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Basic Technical SOP for Cutting Section in Apparel Mfg FacilityThis research paper is

relevant to Indian Apparel manufacturing sector.SOP Designed under guidance of Mr.

Jayashantha PereraInputs

Details related to Fabric such as face side /Shade bands etc..Shade swatches along with
the face side swatch approved by the buyer should be received from the Godown and
Merchandising dept respectively.Shade segregation should be complying with the
approved swatches.Verify whether the shade segregation is matching to the
standard.Approval from H/office mandatory if the received lots of fabric are not matching
to standards.The approval must have a checklist form for all the tests & approval
standards w. r. t colour, wash,embroidery, printing, hand feelShade band details (Shade A,
B, C, D) after verification should be received from fabric inspector &spreading team also
should be given a copy for reference.Shade grouping also must be received from the
fabric godown.Fabric details such as to face/back, nap direction; hand feel should be
received from the godown dulyapproved by the merchant.Shade wise/widthwise
segregated rolls only should be received, checked & then should proceed forlaying.Both
ends of every roll should have sticker consisting details of shade no, roll no, width and
otherrelevant detail to enable easy identification of rolls.Cutting Forecast shade
wiseCuttable quantities from each lot and shade should be informed to marketing, QA, &
Buyer QA inadvance for approval.Cutting of rolls/bales should be done shade wise as per
the breakdown of the PO

Garment manufacturing process from

fabric to poduct

Karthika M Dev SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )

MANUFACTURING WORKFLOW Consumption planning to order fabric Fabric
order placement Receipt of fabric Fabric inspection (Check physical appearance
and properties) Marker Planning (For bulk production) Sampling Spreading &
Cutting Presewing operations (Fusing, embroidery, marking- if required in style)
Bundling Feeding in lines (As per production plan) Finishing Packing
Warehousing Packing and dispatch SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
GARMENT ENGINEERING It starts in design development stage because it
directly affects the costing of the garments . People involved: Designers, sample
room manager, industrial engineering department and production management
should all report from cutting to finishing. Key areas for analysis: Seam types
Various seam types should be analyzed and considered to simplify/reduce the
work. Stitch types- Explore various options in terms of seam types. For
example replace lock stitches by chain stitch in case of Multineedle seams.
Machine types- Optimum use of technology to maximize, look in to machine

type, bed shapes and automation thats possible. Attachments Attachment help
in simplifying and reducing the work content and to increase line balancing
efficiency. Special work aids- Special work aids can be used to simplify/reduce
the work content. Fabric consumption- Fabric being 70% of the garment cost is
vitally important to monitor and if the engineering is done properly we can
certainly expect to save fabric or reduce consumptions. Cutting- how should it be
done- we do not have Tailors now, we have operators instead and they should be
working with clippers in their hands Finishing- Finishing is the last link of the
value chain which is essential for p erformance point of view. SOFT ( NIFT,
Pune )
CAD DEPARTMENT Receiving tech pack: Tech pack is received from Head
office that contains all the information regarding the style illustration, size, trims,
colors, stitch and seam class, fit, sampling details, and packing and finishing
details. Make basic pattern: Basic pattern is made manually by pattern master in
one base size. Digitizing: This base size is then digitized on the Gerber digitizer
board. Grading: After digitizing, its transferred to the computer on Gerber pattern
design studio. Patterns initially are made in only one size. We need to
proportionally increase or decrease the size of a pattern, while maintaining shape,
fit, balance and scale of style details. Getting correct fit and drape of a garment
but also maintain the measurements as graded specs is essential. Using the CAD
system, the pattern is resized according to a predetermined table of sizing
increments (or "grade rules"). The computerized plotter can then print out the
pattern in each size. Incorporating shrinkage in pattern grading - - First fabric has
to be relaxed so that there is no tension or strain during rolling or unrolling while
layering or cutting. This will ensure that there is minimum shrinkage in garments.
So unwashed garments are made with additional shrinkage tolerance included so
that they gain their original measurements after washing. Woven fabric garments
shrink about 2-3%. This shrinkage incorporated in patterns could be lengthwise or
width wise depending on type of fabric. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Shrinkage adjusting Shrinkage adjustments should not distort the original shape
and balance of the patterns. When shrinkage is applied to a panel in garment all
corresponding patterns must also be applied with shrinkage adjustments. The
picture on the left shows how a garment panel looks like after it has been scanned
and graded. Gerber plotter printing: The patterns are then printed on the Gerber
plotter. They are then pasted to thick aortic sheets and converted into full fledged
patterns. Send patterns to cutting department OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Efficiency: Marker plans indicate efficiency of the cutting process i.e. the
efficiency of fabric consumption. Lay plan: determines the no. of lays required
to cut the specified quantity in the predetermined size ratio. Precision in checks
in stripes SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
FABRIC STORE This is the most important department of the unit, where in the
quality and quantity of fabric is inspected as soon as it is received in the store,
along with storing and maintaining stock levels and ensuring to stock up in proper
clean way. When the fabric is in-house, it should be capable of being supplied to
the cutting department. Inspection is done prior the cutting room issue so as to

remove the defective fabrics. WORKFLOW OF FABRIC STORE Receive P.O

at head office D/O Document are sent to Fabric received at gate (challan) dept for
checking Documents verified Bales received in fabric dept Bales counting Fabric
unloaded Bales opened Swatches and cuts maintained Checking 4 point system
JC & GRN Made Fabric mounted on greasy perch Fabric sent for inspection
Fabric stored Fabric issued to cutting room as and when required. FCR prepared
SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
FABRIC VISUAL INSPECTION The 4 point system is generally used for
fabric inspection. In this system, points are assigned for every possible defect in
the fabric as follows. Width wise point criteria Upton 3 3-6 6-9 9 Length wise
point criteria Upton 5 3-6 6-9 9 Area wise point criteria Penalty points 1 point
2 points 3 points 4 points Penalty points 1 point 2 points 3 points 4 points Penalty
points 1X1 cm float Upto 1X1 cm hole/stain Over 1X1 cm to 2X2 hole/stain Over
2X2 cm hole/stain 1 point 2 points 3 points 4 points Yarn variation/Beam
motion/Barre effect Penalty points Minor Major 2 points 4 points 3 points and 4
points are pointed and are called cutable defects. 1 and 2 point are identified by
stickers and panels replaced cutting. The maximum points and flags allowed as
follows:SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
FABRIC 100% cotton and its blends 100% linear and its blends Max. no. of
allowed points Max. no. of flags per linear mts. 40 40 5 4 Defect points/100m2 =
Total pointsX3600/Fabric widthXFabric length. If defect points/100m3 < 40
then accept the fabric. If defect points/100m3 > 40 then reject the fabric. Major
woven defects : slubs, holes, missing yarns, yarn variation, end out, soiled yarns,
wrong warns. Major dyeing or printing defects: out of register, dye stops, machine
stops, color out, color smear, or shading. These defects are marked wth colored
tape so that they can be easily located. Others Penalty points Patta Count or
composition variation Short end Selvedge loose Wrong drawing Reed marks
Temple marks Damaged selvedge Wrong weave Cutable defect Cutable defect
Reject roll Reject roll Reject roll Reject roll Reject roll Reject roll Reject roll
Other points to remember: 1. No linear meter shall be assigned more than 4 point
or a flag. 2. All holes regardless of size small be assigned be assigned 4 point. 3.
There should not be a major defect within 5 meters from beginning or the end of
the roll or part therein. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
4. The shade of the fabric should match with the approved shade of fabric from
H.O. 5. There should not be shade variation from selvedge to selvedge, centre to
selvedge and start and end 6. A repeating defect or running should not extend for
more than 3 yards (2.73 meters), otherwise the roll will be considered second
quality. 7. No piece will be acceptable as first quality if it has noticeable side-toside, side-to-centre or end-to-end shading within a roll or a piece. FABRIC
INSPECTION MACHINE This is used to inspect the fabric defects and measure
the total meters of the fabric. Machinery Brands include Kaigu, Aura, Ramsons
checkmate. FABRIC TESTS o Fabric Shrinkage is a very important factor for
any physical inspection. Mistakes in appropriate checking might prove
disadvantageous for the pilot run followed by production. An optimum
conduction of the width and shrinkage properties has to be made. The fusing of
lining to some parts may also be done in the cloth store. If the shrink

