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Proposal for Implementation of

National Information System for


Climate and Environment Studies (NICES)
Appraisal to PMC

nrsc
NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING CENTRE
Indian Space Research Organisation
Department of Space
March 19th 2013

NICES: Formation
Establishing NICES has evolved through a series of deliberations among various
departments and ministries.
Inter-ministerial consultations held under the aegis of the Planning Commission on January
14, 2010, suggested for incubation of NICES at ISRO.
Secretaries from DOS, DST, MoES, and representatives from MoEF attended the meeting.
A few recommendations made are:
(i) NICES be co-funded by DOS, MoEF, MoES and DST;
(ii) Objective of Regional Climate Change Modeling to be continued with IITM;
(iii) A climate monitoring centre be setup/ recognized with collaboration of DOS and MoEF.
This may have a climate data centre wherein all scientific Ministries would provide
related data available with them;
(iv) National Institute of Himalayan Glaciology (NIHG) be co-funded by DST, ISRO and
MoEF.
Chairman ISRO/Secretary DOS has issued an Office Order constituting NICES at
NRSC vide ref no: SC/CH/A.22/73/2012 dated 28th September 2012.
Accordingly, NICES is to be established with the active involvement of existing programmes
of ISRO viz., ISRO-GBP, EOS, EO applications in environmental studies etc., and other
departments.

NICES : GOAL
NICES is to setup a dedicated Information System for
Climate and Environment Studies at national level using
Indian Remote Sensing and geostationary satellites data
and others.
NICES will build specific observational networks,
effectively coordinate among various departments and
carry out climate and environmental impact assessment
through formulation of a Science Plan.

NICES: Objectives
NICES would generate climate and environmental data archives with a
provision for access and visualization to various ministries, academia and
research institutions in the country.
NICES will work towards developing intra and inter departmental linkages
and collaboration for information and knowledge sharing in the area of
climate & environment studies, and extend policy level support.

Specific objectives:
1. Establishment and development of linkages with appropriate observational networks,
and calibration & validation sites.
2. Geophysical parameter retrieval and generation of methodologies from Indian EO
missions.
3. Acquisition and processing of international missions data for other relevant
parameters to support Indian EO ECVs and cal/val and generation of long term data
records.
4. Generation of spatial & temporal blended ECV products based on through multiinstitutional participation.
5. Establish necessary infrastructure including hardware and software for NICES

6. Establishment of NICES portal


7. Development of methodologies to carry out scientific studies and partner with other
national organisations in using ECV for impact assessment, adaptation, vulnerability
and mitigation etc.
8. Develop outreach and interaction mechanism for effective dissemination and
utilization of NICES ECVs
9. Promote scientific utilization and collaboration in the area of climate and
environment.

NICES: Programme Structure and Activities


NICES programme will be under the supervisory guidance of NICES-Programme
Management Council (NICES-PMC).
Constitution of PMC:
Chairman, PMC Director, NRSC
Members from:
ISRO/DOS Centres: NRSC, SAC, PRL, SPL, NARL, IIRS, ISAC, EOS,
IMD, IITM, WIHG, MoEF, MoES
Divecha Centre-IISc., ICAR, TERI,
Programme Director NICES
A Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) comprising members from ISRO/DOS
Centres will periodically review the NICES activities ( to be formed).

Retrieval of Essential Climate Variables Using Satellites





Atmosphere 




Radiation budget
Upper air temperature
Water vapour
Wind vector
Cloud properties
Precipitation
Aerosols












Inland water utilisation


Cloud cover
Glaciers
Snow cover
Forest
Crops
Biomass
Land cover
Soil moisture
Fire damage








Sea Surface Temp.


