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CHAPTER – III

3.0 Introduction
Bangladesh is largely an agricultural country and land is the principal
wealth in the
rural society. Majority of the population are engaged in agricultural
occupation and
agriculture related occupation .In the current millennium at the peak
of human civilization
most of the countries are rushing towards postindustrial technology
based modern society,
we, the people of Bangladesh are far behind with that of the
developed countries of the
modern age. Majority of the population is the inhabitants of rural
society where investorconsumer
relationship is well entranced to evaluate the development of the
whole
motherland we have to pay a specific and sympathetic view to these
irony-fated poor
villages.
The word we know ‘Gram’ as an ethnic grouping of partial members
of the
society. It is a community all together with diverse ethnicity. The
pastoral part possesses a
more or less sole culture of their own with a diverse mind-set, custom
and conviction. In
order to be aware of the Gram we have to ascertain and gain
knowledge from the people of
the Gram and find our feet to their life style.

3.1 Creation of North Bahir Kamta KamtaHistory and Nomenclature
To get the idea about the village we need to know the background of
the village.
The village we were assigned to conduct our PRA (Participatory Rural
Appraisal) was
named North Bahir Kamta. While conducting the PRA of the assigned
village, we have felt
the importance to learn the history of the name of the village.
Majority of the residents of
the village do not have any clear idea about history of the village
accept few elderly people
and some of them who had strong ancestral strings had a hazy view
regarding this fact.

While conducting PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal), we tried to get
this information
from various respondents from that village and also from different
people from different
age group.
The villagers told us that in Pakistan period the village was under in
Dhaleshori river.
At the time passed there raised an island on the river and day by day
people started to
established their houses on the island.
The main village is “Kamta”. The village fells under Dhankora Union,
Shaturia
Thana and North side of Maikganj District. It is an old village which is
thought to be exists
for more than 35 years. All of its inhabitants are Muslims. It’s a
beautiful village with the
river Dhalesshore flowing nearby. Our assigned village situated
outside of the Kamta village.
That’s why the villagers called Bahir Kamta.There are two parts of
Bahir Kamta one of them
is North Bahir Kamta and other one is South Bahir Kamta.We worked
on North Bahir
Kamta.

3.2 Mapping of North Bahir Kamta Village

Village Mapping is a technique that helps a team to learn about the
social structure of a
community and how differences among households to land and other
asset holdings and
access to difference services to identify groups and social categories.
It also identifies the
location of homesteads, different streets, schools, markets, shops,
ponds, mosques, rivers;
crop field’s etc. social map is also useful as an introduction to
discussing inequalities and
social problems.
Through the help of P.R.A. technique, we have been able to generate
enough
feedback from the villagers to construct the village map. This was our
first step in P.R.A.
building. Village map includes the overall picture of the Gram with its
geographical data.
Our study area North Bahir Kamta Village is in the Saturia Thana of
Manikganj
District. To collect the data for our report we have used the following
techniques, which are

The PRA team should make the environment in such a way that the villagers feel themselves more important.3 Techniques of village mapping 3. Thus. 3. So. it is important that by building a good relationship with the villagers an exact map can be extracted from the villagers. 4) While walking through in the village.3. The team members should behave with the people in such a way that. Another concept exists there. its natural resources. the villagers will feel free to share information. we should carefully observe the surroundings: like . surroundings etc. When we went to the village. 2) We should ask the villagers from which direction we will get a clear idea about the village. other people will make him correct. Village Mapping 2. This is because one man can do several mistakes. The place should be such that more people can sit together. open place where the selected villager will draw his village map. We can construct relationship with the villagers by the following ways: 1) We should make relationship with the villagers by talking with them while walking through the village. they do not feel uncomfortable and do not hesitate to share the feeling with the PRA team.3.2 Rapport building Building relationship with the villagers is called rapport building.1 Site selection We used PRA techniques to draw the maps. we have to select a clean. Village Transect Map Of Bangladesh N WE S Map Of Manikganj Village Map Of North Bahir Kamta 3. This is a major aspect of PRA technique. they do not know anything and the villagers are teaching them.explained in details later: 1. 3) We should ask the villagers in a several formatted questions.