characteristics are consistent, then the patterns may be designed to the correct
oversize and sampling checks for consistent shrinkage carried out. Color changes
can also occur at the time of fusing as the temperatures might have been
controlled or were out of the prescribed limits. E .g Size of the fabric= 100 * 100
Or 50 * 50 According to the above picture, a fabric piece of the above mentioned
specification is cut and marked accordingly. Then a wash with a soft enzyme is
given. The deviation is shrinkage if any is marked between the points. Shrinkage
of 1-1.5 cm is acceptable. If it is more than this then the merchandiser is supposed
to take the desired action. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
o Color Fastness or Crocking: In order to check color fastness, 2 fabric swatches
are taken. On 1 of the swatch, a white seam is put on all the four sides of the
fabric. Both of the them are washed and the results are compared. If it is stained
or slotted then its rejected. o C.S or Centre Selvedge test: This test is used to
check the color variation in the fabric. Full width of the fabric is taken (length can
vary according to requirement say 10). The Fabric is divided into 6 pieces and
their grain line is marked. These pieces are then cut and re stitched in a random
series. For e.g. 3, 6, 2, 5, 4, 1. When we arrange these fabric pieces in a series, we
can see the shade variation in the same fabric. Noting of this variation is very
important at the time of cutting. Maximum CS is seen in solid/printed fabrics as
compared to stripes and checks. o Others include dry clean and washability,
abrasion resistance, pilling (especially for mixed fibers), Bow and skew (using a
ruler and set square for checks and stripes), Drape and crease resistance (that
includes permanent press capability), Strength (tensile, tear and bursting (for
seams), Flammability, Surface wetting and penetration. FABRIC DEFECTS o
Abrasion Mark: A place in the fabric where the surface has been damaged due to
friction or abnormally weakened by any operation through which it has been
passed. o Misprint: In printed fabrics, either missed, or partially missed, or
incorrectly positioned relative to each other. o Double Pick: Two yarns running
simultaneously, mostly in the weft yarn. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
o o o o o o o o o o o Oil Stain: Oil mark on the fabric. Hole: A breakage of yarns
in the fabric involving more than two yarns. Bow: When the weft/filling yarns lie
in an arc across the width of the fabric. Skew: Distortion in the construction of the
fabric i.e. in the yarn that constitute the fabric. Crease: A fabric defect across the
fabric width usually caused by a sharp fold. Dye Stain: An area of discoloration
due to uneven absorption of colorant. Miss-pick: A pick/weft yarn not properly
interlaced. Slubs: An abruptly thickened place in a yarn. Screen Out: The
appearance of a colored separation line in a printed design. Calendar Line: Sharp
pressmark on fabric due to the calendar during the processing. Contamination:
Colored fibers with the warp or weft fibers. Name of suppliers V.C.M synthetics,
Symbolic fabrics, Arvind mills, Ashok weaving, Vaibhav trading, Siyarams, J
Hampstead. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
TRIMS STORES This store is responsible for storing and neatly maintaining the
trims received from the suppliers, approved by H/O. Trims card to be readily
available for each of the PO/style being processed that is duly approved by the
nominated quality assurance person. WORKFLOW OF TRIMS STORE
Receive W/O Purchase dept issues D/O to supplier Challan Make trims card

Checking Trims receiving Issue for stitching according to production plan

Different types of trims:- Buttons Hooks Badges Zippers SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
- Collar pick bone Tags : brand name, collection name and fit type Labels : wash
care, size and fit, brand Fusible labels Leather patches Twill tape/ Cross grain tape
( cotton/polyester) Needles Threads : sewing and embroidery Laces Packing
materials: hangers, collar stand, brand label, packing box, polybag SPREADING
AND CUTTING DEPARTMENT Net cutting is an essential part of garment
engineering that demands precession in cutting and low shape deformation
afterwards. Accurate control of cloth width produces economies in edge margins.
Precise cutting not only avoids spoilt work at the making up stage but is the key to
modern sewing room practice. As soon as the work order is received, a fabric
enquiry is conducted in fabric store weather the fabric is available or not. The
CAD department is responsible for making the pattern markers available in
various graded sizes for cutting purpose and calculate the consumption per
garment. SPREADING - Spreading is the process of unwinding large rolls of
fabric onto long, wide tables and laying them in superimposed plies of specified
length. - The number of lays depends upon the number of garments desired and
the fabric thickness. - The maximum cutting width is the usable fabric width
minus selvedge or needle marks caused by stencil marks. - Fabric utilization is the
amount of fabric actually utilized in the marker as the percentage of the total
fabric area. - The cutting marker is laid on the topmost layer. SOFT ( NIFT,
Pune )
Type of lay plan used: Since open width fabric is used, full garment lay is used
that has both left and right pieces. Type of lay: Multiple Ply is used in which a
number of fabric layers are stacked on one top of other. Forms of spreading:
Fabric is laid the same way up with grain or print pattern running in the same
direction. Fabric has to be cut at the end of each ply. Fabric weight Ideal lay
height for cutting : Height Heavy Weight 4-5" Med Weight 3-4" Light Weight
2.5-3" Laying parameters Pattern matching. Relaxing the fabric to remove all
the tensions. Allignment of ply edges in correct position over each other. Lay
order plan : Example 1 Size ratio = 1:2:2:1 39 31 48 37 43 40 40 62 48 58 42 40
62 48 58 44 20 31 24 29 Total 131 203 157 188 679 Average no of lays 39 31 31
40 20 20 42 20 20 44 20 0 Avg. no. of lays I II SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
11 0 0 0 III Average no. of lays = 3 Average no. of pieces = Total meters of fabric
Total no. of pieces in each color = 190.50 = 1.45 mts. 131 Lay length = 1.45 mts
X 3 = 4.35 CUTTING Cutting parameters: - Precision in cutting: To ensure the
cutting of fabric - accurately according to the line drown of the marker plan.
Clean edge: By avoiding the fraying out of yarn from the fabric edge. Cutting
edge must be smooth clean. Knife must be sharp for smooth or clean edge.
Consistency in cutting: All the sizing safe of the cutting parts should be same of
knife should be operated of the right angle of the fabric lay. Types of cutting
equipments: - Scissors Round knife Straight knife Band knife cutting m/c Die
cutting ( collars and cuffs ) Methods for marking directly on the cloth:
CHALK: This is the traditional method in which thick lines are drawn on the

cloth. Preparation for sewing: 1) Position marking : Egg- pocket positions,

tucks, pocket positions etc SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
2) Shade marking: each component is marked with a unique no. printed on a small
ticket stuck on the component. 3) Bundle making: according to size, color,
quantity 4) Bungle tickets: to identify each bundle to size, lot, style and color
wise. 5) Fusing parameters: There are different types of fusings depending upon
the end use and type of fabric. Type Microdot Semi fusing Woven fusing Heat 150
degree 140 degree 175 degree Pressure 2.5 1.5 3 Time 13 sec 15 sec 18 sec
EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT Embroidery pattern is received that specifies the
no. of stitches, colors, the pattern, size and placement. Design is loaded in floppy
disc and inserted in the machine memory. Embroidery machines: Company
Silver sun Barudan No. of heads 9 4 No. of needles 9 9 No. of machines 3 1
Machine rings sizes: 6, 9, 7, 15, 19, 25, and 230X160 Embroidery defects: loose
uncut threads, skipped stitches, pattern misalignment. Embroidery threads: Silky
and calypso threads. Type of stitches: satin, filling, patchwork etc Types of motifs:
Institutional logos (jindal, essar, cyberoam), kids wear motifs (cartoons), company
logos (oxerberg, J hampstead), jeans back pocket embroidery, shirt cuff and front
panel embroidery are done. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
A Strike-off : is a pre production sample of embroidery which is done in order to
check the accuracy of the pattern and the associated stitches in it. This is then sent
to the H.O for feedback and approval. If any changes, theH.O will return their
feedback with necessary changes or comments. The type of stitches depends upon
the fabric. If the fabric is thin, then heavy stitches are avoided. MAJOR
PROBLEM FACED IN EMBROIDERY: The major problem faced during
embroidery is the thread breakages. The reason for this may be that either the
thread is too tight or has less strength. Since the designs are fed into these
machines through computer, if even a single thread breakdown happens, then all
the machines stop at the same time. To help avoid it to some extent, a helper is put
up against each machine that keeps a check on the breakages and accuracy of the
stitches. The bobbin case also plays an integral part. SAMPLING DEPARTMENT
The sampling for each season begins according to the product cycle of style. This
process is also called Product development (P.D). One should also know the
tentative size ratio in each style. This is because the costing of the product
depends highly on the fabric consumption. Kinds of samples prepared: 1)
Photosample: only sketch/illustration of the garment is present in the photosample
sheet. 2) Fit sample: one sample in base size measurement is made and send for
approval at head office. 3) Size set: one garment sample in each size is prepared
and sent for approval. No need to add the trims to the garment. 4) PP sample: This
is the pre-production sample that is the exact replica like original sample. 5)
Shipment sample: A random sample is picked from the production lot and sent for
approval. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT Sewing Process SOFT ( NIFT, Pune
The basic process of sewing involves fastening of fabrics, with the help of needle
and threads. Most of such industrial sewing is done by industrial sewing
machines. The cut pieces of a garment are generally tacked, or temporarily
stitched at the initial stage if required. The complex parts of the machine then