Sea Surface Salinity
Sea Surface Wave Ht.
Ocean colour
Sea level, Sea state
Sea ice

Land

Ocean

Present
INSAT-2E

INSAT-3A

(VHRR)

(VHRR, CCD )

KALPANA-1
(VHRR)
Cloud Motion Vectors ,
SST, Water Vapour,
Outgoing Radiation

RESOURCESAT-1
(Multispetral -Land

In the anvil
MEGHA-TROPIQUES
(Humidity Profile, Water Vapour,
Wind & Convective Rain areas )

INSAT-3D
(Atm. Sounding & Imaging)

(MXT, HYSi)
HyperSpectralLand & Water

ENVIRON-SAT 1
(GHGs: CH4, CO, CO2,
NO, NO2, ,SO2 )

ENVIRON-SAT 2
(Aerosols)

TSU

(Temp Sounding unit)

MEGHA-TROPIQUES
(Radiation Budget)

and Water)

IMS-1

Futuristic

RESOURCESAT 3
(Multispetral -Land and
Water)

RISAT-1
(C-band. SAR)
(Vegetation, Soil Moisture,
Disaster)

RESOURCESAT 2
(Multispetral -Land and
Water)

OCEANSAT-2

SARAL

(Scatterometer,
OCM, Radio Occultaion)
(Wind Vector,
Suspend Sediments,
Chlorophyll, Humidily &
Temp Profiles)

(Ka Band Altimetry


for Sea Wave Height)

RISAT-3
(L-band SAR)
(Vegetation, Soil Moisture,
Disaster)

OCEANSAT-3
(OCM/TIR)
(Suspend Sediments,
Chlorophyll, SST)

SCATSAT
(Scatterometer)
(Wind Vector)

Earth Observation Satellites Land missions


RESO
L-1&2 L-2
L-4
L-5
SPOT ERSURCE RISATMSS MSS L-3 MSS MSS MSS L-5 TM
1
YEAR
IRS-1A IRS-1B 1/2 IRS-P2 IRS-1C IRS-P3 IRS-1D IRS-P6 IRS-P5 IRS-C2 SAT-2
1
1979
1979 1979
1980
1980 1980
1980
Archival policy implemented for IRS-1A/1B &
1981
1981
1981 1981
LANDSAT till 1997.
1982
1982
1982 1982
4 Coverage's per year archived
1983
1983 1983
1984
1984
After 1997 all the data sets are archived
1985
1985 1985 1985
1986
1986 1986 1986
Media cost has come down
1987
1987 1987 1987
1988
1988 1988 1988 1988 1988
1989
1989 1989 1989 1989 1989
Historical data are invaluable
1990
1990 1990 1990 1990 1990
1991
1991 1991 1991 1991 1991
Prior to 1988 only NON IRS data available
1992
1992
1992 1992
1993
1993
1993 1993 1993
1994
1994
1994 1994 1994
1995
1995
1995 1995 1995 1995
1996
1996
1996
1996 1996 1996
1997
1997
1997
1997 1997 1997
1998
1998
1998
1998 1998 1998
1999
1999
1999
1999 1999 1999
2000
2000
2000 2000
2000 2000 2000
2001
2001
2001 2001
2001 2001 2001
2002
2002
2002 2002 2002
2003
2003
2003 2003 2003 2003
2004
2004
2004
2004 2004
2005
2005
2005 2005 2005
2006
2006
2006 2006 2006
2007
2007
2007 2007 2007 2007
2008
2008 2008 2008
2009
2009 2009 2009
2010
2010 2010 2010
2011
2011 2011 2011 2011
2012
2012 2012 2012 2012 2012

RISAT 1
Microwave C-band

Resourcesat 2
LISS 3 (23m)
LISS 4 (5.8m)
AWiFS (55m)

CARTOSAT-2
PAN 1m

Cartosat 1
PAN-2.5M, F/A

Spot
Landsat

Multi Spectral (20m)


Pan (10 m)

MSS (82m)
TM (30 m)

Resourcesat 1
IRS-1A & 1B
LISS-1&2 (72/36m)

IRS-1C/1D
LISS-3 (23/70m)
PAN (5.8m);
WiFS (188m)

IRS-P3
WiFS,
MOS X-Ray

LISS 3 (23m)
LISS 4 (5.8m)
AWiFS (55m)

Earth Observation Satellites Ocean & atmospheric missions


YEAR
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

NOAA
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

IRS-P4

1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

MODIS

Oceansat-2

2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008 2008
2009 2009
2010
2010
2011
2012

Total
Volume

TERRA
NOAA

MODIS ( 250m,
500m & 1Km)

AVHRR (1.1 Km)

Oceansat 1
OCM (360m),
MSMR

1276 TB
Oceansat 2

Aqua
MODIS ( 250m,
500m & 1Km)

OCM (360m),- LAC


OCM ( 1Km) GAC
Scatrometer

Major challenges

??

