrane Resonators


Membrane
P
Porous
absorbent
b b t

ta
d

Rigid
g backingg

c
f =
2

md

60
f =
md

1.21 kg / m3

340 m / s

LF Band Cut Absorbers


M
Membranesb
are essentially
i ll pressure
transducers. They operate where the pressure
is high and the particle velocity is low
low- I.e.
I e near a
boundary. They convert pressure fluctuations
into
to air
a movement
o e e t in a frequency
eque cy range
a ge
determined by the mass and compliance of the
membrane and the air cavity depth.

Low Frequency Absorption


I
Impedance
d
T
Tube
b M
Measurements
t

Absorption
efficiency
decreases with
frequency,
because the
impedance of
the porous
material moves
further from the
characteristic
impedance of
air at low
frequencies.

2" Cavity
0.9

4"
6"

0.8

6"+Damp
8"
10"

Abs
sorption Coefficie
ent

0.7

0.6

0.5

04
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
40

60

80

100

120

Frequency, Hz

140

160

180

Plate Resonators

High Pass

Broadband

Plate Resonators
Mechanisms
Steel Plate

Pistonic Resonance

P f Metal
Perf
M t l

Damp Bending Modes


Polyester

Diffraction
High Pass Broadband

Above these frequencies absorption occurs


from diffraction of the sound around the plate
into the porous absorber

Plate Parameters
steel density
melamine density
c in m/s
E steel, Pa
Kg/m3
Poissons ratio
Kg/m3
E melamine, Pa
melamine L, m W, m T, m
n
2.06E+11
7850
0.3
9.5
1.00E+06 324.44284
1
1.5 0.001 1
0 0025 2
0.0025
3
4

fnm bending fnm bending


1mm, Hz
2.5, Hz
fR piston 1mm, Hz fR piston 2.5mm, Hz
3.52
8.79
179.63
113.61
14.07
35.17
31.66
79.14
56.28
140.69

m
1
2
3
4

Performance
16
1.6

oefficient
Absorption Co

1.4
Broadband

1.2
1
0.8
06
0.6
0.4
Plate
0.2
0
50

160

500

Frequency, Hz

1600

5000

Plate & Broadband Installation

In-wall installation

A/V Conference Room


1,2

Reve
erberation tim
me [s]

08
0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
32

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

Frequenzcy [Hz]
no Absorber

with Absorber

8000

Active Bass Trap

Conclusion
Much time has been devoted to dimensional ratios,
however, however this is less important that the
optimal position of the low frequency speakers and
the listener (s).
Uniform
U if
llow ffrequency response up tto 80 H
Hz can b
be
achieved by using multiple in-phase subs
The
Th mostt effective
ff ti low
l
frequency
f
absorbers
b b
are
metal plate resonators and membrane absorbers
Diligent use of parametric equalization of low
frequency peaks is effective in fine tuning the room
response

Ray Tracing

Image Model
S1
1
d

R1

d
S

R2

White- poor response


Gray- good response
S

Black- excellent response

Variation of room quality for 100m3 (3531 ft3 ) room. S indicates


standard room size of 7 x 5.3 x 2.7m (23 x 17.4 x 8.9 ft)

Variation of room quality for 50m3 (1765 ft3 ) room.


B1 and B2 location of two ratios attributed to Bolt; L
location of best ratio of Louden. The triangular
regions are mapped out by standards equations.

Variation of room quality for 200 m3 (7063 ft3 ) room

Diffractal
1
0.9

A b s o r p t io n C o e f f ic ie n t

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
01
0.1
0
0

50

100

150
Frequency, Hz
Diffractal 12" Cavity

200

250

300

Table of Contents
How to optimize rectangular room dimensions and
speaker/listener positions
Low Frequency Surface Treatments
Proof of Performance Testing

Rev Room
Impedance Tube
T-Room
In-situ

Designs

Wedges
Helmholtz Resonators
Tuned Damped Membranes
Broadband Metal Resonators
Microperforated/slotted panels

Room Modes

3 x 4 x 5 m room, SPL at 1.3 m

Potential Acoustical Problems


Modal Response
Speaker Boundary Interference
Challenge:
Ch ll
They must be minimized simultaneously, as they
are independent
i d
d t variables
i bl

Time/Frequency Equivalence
100

Level (dB
B)

90
80
70
60
50
40
0

40

80

120

f (Hz)
Modal decomposition

Image source

Measured

BEM Predictions
Helmholtz-Kirchhoff prediction not restricted to rectangular rooms

G ( R, q)
P( q)
P ( R ) = Ps (Q , R ) + ( P( q)
G ( R, q )
) Sq
n( q)
n( q)
q

ikrQR

e
Ps =
4 rQR

ikr

e Rq
G ( R, q ) =
4 rRq

1 (1)
G ( R, q) = H 0 ( krRq )
4i

Non-Rectangular Rooms
We begin by comparing the Boundary Element
Method calculation with the Modal Decomposition
approach used in Room Optimizer
130

120

Level, dB

110

100
Lam's model
BEM
90

80

70

60
0

20

40

60

80

100
Frequency, Hz

120

140

160

180

200

Effect of One Inch Increments


Little effect at low frequency- Modal shifting at high
30
20
10

Level

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
0

50

100

150

200

Frequency, Hz
19'0"

19'1"

19'2"

19'3"

19'4"

19'5"

250

Effect of One Foot Increments


Low frequencies shifted, modal pattern complex
30
20
10

Level, dB
L

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
0

50

100

150

200

Frequency, Hz
19'0"

20'0"

21'0"

22'0"

23'0"

24'0"

250