pierces thread through the layers of the cloth and interlocks the thread. Industrial
Sewing Industrial sewing is quite a complex process involving many preparations
and mathematical calculations for the perfect seam quality. Good quality sewing
also depends on the sound technical knowledge that goes into pattern designing
and making. Flat sheets of fabric having holes and slits into it can curve and fold
in three-dimensional shapes in very complex ways that require a high level of
skill and experience to manipulate into a smooth, wrinkle-free design. Aligning
the patterns printed or woven into the fabric also complicates the design process.
Once a clothing designer, with the help of his technical knowledge, makes the
initial specifications and markers, the fabric is then cut using templates and sewn.
These undesirable variations in the cloth tension affect the product quality.
Therefore, there arises the need of strict control over the whole process. The work
of sewing is focused on the handling of fabrics lying on the working table and
guide them towards the sewing machines needle along the seam line. The
attention is equally focused on the control of appropriate tensional force so as to
maintain high quality seam. Pre sewing functions Before the actual task of sewing
begins, there are certain other tasks that have to be taken care of which can be
termed as fabric handling functions - Ply separation; Placing the fabric on
working table; Guiding the fabric towards sewing needle; and tension control of
fabric during the sewing process. When the fabric is placed on the working table,
the tasks that are performed before the sewing process include - recognizing the
fabric's shape, edges that will be sewn, planning of the sewing process and
identification of the seam line. Fabric Edges to be sewn There are two basic types
of stitches - one is that are for joining two parts of cloth together and the second
one is done for decorative purposes. Sometimes, both types of stitching have to be
done on some parts of cloth, for example, a denim pocket has to be joined on
three sides with the apparel as well as it may be given some decorative stitches
too. At what points and which type of stitching has to be done- all such
information is decided by the industrial engineering department and accordingly
sewn. Planning of sewing process SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Sequence of seams to be stitched is determined before the sewing starts. Which
part will be joined first, what stitches will follow one another, etc. are decided.
However, some stitches have to be necessarily done before or after another stitch.
In the example above, the decorative stitches must be done first followed by the
joining stitches. Identification of seam lines Sewing process is performed on seam
lines situated inside the fabric edges, some millimeters inside the fabric's outer
line. For the straight lines, the seam line is found by transferring the outer lines
inside the fabrics i.e. the seam line is parallel to the outer edge and the distance
between the two has to be determined as it is different for different parts of the
cloth. Seam allowance is the area between the edge of the fabric and the line of
stitching. Sewing Fabrics The sewing process consists of mainly three functions guiding fabric towards needle; sewing of the fabric edge; and rotation around the
needle. The fabric is guided along the sewing line with a certain speed that is in
harmony with the speed of sewing machine The orientation error is either
manually monitored or if monitored automatically then error is fed to the machine
controller so that the machine corrects the orientation of the fabrics. When one

edge of seam line is sewed, the fabric is rotated around the needle till the next
edge of the seam line coincides with the sewing line. The sewing process is thus
repeated until all the edges of seam line planned for sewing, are sewed.
Significant Aspects of Sewing There are certain aspects that have to be carefully
considered while the sewing process as they are very crucial for high quality
sewing. Thread tension and consumption: Correct balancing of the stitch and the
tension given to the threads is very important for quality stitch formation. Thread
consumption, which is closely associated with correct stitch geometry and thread
tension, is usually measured by digital encoders. Presser- foot displacement and
compressing force: Presser- foot is the part of the sewing machine that holds the
fabric in place as it is being sewn and fed through by the feeder. The feeding
system is one of the most important constituting systems of the sewing machine.
If this system is not efficient then it results into irregular seams and many other
defects, especially when running on high speed. To evaluate feeding efficiency,
the force on the presser foot is measured with the help of electric or other sensors.
Needle penetration force measurement: The interaction of needle with fabric is
very crucial. Fault-free needle penetration depends chiefly on the properties of
fabric and needle choice. Needle penetration force is one of the variables whose
measurement is important for the SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
analysis of quality problems or "sewability testing" and also quality monitoring. It
takes various factors into consideration, such as the needle geometry (including
the point angle and point length of the needle), the friction between the needle and
the fabric, the friction between the needle eye and the thread along with fabrics'
property, and the sewing conditions. ACCEPTABLE QUALITY LEVEL (AQL)
Quality measurre The AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) is the maximum per cent
defective that for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered
satisfactory as a process average. In inspection how much percentage of defective
pieces will be accepted, depends on acceptable quality level The AQL level varies
process to process, product to product and even buyer to buyer. Sample size Code
letter: This code is indicative a range of batch size. (Code 'G' means your lot size
range is from 151 pieces to 280 pieces. Sample size: It means that how many
pieces will be picked up for inspection from the total offered pieces (Batch). Ac
(Accepted): The number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds up to
that much defective pieces the shipment will be accepted by buyer. Re (Rejected):
On the other hand number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds that
much defective pieces or more than the listed number, the shipment will be
rejected (or asked to the manufacturer for 100% inspection and re-offer for final
inspection) by buyer. Example: Suppose you have been offered a shipment of
1000 pieces for inspection. Select the range from table, it is 501-1200. Now from
table you have to select number of sample you are going to actually inspect.
According the above table you will select 80 pieces out of 1000 pieces. Now
assume that you are inspecting at 2.5 AQL. So, after inspecting all 80 pieces if
you find 5 or less than 5 defective pieces will accept the shipment. And if you find
6 or more than 6 defective pieces in 80 samples you will reject that shipment. Lot
or Batch size Size Code Sample Size 28 A 9 15 B 2 3 Acceptable Quality level
2.5 4.0 6.5 Ac Re Ac Re Ac Re 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )

15 25 26 50 51-90 91-150 151-280 251-500 501-1200 1201-3200 C D E F G

H J K 5 8 13 20 32 50 80 125 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 1 1 2 2 3 4 6 8 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 1 2 2
3 4 6 8 11 0 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 1 2 3 4 6 8 11 15 3201-10000 L 10001- 35000 M 200
315 10 14 11 15 14 21 15 22 21 21 22 22 LIST OF POSSIBLE DEFECTS IN
PRODUCTION Component and materials Materials/fabric Cleanliness Pressing
Seams and Stitching Possible Defects 1. Fabric holes 2. Slubs 3. Shading
variation 4. Misprints, out-of-register prints, undesired color spots 5. Cut, visible
notch mark tears or visible surface repairs 6. Bow or skew exceeding 1.5 percent
7. Double picks 8. Pilling 1. Soil, Spots, stains or Dust 2. Attached thread clusters
1. Burn or scorch marks 2. Glaring shine marks 3. Press marks from camps 4.
Absence of pressing when specified 5. Products packaged moist after steam
pressing 6. Improper pressing 7. Seams not lined up when specified for center leg
crease 8. Loops twisted after pressing 9. Uneven creases after press 1. Twisted,
roped, or puckered seams 2. Open or broken stitches 3. Raw edges where covered
edges are specified SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Button holes Button/Button Sewing Waistband Belt Loops Front and back 4.
Seams not back stitched or bar tacked when specified 5. Irregular or uneven top
stitching 6. Seam grin-through, seam slippage 7. Pinching or any part of product
caught in seam or stitches 8. Any exposed drill holes 9. Length of legs off by
more than 3/8 inch 10. Stitch count not conforming to specifications 11. Stitch or
seam type not conforming to specifications 12. Label is not correctly attached,
position and layout 13. Sewn on design attached at incorrect place and sewn not
according to specs 14. Double needle stitch on crotch seam is missing 15. Use of
monofilament thread, other seams than where specified 1. Size is not within specs
2. Ragged edges 3. Uncut button hole 4. Out of alignment or improper button
spacing 5. Stitch depth too narrow or wide 1. Button not securely attached 2.
Butler-missing 3. Broken or damaged button 4. Out of alignment or improper
spacing 5. Button not matches to specs 6. Lack of support materials on fragile
fabric 7. Buttons that crack, chip, discolor, rust, bleed, melt or otherwise cause
consumer dissatisfaction when care label is followed 1. Uneven in width 2.
Excessive fullness, puckering or twisting 3. Closure misaligned 4. Belt loops are
crooked 1. Not fully secure 2. Extend above waistband 3. Missing tacks 4. Color
shade not to specs 5. Thread shade not to specs 6. Raw edges showing 1. Uneven
at bottom hem 2. Under facing showing 3. Pockets conspicuously uneven 4. Darts
uneven in length 5. Darts poorly shaped 6. Spot shirring not even right and left
sides SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Hems Pockets Zippers Gripper Fly area Labels 1. Twisted, roped, puckered,
pleated, or excessively visible from exterior 2. Uneven in width 3. Uneven length
of product unless specified 1. Not uniform in size and shape 2. Misaligned
horizontally or vertically 3. Crooked 4. Missing bar tack, back tack or rivet where
specified 5. Bar tack or rivet not as specified 6. Sewn-in pleats or puckers 1. Any
malfunction in operation 2. Tape does not match color specs 3. Wavy zipper 4.
Exposed zipper that distracts from product's appearance 5. Irregular or uneven
stitching on zipper 6. Crooked or uneven zipper 7. Bar tack missing or incorrectly
located at bottom or base of zipper 1. Misaligned 2. Missing or incorrect 3.
Defective in operation 1. Width is not uniform 2. Bottom stopper does not

securely clinched 3. Top of zipper not caught in band 4. Either side of fly extends
past other side by excessive amount. 1. Labels are not correct, text and/or layout
2. Located at incorrect location 3. Insecurely attached to the garment Garment
inspection procedures : During the course of garment production, i.e right from
cutting to final dispatch, Oxemberg QAD team will conduct various inspections
as follows: 1. Inline/mid inspection : This will be carried out during the
production of garment in order to carry out this inspection effectively following
information is a must. A) Updated W/O sheet B) Style approved, saple approved
by the merchandiser C) Fabric, trims and accessories cards rectified by the
merchandiser. D) Approved measurement specification. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
2. Random final audit or inspection : this will be carried out when goods are in the
pressing and packing till its completion. Oxemberg QAD team will carry out
random audit at AQL 4 inorder to make this audit a truly effective tool, since it is
the last check point before dispatch, following information is essential. A) All the
line detail information mentioned there in plus. B) Washed approved samples ( in
case of washed order). C) Packing list wherever applicable. PRODUCTION
long term overview around the year, based on market forecast. An agreement is
necessary about whether the production unit can cope up with the expected sales,
in terms of overall volume and in terms of specialized plant and operatives. The
action is required of relevant departments to revise the plan, purchase the
necessary machinery, train staff, obtain new premises or lease off unwanted ones,
buying additional capacity from other manufacturers etc. ii. Scheduling: The work
is allocated to the production capacity according to the agreed plan as soon as the
orders are confirmed. It is at this stage that schedules are prepared as an exercise
and later drafted in detail. iii. Controlling: The production process is very
uncertain and rarely goes according to the schedule, especially when the processes
are complex and dependent on the performance of individuals. Sometimes orders
are cancelled and rush orders come through. Inefficiency can be avoided if the
preliminary work is done thoroughly and the routine terms are accurately
recorded. Balancing is a part of the process. KEY FACTORS IN
CONTROLING AND SCHEDULING i.Time/ unit input: e.g. meters of cloth or
SAM of work per minute. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
ii.Work in process delays: Extension in output time is necessary to provide buffer
against fluctuations in output where the no. of processes involved are many.
iii.Technical maintenance: Proper usage and maintenance of the machines and
other electronically equipments should be done to provide smooth operation
processes. iv.Employee Training: The employees should be trained efficiently to
increase production efficiency and reduce wastage. v.Non productive hours: A
provision for non-productive hours should be provided in the total available
minutes as these by default are bound to happen. For e.g. lunch time, talking,
going to washroom, sitting idle etc. These hours can be deceased by making
changes in the production plan wisely. vi.Line balancing: This is necessary to
reduce the wastage of time as some workers might be sitting idle because the
feeding has not been done properly and the pieces are not being delivered to them
on time. The overall operation machine layout is faulty due to improper line

balancing. A machine layout is considered to be optimum if all the machines in

the line are producing their required quantities of pieces and no worker is sitting
idle. Line balancing can be a way to increase the productivity as increasing or
decreasing unwanted operations from the line can be done. vii.Analyzing labour
requirements and deficiencies: A difference in skilled and non-skilled labour can
be assessed and accordingly work can be assigned to them. viii.Optimum
utilization of time and raw materials: Any type of unnecessary wastages should be
avoided as far as possible. This requires a good production plan and the co
ordination of related activities. Production flow This refers to the series in
which the garment moves from one workstation to another, requiring completion
of the desired operation. The garments move from one work station to another in a
straight line. The straight could be work stations set up on either side of a belt
conveyer/runner table. There is little amount or work in process between the
stations. In these SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
cases, a limited amount of storage occurs after each workstation. This can take the
form of work bins attached to the machines stand in which the work is Straight
line or conveyer chain system Where a work station is is storage indicates the
direction of movement A production process comprises of : Fabric consumption
calculation, Thread consumption calculation, Fabric inspection, pattern making,
fabric cutting, machine layout and SAM calculation completed, pilot run
completed, testing sampling completed, line sewing completed, finishing sewing
completed, final machine inspection completed, end of line quality check
completed, off pressing and finishing done, packing completed and goods
dispatched. Production Quality Control Quality implies value. It is something
that is build into the garment from the stage of market research and design right
up to pack and dispatch and extends beyond a careful analysis of the customer
returns and consultation with the buyers. The quality of the garment is the reason
that is bought by the customer and comprises of a set of quality characteristics
which together make up its fitness for purpose. The key to profitable garment
manufacture is to provide the best combination at lowest cost the economic
quality level. The costs of quality come from: style; fabric and trimmings;
cutting and making and packing (including repairs and rejects); Quality control
function; Learning time of the workers; Work content; Present
productivity; Other overhead costs (like salary, electricity, administrative cost,
maintenance, transport etc) SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Fitness for purpose comprises of: Quality of design Quality of
conformance Quality of delivery and service Economic cost Quality Control
Department The main function of the quality control department is not to
control quality but to provide a service which allows people to make good clothes.
Their main concern should be to do this at the minimum cost, balancing the
expense of the department against the savings in terms of reduced repairs and
rejects. One aspect of this is to define the quality level of plant and of the
workplace in it. The raising of quality levels requires a major project involving
investment in machinery and training which cannot be done quickly. The
maintenance of quality at an agreed level implies clear specifications and these