Raw Data Records of IRS & INSAT series (RDRs)


Satellite Data Records (SDRs) atmospherically corrected
Environmental Data Records (EDRs)-- < 10yrs (applictions)
Climate Data Records (CDRs) - >10 yrs (include insitu)
Reprocessing , process modeling , simulation scenarios'
Observational net works etc.

interdepartmental issues and policy PMC


& Science plan and implementation SSC

NICES Programmatic Structure


NICES PMC
(Apex body)
Scientific Steering
Committee

Director
NRSC

Prog. Director, NICES

Core Team
Dy Prog.director,
Prog. Manager
Project Director
(IT&S)

Project Director
(Terrestrial Sciences)

Project Director
DP&P

Project Director
(Ocean Sciences)

Project Manager
Outreach

Project Director
(Atmospheric Sciences)

ISRO Centres
(SAC, SPL, PRL,NARL, IIRS, NESAC)
ISRO Programmes
(EOS, GBP, SSO, ASP, ICO etc.)
Participating Depts
(MoES, MoEF, DST, CSIR etc.)

Theme
Leader
Theme
Leader
-2 -n
Theme
Leader-1
Principal
Investigator
-n
Principal
Investigator
Principal
Investigator
-1 -2

Information
Systems (IT &S)

Data Processing &


Products (DP&P)

Observations &
Infrastructure

Outreach and
Data dissemination

NICES Product Development and Interfaces


NDEM

Bhuvan

DPA

Satellite data

WRIS

Product development

-----SAN
IMGEOS,
NRSC
NICES

Spatial & temporal


blended ECV products
In-situ data

MOSDAC
SAC

Collaborators data
International data

Methodology
development
Science data
analysis

Proposed Focus Themes


During the 12th FYP, NICES mandate is to organize satellite based digital
databases relevant to climate and environmental records.
Initial emphasis will be on Indian remote sensing (IRS) and geostationary
meteorological satellites data.
Based on the availability of historical raw data (on an average 4 cycles of national
coverage for various resolutions) from NRSC-NDC, a systematic reprocessing
and preparation of environmental data records will be generated.
Similarly, data from WiFS, AWiFS, OCM, etc. will be processed for various Ocean &
land-surface geophysical parameters. Geostationary satellites of INSAT series,
Megha Tropiques, SARAL AltiKa and other science missions will also be
utilized and data archives generated with active support of SAC-MOSDAC for long
term data repository.

Contd..

Suggested focus themes


Terrestrial Sciences:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Vegetation Hydrology (includes forests and agro-hydrology)


Development of validation sites,
Soil moisture assessment and observations network using satellites,
Vegetation Carbon,
Bio-geo-chemical studies including weathering process (Hydro/Geochemistry),
land surface temperature (LST),
Himalayan ecosystem, Glaciers and snow, etc.

Atmospheric Sciences:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Tropospheric Ozone,
Boundary layer network and characterization,
Trace Gases and GHG networks & modeling,
Satellite and ground based retrieval of vertical profiles of T & RH
CO2 variability and control of surface fluxes etc.

Ocean Sciences:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ocean surface winds,


Ocean heat content,
Coastal & shoreline changes,
Ocean salinity, productivity and Carbon flux studies, etc.

Land surface Processes & Modeling:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

rivers and Urban Hydrology,


Land use land cover change,
Agricultural productivity and evapo-transpiration,
Nutrient cycles & productivity,BGC
assimilation of land surface parameters and study their impact on climate etc.

