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Enzyme - 1

Classification and Kinetics

Harliansyah, PhD
Head Dept. of Biochemistry
Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University

Objectives
Describe the chemical properties of enzymes:
eg. Active site, catalytic efficiency, specificity, cofactor,
regulation, compartmentalisation.
Explain the classification of enzymes
Describe the kinetics of enzyme catalysis:
-. Michaelis Menten equation
-. Lineweaver Burk transformation
References:
1. Rao, N.M. 2006. Medical Biochemistry. 2nd Ed.
New Age, Publisher.
2. Baynes, J.W. Dominiczak, M.H. 2005. Medical
Biochemistry. 2nd Ed. Elsevier Mosby.

What is Enzyme ?
Catalyst
Increase rate of chemical reactions without changing the equilibrium
Enzymes different from other catalyst:
-. Specific : each enzyme eat different reaction
-. Greater catalytic power than other catalyst
-. Catalytic action can be regulated to ensure rate
of product formed not in excess of amount needed
Localization: organ, tissue, cellular, subcellular
Holoenzyme = Apoenzyme + Cofactor
Reactant = Substrate
Classified in to 6 groups = type of reaction

Enzymes are proteins globular (ribozyme is catalytic active of RNA) each


with a specific structure (native conformation), function, distribution of
electrical charges, and surface geometry whose specificity depends on
their tertiary structure. The tertiary structure determines the threedimensional shape. They are each responsible for control of a single
reaction and are thus responsible for control of metabolism.

Active Site
= three dimensional cleft created by side chain of several amino acid
Amino acid from different regions in the linear sequence of enzyme, folded,
side chains close at the active side
Amino acid is classified into 2 functional groups:
1. Binding residues
2. Catalytic residues

- In an enzyme, a `binding site = an `active site


- 4 types of binding of small molecule (red) to the binding site of
a protein (shaded)

Electrostatic

Hydrophobic

Hydrogen Bond

Van Der Walls

Enzyme Specificity
1. Substrate
2. Reaction

3. Group

4. Absolute group

Effect enzymes on activation energy

Reaction Profile

Examples of
Reaction Profile

Examples of
Reaction Profile

Factors That Influence Reaction Rate

Under a specific set of conditions, every reaction has its own


characteristic rate, which depends upon the chemical nature of
the reactants.

Four factors can be controlled during the reaction:


1. Concentration - molecules must collide to react;
2.
3.
4.

Physical state - molecules must mix to collide;


Temperature - molecules must collide with enough energy to react;
The use of a catalyst.

Cascade Model : Type reaction of enzymes

Effects of temperature

Each enzyme has an optimal temperature in which it can function

Effects of pH

Each enzyme has an optimal pH in which it can function