are an important task for this department. The Product information sheet for
individual styles can be kept as brief as possible. They should contain the
maximum information in the form of sketches and all dimensions should me
quoted with tolerances. Tolerances reflect the extent to which less than perfect is
acceptable. However, small tolerances exist for the garments. The function of the
quality control department is to reduce the amount of bad work being made. This
gives savings in cost of the repairs and rejects but also speeds up delivery. Its aim
is to make garments correctly at the first time. When the consistency of quality is
poor, the expected quality level is substantially below standard. Greater
consistency has an even higher priority than raising the standard of the majority of
the garments made. Tolerances These are the limits of acceptability expressed in
figures usually or by examples or photographs to demonstrate the limits of
acceptability. For example, the specification for a seam margin may be 1 cm and
the tolerance is -/+2 mm. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Quality characteristics Quality of design requires higher amount of market
research to establish what is the ultimate customers preference at an acceptable
price amongst a competitive set of characteristics. These can form the basis for
design. Customers demand various combinations of the following, in various
orders of importance: Price and value for
money Individuality of appearance Fashion is appropriate to the period and group
Image enhancement (e. g reliability of an executives suit, smartness for the air
hostess etc) Comfort in wear, both from cut and fabric Durability of function and
appearance Psychological qualities(waterproofing, warmth, sweat absorption etc)
Ease of Care (crease and stain resistance, shape retention, washability etc) Size
and shape Consistency of the product The production incharge must stick to the
specifications and should also consider the needs of the retailers like: Consistency
(means to achieve the required quality level, the will to confirm of Management
and workforce, maintaining the specifications with tolerances). Delivery on time
Lower cost to support competitive price. Quality Specifications o Factory
specifications Cloth and trimmings, button spacing Threads, needle
types and sizes, by fabric and seam type Stitches per inch or per 2 cms Seam
types, seam margins and tolerances Cutting standards o Style or garment
specifications Items of difference Special size ranges and grading Key
features and quality points SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Special tolerances Fabric and trimmings, colors and shades ( shade cards
checked regularly for fading) Department wise quality system in factory 1)
FABRIC STORES: o Neatly arrange the fabric rolls received and maintaining the
department cleanliness to avoid spotting and contamination of the fabrics.
Packing the fabrics in plastic sheets can be useful. o Fabric inspection is done on
4 point system. o Shade cards/fabric quality swatches for each style approved by
the PO are maintained. 2) TRIMS STORES: o Trims stores have racking system
to store the trims in a proper order. o Trims card for each PO/style being
processed should be maintained. 3) CUTTING SECTION: o Making CSV
( centre to selvedge variation) sample for each of the roll to analyze the shade
variation. o Maintaining shade samples and providing shade details to
presentation checkers in finishing dept for shade reference. o Proper pattern

checking report. o Proper lay check, marking check, sorting/bundling check

report. o Cutting projection tallies updated. 4) SEWING SECTION o Effective
maintenance for each of the machine. o Proper updated broken needle log (should
have needle issuing record from stores and properly pasted broken needle book).
o Keyhole, bartack, overlock, label attach operation internal approvals and display
of mockups. o Effective mockup system on all operational areas. o All scissors
and trimmers should be secured properly. o Clearance of WIP at all levels. o
Display of trim card at required areas. o Checking garments before wash and after
wash for both quality and measurement. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
o Random in-line checking at each chain stitch operation like feed of arm
machine. o Each supervisor is advised to check randomly the operation in their
own working limits. o Each operator is advised to clean their machine and area
before start of work in the morning and after lunch- waste fabric is issued to the
operator for the same. o In-line and end-line checking report. o Before wet
processing in-line audit report is also maintained. o Washing facility is not
available in-house. Its done on jobber basis. 5) FINISHING SECTION o Fabric
defect identification by stickering and alteration piece identified by knotting at
place of alter by the checker. o Dusting is done by dust pads wherever sucking
machine is not used. o Cartoons are properly stacked. o Presentation checker to
have ready reference of shade cards of fabric and trims cards as well. o Daily
checking report is maintained. o Measurement audit report is maintained. o Prefinal auditing is also gone on garments. o Defective cartoons are replaced by good
cartoons. 6) PACKING AND DESPATCH SECTION o Separate departments are
maintained for topwear and bottom wear. o The fully packed garments are racked
in sequential manner and each rack is given a number for identification. o
Garments are stored brand wise, sizewise, and garment wise. o Barcode stickering
is done and checked. o Packing in inners and outer cartoons is done according to
the size ratio or packing specifications as specified. o Goods to be shipped are
packed readily with proper covering and sealing and kept near the main gate to be
loaded in the cargo. o Proper recording of dispatch, packing and stock stored inhouse pending for shipment are maintained along with Chelan entries of cargo
and transportation services. o Good relations with distributors are held. 7)
ENTIRE WORKING AREA o o o o Properly certified fire extinguisher to be free
from all obstacles. Each operator to wear mask to avoid inhalation of dust inside
the factory. Dust collection bags for each work station/machine. Separate area for
storing rejected garments. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
o Proper covering of stored pieces. o Properly maintained QC reports and files
maintained by QA. Department wise quality check points Fabric Store - 100%
fabric inspection Trim & accessories- Trims inspection Cutting Room - Marker
checking Cut parts checking or audit Bundle inspection Embroidery - 100%
inspection of embroidery Sewing Department - Inline check point (at critical
operation) Roaming checking (Random checking) End of Line checking (100%)
Audit of checked pieces Initial finishing inspection (after wash) and alterations
Final finishing inspection (After Pressing) Internal shipment audit Finishing
Department - 1. Fabric Store: In the fabric store fabric is being checked before
issuing it to cutting department. In general not all the fabric is checked. 100 %

fabric checking is done. Fabrics are checked in flat table, flat table with light box
or on fabric checking machine. 4 point system for fabric inspection is used to
measure the quality level of the incoming fabric. 2. Trims & Accessory: Trims
quality is also very important for having a quality garment. Trims inspection is
done randomly against the given standards, like color matching. But for trims and
accessories quantity checking is essential. 3. Cutting Room: It is said that cutting
is the heart of production. If cutting is done well then chances of occurring defects
in the following processes comes down. In cutting room, check points are I)
marker checking, ii) cut part audit and iii) bundle checking. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
4. Embroidery checking: It is also not a compulsory process. If there is
embroidery work in the garment panels then 100% inspection is done before
issuing to sewing. 5. Sewing Department: Checkpoints in the sewing departments
are as following. - Inline inspection: In assembly line generally check pints are
kept for the critical operations. In these checkpoints, 100% checking is done for
partially stitched garments and defect free pieces are forwarded to the next
process. - Roaming inspection: In this case checkers roam around the line and
randomly check pieces at each operation. - End of line inspection or table
checking: A checker checks completely stitched garment at the end of the line.
100% checking is done here. - Audit of the checked pieces: 100% inspected
garment are sent to finishing from sewing department. And all defective pieces
are repaired before sending to finishing. 6. Finishing Department: Check points in
finishing department consists - Initial finishing inspection: checking done prior to
pressing of the garment at finishing room is known as initial finishing. - Final
finishing Inspection: After pressing garments are again checked and passed for
tagging and packing. - Internal final audit: After garments are packed up to certain
quantity, quality control team, does audit of packed garments. This process is
carried out to ensure that before handing over shipment. If the completed work is
being checked at each process and defective pieces are corrected before handing
to the next process than at the end of production there is very little chance to have
a defective at final inspection stage. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
FINISHING DEPARTMENT The finishing process includes all those activities
concerned with making the appearance of the fabric more presentable. It includes
activities like stain removal, thread trimmings, washing, ironing, tagging, and
hanger alignment. Bartack: Putting barracks on loops, pockets etc. Washing:
Sometimes, the buyers demand that garments must be given a wash after
stitching. Button, button hole and rivet attach Extra Thread trimming: The extra
threads which have been left uncut are trimmed. This can be done manually with
thread cutters. Stain removal: Different types of stains might be formed at the
time of garment handling operations. Different kinds of stains include ball point
stains, oil stains, dirt stains etc. Different kinds of chemicals are used for their
removal. For example, Ball point stain is removed with ink remover, stains on
white fabrics are removed with a chemical called Ariel lines, Ltk-45 is used for
removing yellow and black stains from colored fabrics, N-9 is used to remove
stains on light colored fabrics, Emrol-ol and petrol is used to remove other hard
stains. Thread sucking : this is done to remove the threads stuck to the fabric
surface that are too minute to remove. For this, a thread sucking machine is used