Any others at the advise of PMC

NICES will undertake collaborative research with various


institutions and academia.

In support of above activities, necessary


infrastructure,
observations,
analytical
and
computational facilities would be added
Terrestrial Observations & Instrumentation
Cal/Val Observations / Special Sites
Central Analytical Laboratory Facility
Establishment of Network of Observatories
Computational and Storage Facility
NICES: Consortium of ISRO/DOS Groups
NICES: Visiting Scientists
NICES: Outreach

Sl. No.

3
4
5

Department/Centre

Min. of Environ. &


Forests (MoEF)

Climate & Environmental Variables

Air pollution data from CPCB, water quality, information of NATCOM, INCAA, forest cover
information, protocols, policies, mining, industrial emissions, etc.
IMD: meteorological data, long term cloud information, vertical profiles of atmosphere, surface
radiation, etc.
INCOIS: ocean observations, coastal and shoreline observations on sea level, ocean colour, ocean
surface winds, SST, Sea Surface Salinity, ocean surface meteorological parameters.
NCAOR: polar snow cover & meteorology
Min. of Earth Sciences NIOT: design of ocean sensors
(MoES)
IITM: CCCR climate scenarios, climatological variables, support to NICES in land surface
processes & modeling, atmospheric trace gases, aerosols, cloud properties, etc.
NCMRWF: environmental and climatological variables both at surface and vertical layers,
simulation of land surface processes & modeling.
ICMAM: coastal ocean observations on flora & fauna and water analysis, coastal zone
management.
Dept. of Science &
Himalayan snow, glaciers and lakes etc.
Tech. (DST)
Council of Sci. & Ind. environmental data and pollution studies, ocean observations, etc.
Res. (CSIR)
Academia & Institutes Sponsored research & participation
NRSC & RCs: implementing centre for NICES, satellite based climate & environmental data
records.
SAC: INSAT series, Megha Tropiques, SARAL Altika, OScat, etc., geophysical parameters,
agriculture, wetlands & Himalayan ecosystem.
PRL: atmospheric chemistry, aerosol chemistry, paleo-climate.
ISRO Centres
NARL: boundary layer studies, vertical profiles of temperature & humidity, atmospheric
instrumentation.
SPL: aerosol properties & radiative forcing, cloud characteristics & forcing
NESAC: participation in NICES network.
IIRS/IIST: capacity building, research & participation in NICES network.

www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in

Gateway to NICES

Ocean Services
Potential Fishing Zones Information

Water Salinity and Temperature

Air Pressure and Wave height

Profiles of temp
And
Salinity

http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in

Bhuvan Cell, NRSC,

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Geophysical Products from Ocean Color Monitor(Regional)

NDVI: Nov-12

VF: Nov-12

Products at primary level are processed


@360m ortho rectified & atmospherically
corrected before realizing a 15 day
composite geophysical NDVI product using
maximum value composite method.
Broadband(0.3 to 3.0m) albedo is realized
with OCM spectral albedo and atmospheric
radiative transfer code.

Albedo: Nov-12

22

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Geophysical Products from Ocean Color Monitor(Global)


May12-NDVI
NDVI: May-12

Global products realized from


Ocean Color Monitor using
onboard recorder @1km
spatial resolution. The globe
can be covered in 8day revisit
cycle between 80N to 80S.
Geophysical products are
produced @8km.

Albedo: May-12

23

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

8-day Binned product of Chlorophyll-a March 2012 from OCM-2

49

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

OCM-2 8-day Binned Global Chlorophyll-a product of March2012

54

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

OCM-2 Monthly Chlorophyll in the NIO Region

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Coastal tidal simulation from Altimeter


M2 tidal level
 SARAL-ALTIKA

1.

2.

Coastal Altimetry- deriving accurate


high resolution tidal solutions
(amplitude and phases of major tidal
components) in the coastal oceans
around India
Application of altimetry data for
coastal ocean processes study
assimilating altimetry data into a
mesoscale ocean model.