to remove threads with air blow and vaccum sucking. Also, adhesive tapes are
wrapped on rolls and then moved over the garments, especially in trouser
finishing this step is essential. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
End of line inspection:Garments are compared against measurements and
tollerences, defects, loose and misaligned threads and buttons, open seams etc.
Alteration: Any garment found faulty of defects will be sent for alteration.
Ironing: After all these steps, the garments are ironed in a proper manner, folding
on the right creases. Steam ironing is preferred. The garment measurements are
continuously monitored at the time of ironing also. The garments can be shrunk or
stretched to some extent in case the measurements go beyond the tolerance levels.
Ironing depends upon the type of fabric viz. knitted or woven. Knitted garments
require light pressing where as wovens require deliberate wrinkle removal and
crease setting. A dolly or body form press is also used to trouser pressing.
WORKFLOW OF FINISHING Bartack and buttonholing Washing Button and
rivet attatch Thread sucking Stain removal Thread trimming End of line
inspection Alteration Ironing Warehousing Packing Tagging and stickering
parts of pattern are missing, probably because the marker did not include the
correct number of parts. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Mixed parts, probably because the marker is not correctly labeled, resulting in a
marriage of wrong sized parts. Patterns not facing in correct direction on napped
fabrics. Patterns not aligned with respect to the fabric grain. Poor line
definition (e.g. too thick chalk; indistinctly printed line, perforated lay not
powdered) leading to inaccurate cutting. Skimpy marking, caused by either the
marker did not use the outside edge of the pattern; or the pattern was moved or
swung after partial marking to squeeze the pattern into a smaller space for
economizing the fabric. The pattern may have worn out edges. Generous
marking, especially in combination with skimpy marking results in components
being sewn together with puckering and pleating. When the marker is too wide,
the garment parts at the edges of the lay get cut with bits missing. Not enough
knife clearance freedom. Wrong check matching, i.e. lines across the seam are
not matching. Wrong checks boxing i.e. checks are not showing a full/partial
box across the seam. Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct or misplaced.
II. SPREADING DEFECTS IN GARMENTS Not enough plies to cover quantity
of garments required. Plies misaligned, resulting in garment parts getting cut
with bits missing in some plies at the edge of the spread. Narrow fabric width,
causes garment parts at the edge of the lay getting cut with bits missing.
Incorrect tension of plies, i.e. fabric spread too tight or too loose. This will result
in parts not fitting in sewing, and finished garments not meeting size tolerances.
Not all plies facing in correct direction (whether 'one way' as with nap, or 'one
way either way' as with some check designs). This happens when fabric is not
spread face down, face up, or face to face as required. Unacceptable damages in
the garment parts. Parts not fully included owing to splicing errors. Spread

distorted by the attraction or repulsion of plies caused by excessive static

electricity e.g. in satin fabric. Plies are not spread accurately one above another
for cutting. This results in mismatching checks. III. CUTTING DEFECTS IN
Failure to follow the marker lines resulting in distorted garment parts. Top and
bottom plies can be a different size if the straight knife is allowed to lean, or if a
round knife is used on too high a spread. Notches, which are misplaced, too deep,
too shallow, angled, omitted, or wrong type to suit fabric. Frayed edges,
scorched or fused edges, caused by a faulty knife, not sharp enough, or rotating
at too high a speed knife cut. Garment part damaged by careless use of knife,
perhaps overrunning cutting previous piece. Marker incorrectly positioned on
top of spread. Garment parts have bits missing at edge of lay. If too tight or too
loose then garment parts are distorted. Spread distortion due to electricity,
particularly in checks. IV. COLOR DEFECTS IN GARMENTS Color defects
that could occur are difference of the color of final produced garment to the
sample shown, accessories used are of wrong color combination and mismatching
of dye amongst the pieces. V. SEWING
DEFECTS IN GARMENTS Broken buttons Broken snaps Broken stitching
Creasing of garments Defective snaps Different shades within the same garment
Dropped stitches Exposed notches Exposed raw edges Fabric defects Holes
Inoperative zipper Loose / hanging sewing threads and buttons Misaligned
buttons and holes Missing buttons Missing stitches SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Needle cuts / chews Open seams Pulled / loose yarn ( thread
tension ) Stain Unfinished buttonhole Wrong stitching technique Zipper too
short Usage of different color threads on the garment, creasing of the garment
Sizing defects - Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of a garment
part from other, for example- sleeves of XL size but body of L size. Such
defects do not occur has to be seen too. VI. WASHING DEFECT IN
GARMENTS A rotation, usually lateral, between different panels of a garment
resulting from the release of latent stresses during laundering of the woven or
knitted fabric forming the garment. Twist may also be referred to as Torque or
defects that are not acceptable in garments are removed during cutting and
stitching processes. Still damaged part is found in the sewn garment due to heavy
washing, dyeing or other reasons. Instead of rejecting the defective garment, only
damaged part can be changed and converted it into a quality garment. It should
not increase the fabric consumption or produce further defective garment in the
part changing process 1. End bit usage for part changing: In the cutting room,
during layering cutters store end bits that are not layered in the lay for a cutting.
These end bits are one type of cutting waste. So for the part change we can use
those end bits without increasing fabric consumption. We need to take care about
shade matching or lot matching of the fabrics with the damaged garments. If the
garments were heavily washed, then it will be very difficult to match the garment
fabric shade. After changing the parts garment must be washed again to give

matching finished look and similar hand feel. 2. Fresh fabric usage for Part
changing: SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
If there are not enough end bits to replace the damaged parts from the garment,
then available fresh fabric is used. Only use fresh fabric if there is no problem
with shade matching otherwise it will increase the fabric consumption. But for
solid colors and yarn dyed fabric there is no issue related to shade matching. 3.
Using good components from other damaged garments: This option is chosen
when garments are dyed and there are no fresh fabric or end bits or fresh fabric
for that order. Also for the high value garment with fine hand embroidery work
and where you have less time to complete the shipment, this option is preferred.
Here we need to keep care of shade matching. SHIRT AND TROUSER
WASHING 1. Drum washing m/c (horizontal loading) Capacity: 98kg (big) 450
and 48kg (small). This machine is used for washing cotton shirts and trousers.
This machine can also be used for dyeing. Shirt 200 germs Trouser 700 germs
Denim 800 germs Garment Shirt Trousers 98kg m/c 350 pHs 200 pHs 48kg m/c
200 pHs 80pcs 2. Sample washing m/c (horizontal loading) Capacity: 8 kegs This
is used for washing the samples that are less in quantity. 3. Hydro extractor
(squeezing m/c) 4. Dryer (S.R.E engineering) Shirts 200 Trouser 60 pcs SOFT
( NIFT, Pune )
5. Steam boiler Gas, coal, thermal oil WASHES a. Softener wash ( enzyme
wash ) Its of 3 types ionic, non-ionic, and cationic. b. Enzyme wash OT, desizer,
lubricant, water washing at 52degrees, Acetic acid (pH), Enzyme (to stabilize),
Water wash, Silicon, softener. Power wash enzyme: Powdered enzyme is used
with ball beating Biofinish c. Detergent wash Ariel and tide d. Leather wash e.
Powder wash pumice in powder form f. Pumice stone wash PRECAUTIONS
FABRIC Pigment padded fabric White garment Worsted fabric Trouser Shirt
fabric Yarn dyed X No heavy wash is given because it can cause color bleeding.
No heavy wash No heavy wash Enzyme wash, leather wash can be given.
Enzyme wash. Beach ball wash, chlorine bleach ( caco2 + thermal balls) Heavy
wash DENIM WASHES o MACHINERY USED Front vertical loader m/c: (98kg,
150kg, 300 kg). SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
1. Raw/Rinse wash: removal of sizing agent and then garment is rinsed, softener
is added and then dried in hydro. No fading process is done. 2. Raw resin: This is
done to fix the color onto the fabric and to make it wrinkle resistant. Catalyst,
softener and resin are added then ironing is done. 3. Denimix: After desizing,
enzymes (bio-degradable agent) are added (acidic/neutral) to give fading of color
(lighter tone). For fancy denims, scraping and tucking is used along with denimix.
Neutral (pH 6.5-7) Temp 45-55 degrees Neutral (pH 4.5-5.5) Temp 45-55 degrees
+ Acetic acid is added otherwise enzyme wont work 4. Stone washing
(bleaching): In this, chlorine bleach is used yellowness from fabric and to five
faded effect. Time required for bleach depends on the original sample/shade card.
Neutral ALCL3 or (H2o2 i.e. hydrogen peroxide, soda ash, soap, tinopol). After
stone washing, we can do brightening (with tinopol) to remove chlorine. 5. Ice
wash: Its similar to stone washing, but more qty of bleach is used. 6. Dyeing: The
denim is dyed in different color. After desizing, its bleached and then dyed.
Denimix and softening processes follow if required. 7. Pumice stone denimix:

After desizing, denimix wash is given and after that its abraded with pumice
stone. For denimix 40-120 grms/pc pumice stone has to be added and for stone
wash, denimix+bleaching is used. 8. Vintage: After denimix, we tint the denim
with direct dye or reactive dye. VALUE ADDED WASHES:1. Tucking : The
piece is tucked with the help of tucking machine at the place where we want to
have the wash effect. 2. Scraping: Sandpaper is used to scrap the fabric to reveal
the faded effect. 3. Spraying: Dyes are sprayed over the garment in different
angles and strokes to reveal the sprayed effect. 4. Whiskering: 5. Crinkling 6.
Crackle: The piece is tied at the place where we want to avoid color penetration in
pleats and then dyed. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
7. Grinding: Upper layer of the fabric is peeled/scrapped off with a grinding
machine. 8. Sandblasting: Pressurized compressed air with sand is blown on the
garment. 9. Ball blast: Its conducted into wooden m/c. bleach+caco3 power is
used. 10.G2: Its an advanced bleaching process done with ozone(O3). Bleaching
pressure is 240. If its done with chlorine bleach, it will become yellow. So, ozone
is used. 11.Pigment spray: Pigment dyes are sprayed over the denim. CASE
STUDY : Common Denim Seam Quality Defects 1. Broken Stitches - Needle
Cutting Where the thread is being broken where one seam crosses another seam
(ex: bar tacks on top of waistband stitching, seat seam on top of riser seam)
resulting in stitch failure. Minimizing broken stitches due to Needle Cutting
SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
- Use a higher performance core spun thread - Use a larger diameter thread on
operations where the thread is being cut. - Make sure the proper stitch balance is
being used. On a chain stitch seam on denim, we should maintain a 60%/40%
relationship of Needle thread to looper thread in the Seam. - Use needles with the
correct needle point. - Change the needles at regular intervals on operations where
the Needle Cuts are occurring frequently. 2. Broken Stitches- washing procedures
Where thread on the stitch line is broken during stone-washing, sand blasting,
hand sanding, etc. Broken stitches must be repaired by re stitching over the top of
the stitch-line. Minimizing broken Stitches due to abrasion - Use a higher
performance core spun thread. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
- Use a larger diameter thread on operations where excessive abrasion is occurring
- Make sure stitches are balance properly, - Monitor the Finishing Cycle for
compliance to specs. 3. Broken Stitches by Chemical Degradation Where thread is
being compromised by the chemicals used during laundering resulting in loss or
change of color and seam failure. Minimizing broken stitches due to Chemical
Degradation: - Use a higher performance core spun thread that has greater
resistance to chemical degradation. - Using larger thread sizes when the Denim
Garments will be subject to Harsh Chemical washes. - Making sure that the water
temperatures and PH Levels are correct and that the proper amounts and sequence
of chemical dispersion are within guidelines. - Make sure the garments are being
rinsed properly to neutralize the chemicals in the SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
fabric. - Monitor the drying process, cycle times, and temperatures to make sure
they are correct so that the best possible garment quality can be achieved. 4.
Unraveling Seams: Generally occurs on 401 chain stitch seams where either the
stitch has been broken or a skipped stitch has occurred. This will cause seam

failure unless the seam is Re stitched. 4. Minimizing unraveled Stitches: - Use a

high performance Core-spun thread that will minimize broken stitches and
skipped stitches. - Insure proper machine maintenance and sewing machine
adjustments. - Observe sewing operators for correct material handling techniques.
SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
5. Restitched Seams: Where there is a "splice" on the stitch line. If this occurs on
Topstitching, then the seam does not appear to be 1st quality merchandise. Caused
by: 1. Thread breaks or thread run-out during sewing; or 2. Cut or broken stitches
during a subsequent treatment of the finished product (I.e., stone washing).
Minimizing Restitched Seams - Use a better quality sewing thread. This may
include going to a higher performance thread designed to minimize sewing
interruptions. - Insure proper machine maintenance and sewing machine
adjustments; - Make sure sewing machines are properly maintained and adjusted
for the fabric and sewing operation - Observe sewing operators for correct
material handling techniques. 6. Skipped Stitches: SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Where the stitch forming device misses the needle loop or the needle misses the
looper loop. Skips are usually found where one seam crosses another seam and
most of the time occurs right before or right after the heavy thickness. Minimizing
Skipped Stitches: - Use minimum thread tension to get a balanced stitch. - Use the
ideal foot, feed and plate that help to minimize flagging. - Training sewing
operators NOT to stop on the thickness. - Make sure the machine is feeding
properly without stalling. - 7. Use core spun thread. Make sure the machine is not
back feeding. Wavy Seams on Stretch Denim: Where the seam does not lay flay
and is wavy due to the fabric stretching as it was sewn or during subsequent
laundering and handling operations. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Solutions for wavy seams on stretch Garments - Use minimum presser foot
pressure 0- Instruct sewing operators to use proper handling techniques and not
stretch the fabric as they are making the seam. - Where, available, use differential
feed to compensate for the stretch of the fabric. 8. Ropy Hem: - Where hem is not
laying flat and is skewed in appearance. Solutions for Ropy Hems - Usually
caused by poor operator handling. - Instruct the sewing operator to make sure they
get the hem started correctly in the folder before they start sewing. Also, make
sure they don't hold back excessively as the seam is being sewn. SOFT ( NIFT,
Pune )
- Use minimum roller or presser foot pressure 9. Twisted Legs: Is where the side
seam twists around to the front of the pant and distorts the appearance of the
jeans. Solutions for Twisted Legs: - Usually caused by poor operator handling.
Instruct the sewing operator to match the front and back properly so they come
out the same length. Sometimes notches are used to insure proper alignment. They
should NOT trim off the front or back with scissors to make them come out the
same length - Make sure the cut parts are of equal length coming to the assembly
operation. - Check fabric quality and cutting for proper skew - Make sure the
sewing machine is adjusted properly for uniform feeding of the top and bottom
plies. 10. Disappearing Stitches in Stretch Denim: Is where the thread looks much
smaller on seams sewn in the warp direction than in the weft direction of the
fabric. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )

Solutions to minimizing disappearing stitches on stretch Denim: - Use a heavier

thread size on topstitching. - Go to a longer stitch length (from 8 to 6 spi). - Make
sure the thread tensions are as loose as possible so the thread sits on top of the
fabric rather than burying in the fabric on seams sewn in the warp. 11. Thread
discoloration after Laundry It is the thread picks up the indigo dyes from the
fabric giving the thread a 'dirty' appearance. A common discoloration would be
the pick-up of a greenish or turquoise tint. Solutions to Thread Discoloration Use thread with proper color fastness characteristics. - Correct PH level (too low)
and Water Temperature (too low) during laundry. - Use the proper chemicals &
laundry cycles. - Use Denimcol PCC in wash or similar additive SOFT ( NIFT,
Pune )
- Do not overload washers with too many garments at one time. 12. Poor
Colorfastness after Laundry is where the thread does not wash down consistently
in the garment or changes to a different color altogether. Solutions to poor
Colorfastness after Laundry: - Use thread with proper color fastness
characteristics. - Use threads from the same thread supplier and do not mix
threads in a garment. - Always do preproduction testing on denim garments using
new colors to assure that they will meet your requirements. - Make sure sewing
operators select thread by type and color number and do not just pick a thread off
the shelf because it looks close in color. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
DESPATCH Order Processing Order processing is the period between the time
of placement of the order by the buyer to the time of arrival of the goods at his
destination. This cycle is made up of the transmission of the order, document
processing in the department and shipment of goods. The documentation is a
routine activity. The procedure of receiving and handling the orders, granting
credit, invoicing, giving dispatching orders, collecting the bills and post dispatch
adjustments. Correct order processing can be very useful from the point of view
of the customers as it affects order time i.e. time interval between two orders of a
customer and secondly, the uniformity of delivery i.e. regular and dependable
deliveries. Customer Merchandising Department Order Processing SOFT ( NIFT,
Pune )
Credit Check Inventory Check Order for Dispatch Replenishment of stock
Intimation to customers Dispatch of goods Collection of payments Packaging
Packing is traditionally meant to protect goods. However, it is also a promotional
tool and a major image builder contributing to product success. Packing is a
process that speaks of companys ability to contain economically man made or
natural products for shipment, storage, sale or final use. Packaging on the other
hand deals with activities of planning and designing of different means of
packaging the product. However, it should be noted that packing is concerned
with product protection while packaging is concerned product promotion.
Objectives of packing Protection of the product: To keep the garments clean,
fresh and unspoilt by using moisture proof and damage resistant materials. Its
done basically to avoid any type of deterioration or contamination of the garment.
The main aim is to maintain the quality of the garments intact unaffected by dust
and dirt. Product identification: Packing is a convenient way to identify the