Gulf of Khambhat

Hooghly

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

OSCAT WIND STRESS & WIND STRESS CURL L-3W GLOBAL PRODUCT

Images show the global variation of wind stress (left panel) and
wind stress curl (right panel) obtained using OSCAT L-3 wind
products of 303 & 304th day of 2012.

12 Hourly Analyzed Wind Vectors are generated


Level2B(swath) data from both OSCAT and ASCAT

by

combining

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Pressure fields retrieved from OSCAT


31 Oct 2012 Descending

31 Oct 2012 Descending


m/s

hPa

1014
1013

During NILAM
Cyclone Period
Pressure fields
Pass wise

1012
1011
1010
1009
1008
1007
1006

m/s

hPa
1014

One Day
composite of
pressure fields
during Normal
period

1013
1012
1011
1010
1009
1008
1007
1006

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Pressure fields retrieved from OSCAT


31 Oct 2012 Descending

31 Oct 2012 Descending


m/s

hPa

1014
1013

During NILAM
Cyclone Period
Pressure fields
Pass wise

1012
1011
1010
1009
1008
1007
1006

m/s

hPa
1014

One Day
composite of
pressure fields
during Normal
period

1013
1012
1011
1010
1009
1008
1007
1006

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Modelled D26 (m) Product generated at NICES@NRSC ISRO


6 hrs

24hrs

12hrs

48hrs

Daily (averaged over


previous 24 hr) Sea
Surface Temperature
derived from Kalpana
IR channel data

Cloud
mask
derived
using
Kalpana-1
IR
channel data
Data availability
04-05-2010 to 04-01-2011

Outgoing
Longwave
Radiation derived from
INSAT-3A IR Channel
Data

Data Availability:27-05-2009 to 10-03-2011

Vegetation Dynamics from INSAT 3A CCD


25 May to 9June08

10 June to 25 June08

26 June to 11 July08

12 July to 27 July08

13 Aug to 28 Aug08

29 Aug to13 Sept08

14 Sept to 29 Sept08

30 Sept to 15 Oct08

1 Nov to 16 Nov08

17 Nov to 2 Dec08

6 Mar to 21Mar09

22 Mar to 6 April09

3 Dec to 18 Dec08

7 April to 22 April09

2 Feb to 17 Feb09

23 April to 30 April09

Satellite ECVs-ISRO
28 July to 12 Aug08

16 Oct to 31Oct08

18 Feb to 05 Mar09

-1.00 0.00
0.01 0.12
0.13 0.15
0.16 0.18
0.19 0.21
0.22 0.24
0.25 0.26
0.27 0.30
0.31 0.34

0.35 0.37
0.38 0.41
0.42 0.46
0.47 0.50
0.51 0.60
0.61 0.69
0.70 0.79
0.80 0.90

Indian Observational Networks


Sl.
No.

ISRO/DOS Networks

Other Ministries/Dept. Networks

NCP-CO2 Network (GBP)

Argos

NCP-Flux Towers (GBP)

XBT, CTD, XCTD (CSIR, MoES)

AWS Network

AWS Network (MoES)

AgroMet Stations Network (GBP)

AgroMet Obs. (IMD)

Mini-BL Mast Network (MBLM)

Surface & Upper Air Radiation

ARFI Network (GBP)

IITM Observations

Atmospheric BL Network (GBP)

Ocean Data Buoys (INCOIS, MoES)

Atmospheric Trace Gases (GBP)

MoES Trace Gas Network (IITM)

NRSC cal/val site

O3 Monitoring Networks

10

NRSC Environmental Labs.

Air Pollution Monitoring

11

MOSDAC

Surface Observations Network (MoES)

12

Aerosol chemistry Observations

NAAQM (CPCB, MoEF)

13

Upper air Observations (RS)

CWC river flow Net work

14

NARL Observations on upper Atm

CGWB ground water & Quality


Others

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Atmospheric Environment
Black Carbon & Aerosols monitoring, Research campaigns
Environmental Observatory Network

Major finding
Trends: BC (-5%)
200 ng m-3 y-1

AOD +0.007 y-1

1990

26 Locations

1994

1998

2002

2006

2010

KGP -1200ng (-8%) Port blair 65ng (-3.3%)


30N

-2

Wm

100

25N
80

20N
60

15N

40

10N

5N

55E

AOD

20

65E

75E

ARF

85E

95E

MWR-MKIII Patented

m -3 y-1

Atmospheric Environment
ABL

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Network
The 'ABL' is an inter-facial layer, wherein largescale atmospheric processes are driven by
land surface fluxes;
There is a significant spatial in homogeneity
ABL Heights in BOB

Mixed Layer Heights over BoB obtained from


indigenously developed Pisharoty Sondes

Terrestrial Environment

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Agro-Meteorological Stations (AMS) Network


Vegetation Response to Climate and CO2 Uptake
Network of Micrometeorological (Canopy scale) Measurements
Sensors : Radiation balance, Energy Balance, Water balance
Selection criteria
Vegetation types
Agro-ecology
Fetch requirement

23

6
1
12

WS (8m)

10

18

7
20

16
A1
A2

1. Ludhiana
2. Patna
3. Kalyani, WB
4. Madhav Nat. Park MP
5. LPSC, TN
6. Tunganath
7. Guwahati
8. Bomdilla, AP
9. Tonga AP
10. Bharatpur, Raj
11. Shriharikota
12. Jodhpur
13. Andman
14. Nicobar
15. Kanha Nat. Park, MP
16. Banni, Guj.
17. Chilka
18. IISR, UP
19. Bandhavgarh Nat.

19

T & H (6m)
2

15
24

3
21

17

WS (4m)

A4

T & H (3m)

A3

Transmitter

11

Diff.Radiation

14
5

22

13

Park,MP

Radiation

20. Mirzapur UP
21. Bhitarkanika
22. TNAU, TN
23. Nubra/Leh
24. Maharastra

WS (2m)
T & H ( 1m)

Solar

Data Logger

Locations of AMS Net work (24)

ISRO-Agro-Met Station (AMS)


10m for short canopies

Flux Towers 50Metrs

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Terrestrial Environment
National Carbon Pool Assessment (NCP)
Current spatial vegetation & soils Carbon pool
Quantitative spatial estimates of C flux viz., GPP, NPP & respiration
Fluxes controlled by environmental variables & vegetation types

Indias Flux net established

Haldwani tower
10
8

10000 sample plots envisaged

6
fCO2 (umol m-2s-1)

2500 permanent plots for


monitoring biomass/ carbon
increment

4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

18

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Days in December month-Deciduous period

-2

-1

FCO2 (umol m s )

0
-3
-6
-9
-12

Julian Day

Flux Net sites

Flux Tower

Flux of CO2 during the growing period

153
153

152

151
152

151

150
150

149

148
149

148

147
147

146

145
146

145

144
144

143
143

142

141
142

141

140
140

-15

Terrestrial Environment

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

How river Basins Respond to Hydrology in Future?


Land Use & Land Cover Dynamics in Indian River Basins

TRIPURA

Gumti Lake

Apr 2005

Mar 2006

Mar 2007

Environmental Data Records (EDRs)

Satellite ECVs-ISRO

Space Legacy Data


Sea Surface Winds

Vegetation Index

Sept 2009
(Normal year)

Sept 2002
(Drought year)

Sept 2008
Glacier Retreat

Sea Surface Temp

Chlorophyll

1976

1989

2000

2006

Potential Fishing Zones

Samudra Tapu Glacier, H. P.

Directions from NICES - PMC


1. NICES information system establishment using priority
ECVs
2. Gaps in ECVs and support from other Depts/Ministries
3. Identification and realization of priority themes through
joint teams from ISRO and Non-ISRO Centres
4. Formulation of Science Plan
5. Identification of Scientific Steering Committee
6. Establishment of observational networks/sites for cal/val
activities
7. PMC approval for NICES implementation plan

THANK YOU