products of different buyers as each buyer would have a different type of

packing requirement. The size, color combinations, graphics used in each package
are unique and can be easily remembered. Product convenience: Packing aims at
providing maximum convenience to the purchasers, producers and distributors
alike. A nicely designed product package facilitates product shipping, storage,
stocking, handling and display on part of producers and distributors. Neat packing
can bring reduction in inventory costs, packing cost, space and time costs.
Product package promotion: A good packaging performs effective advertising
function. The general appearance and selling features created by the packaging
techniques decide the product success. As a promotional tool, it does self
advertising, displaying, publishing and acts as an advertising medium. Essentials
of Good Packing It should protect the contents: A good packaging is a means of
preservation of products from possible damage or loss in value. The quality of
the garments is maintained intact. The packing is SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
designed to protect it against natural and artificial factors of damage
like dirt, dust, theft, shrinkage, contamination etc. It Should be attractive: Apart
from protection, seeking the attention of the consumers is also essential. Package
design, weight, material, color combinations, graphics, texture, illustrations etc
form the essentials of a good package. Some customers buy products because they
are impressed by the packing. Therefore, package attraction generates impulsive
buying. It Should provide convenience: Good packaging increases product
sanitation, ease in handling, transportation, storing and using packages. The
package so designed should grant highest degree of convenience to
manufacturers, distributors and consumers alike. Consumers are seeking packages
that are easy to handle, open and reusable. It Should be economical: Economy is
something that reduces not only packing and its expenses, but also brings down
other allied expenses such as transport, warehousing, tax-levies and handling.
Cost reduction are possible through multi-packaging allows more cost re3duction
than when one pack is sold on its own. It should be pollution free: It is a well
known fact all over the world that packing has environmental problem,
particularly the discarded packing. Hence it is advisable to use recycled or biodegradable packaging materials that minimize pollution. It should be informative:
Provision of information about product illustration, features/specifications,
instruction to handle, prices, the amount of product in the package, the content
brands name, and other relevant information for the consumer as well as
distributor. Detailed labeling is a must. It should assure adjustability: The
packaging should have the ability to adjust or flexibility to be put to different
uses. Paper packaging is known for cheapness and lightness. It should be labeled:
Labeling is the act of attaching or tagging labels. A label may be a piece of paper ,
printed statement which is either a part of a package or attached to it, indicating
value of contents, price, product name, and place and name of producer. Thus, a
label is an informative tag, wrapper or seal attached to a product or products
package. Considerations for new packing development In designing a new
product package or redesigning the existing one, the manufacturers take into
account: Nature of product: The type of container to be used depends upon the
form and ingredients of the product. Transparent containers are most suited for

attractive colors and appearance, vacuum sealed ingredients for volatile

ingredients and glass containers to minimize chemical reactions. Plastic and metal
packages can also be used. Costs: The cost of packing must be absorbed by the
production economies, increased sales volumes or higher price. The packing
material, label, filling and closure costs, handling, distribution and breakage cost
of package are important. Family resemblance: If the product is one of a number
of related items, its advisable to design the package that confirms to the
containers of other products in the same line to assist consumer and dealer
identification Advertising value: Unique shape, attractive design gives a package
greater sales and advertising value. Legal requirements: the packages must
confirm to the laws prohibiting the deception of consumers by the use of false
bottoms, slack fill and other means of giving an impression that a SOFT ( NIFT,
Pune )
package contains a larger quantity than the case. There are legal requirements
prescribing the copy appearing on the labels of the cartoons which should be
confirmed to. Test the design in the market: test-marketing must be conducted in
the market to get indirect replies through dealer feedback. Environmental
checking: the packing development decision may be influenced by legal,
ecological and social forces. Thus issues like consumer packing safety, disposable
packing, the quantity of packaging, littering, wise labeling and so on. Packing
strategies After the garments arrive from the finishing and quality check
department, they are packed in hangers or simple fold pack in polybags, according
to buyer requirements. Here, multiple packaging strategies are followed. It is a
kind of strategy in which a no. of closely related but heterogeneous products used
by one consumer are placed in a single package. Such a package conveys that idea
of an ideal matching set that one should possess. For example as in case of
assorted collection kids wear packages are packed along together. It facilitates
acceptance of a new product idea by a consumer who normally may not want to
venture into buying it. However there is danger of the whole package being
rejected through a consumer who is interested in only one or two items in the total
set. Since the consumer will have to buy the whole set he will reject the 2 items he
was favoring a will not buy the set. Inventory Inventory management is a task
of planning and controlling of finished goods after they have been bought from
the production department and before their delivery to the users. It has 2 parts:
Inventory and Warehousing. Warehousing: This performs two functions namely
movement and storage of goods. Movement refers to the actual receipt of
products from the manufacturing centre their transfer in the warehouse and
stocking at designated place, assorting to consumer orders and transferring them
to common carriers on their way to consumers. The storage function is mainly
concerned with holding and caring the goods from the time they are placed in, till
they are places out in common carriers. It is basically a safety and preservative
function. Inventory controlling: Inventory implies the stock of goods held over a
period of time for meeting the consumer needs. For the production department,
inventory means stock of raw material, machine and parts, stock of goods partly
manufactured and finished goods. For the distributors or dispatchers, it is the

finished stock meant of the final consumption. Material Handling This refers to
the handling of the goods ready for dispatch. They can be classified into:
Manual: This involves usage of human labour. This is restricted to areas with
unorganized plant layout and costs of movements. Mechanical: This involves
the use of machines driven by power like for e. g cranes, trucks, stackers, side
loaders, mobile cranes etc. these have more fixed costs if the capacity utilization
is less. SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
Automatic: These are fully automatic operated by automatic machines and
computers. These require heavy capital investments. Transportation and
Dispatch When the garments are readily packed and arranged in
containers/cartoons, they are arranged buyer wise and shipment date wise. Right
dispatch time means right delivery time. Hence there should be no delay in
dispatching the goods from the manufacturers premises because delivery time
depends on the mode of transit viz. air, sea, and rail. The main aim should be
delivering the right product to the right place at the right time at economical costs.
Firms can attract lots of buyers by offering better service or lower prices through
physical distribution improvements. Similarly the profit margin for the
manufacturers will be increased by making this physical distribution more
effective and efficient. Effectiveness and efficiency will bring in economy and
this will thus affect the profit margins. This is because the price of the product
does not just include the cost of production but also the cost of delivery. The cost
of transportation is determined by the distance covered and the volume of goods.
Also, the performance of the transportation mode i.e. the speed/pace of movement
in kms /hr. Calculation of speed must take into account the total time from point
of start to point of destination. Packing mechanism in the factory:Inner boxes are
used to pack the pieces. 1 inner can have 50-60 pieces. These inners are again
packed in outer boxes. 1 box can have 3-5 inners. For example : Brand Oxemberg
Beach pebble MSD J Hampstead Qty 60 ics 48 pcs Inner packs pakaging 3 boxes
33pcs 48pcs The packing quantity per carton depends upon buyer specifications. o
Packing stratergies:1. MSD ( casual ) 1 small inner 12 shirts. So 1 big inner=5
inners = 60 shirts Jeans pack size ratio wise SOFT ( NIFT, Pune ) 60pcs
2. TROUSER ( oxemberg ) 1 inner = 16-17 pieces 3. o Storage: Racking is done
size wise, style wise, garment wise, sleeve length wise(half sleeves/full sleeves).
Each rack is given a rack no. Restickering according to buyer mentioned in
memo. o Storage capacity: Shirt: 80000-2,00,000 & Trousers and jeans 30,000
pcs o Distributor (MSD & Oxemberg) - S.V enterprises (Hyderabad) - A.M
patel (Oxemberg) - Maharashtra ( J.K apparels) - Chandigarh (Ahuja traders) Delhi (Vishesh college) o Cargo services T &T, XPS, TCI, VRL o Transport
providers Lalji mulji transport, Batco india SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )
SOFT ( NIFT, Pune )