how the land is used. Mr. It should be finalized by the PRA team by asking them to symbolize (using colored chalk powder) the different resources like school. if there is any school or not. which are unfamiliar. They had drawn the map on the courtyard and we copied it to a page.4 Overview of North Bahir Kamta village . So. An interesting thing happened. firms. 5) We should ask the villagers the name of the trees or crops. market. Kuddus and others. Our instructors told us about it before but it was a personal experience for us that whenever we asked them something about their village they at first they talked among themselves and then gave their statement. pond or any mosque or any graveyard is there. Torab. government office. mosque. 3. 6) After finishing the transect walk. In brief. we should write all the data in a tabular form. After returning to Chittagong we drew the map again and it is submitted with the report. if there is any tube-well. canals and other social aspects. house type. Then we asked them where is the mosque. They all talked at a high pitched voice and it seemed they were all talking to them selves and nobody could follow them. Then we drew it in PROSHIKA and the next day we cross checked the maps with the help of the villagers and corrected them.3. The people who helped us are Mr. ponds. if so then where it is and so on. and the place was open and clear. Then we gathered some people and with the help of them we started to draw the map.3 Drawing the map The villager draws the map on the ground. 3. Then we told them that we wanted to know about their village map. one of them took a stick and started to draw the main road of the village as there is only one main road in village usually. mills. At last we selected the place which is besides of a pond. sub road. And then we should reconfirm it by the villagers. main road. We introduced ourselves to them. we should keep our eyes open.

Not only does North Bahir Kamta have a moderately good water resources system for irrigation and food resources. This inflow of income enables few families to live a moderately comfortable life. There are no health care facilities or pharmacy in the village. It also has a river that stretches from North of the village. North Bahir Kamta is not very resourceful and it has a little area of land with a good variety of resources ecology. The economic condition of the village is a sustainable one as most men folk are farmer.5 Synopsis of North Bahir Kamta village Name of the village District Thana Union Post office Area Total Population Voter Literacy Rate Religion Total Number of house Total Number of household Number of total School Hospital Mosque Electricity Gas NGOs: GOs: . which provide water for irrigation purposes. The villagers have strong communal feelings. The village covers an area of 35 acor. Such a resource provides benefit to the villagers of North Bahir Kamta. daily labor or migrant workers living in the cities or abroad. There are other water facilities such as a deep tube-well. The study findings also revealed that North Bahir Kamta is a more or less developing village. The entire village falls under the Dhankora Union in Saturia Thana and topology is plain land.North Bahir Kamta is situated in the northern part of Manikgonj. 3.

Thana sasto Complex 3.6 Village Attached with North Bahir Kamta village Our study area is surrounded by the following areas: North Janna Village East Kamta Village West Raillar Chor South South Bahir Kamta .Grameen Bank and ASA are working Krishi Bank.: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : North Bahir Kamta Manikgonj Shaturia Dhankora Dhankora 35 acer (approximately) 400-450 250 (approximately) 75% Islam (100% Muslim) 70-75 50-60 None None None Available Unavailable PROSHIKA.

3. The study findings also revealed that North Bahir Kamta is a more or less developing village.2 Roads and Communication The main road of North Bahir Kamta is not large. 3. Such a resource provides benefit to the villagers of North Bahir Kamta. So the overall production price of the crops increases. There are no health care facilities or pharmacy in the village. we found some houses which walls and floor are made by muddy. But all of them houses are situated on high places because in rainy season the village is affected by flood. The economic condition of the village is a sustainable and almost all of them are farmers.3. college or madrasa in our village. wall by bamboo stick and floor by mud. We found some brick built house. The villagers have strong communal feelings. Villages said that they have made their roof by tin.7. one is Kala chan’s house (Judge of the village) and another one is . By the changing of government the school was closed because of the foreign help was stopped by the government. so the truck cannot enter inside the village and the farmers have to pay high price to higher rickshaw and van to take there crops to the market.7. but most of the houses are tin-shaded.7Landmarks and resources of North Bahir Kamta village Our village is not very resourceful but it has a little area of land with a good fertility .7. Three years ago there was a primary school which was directed by Proshika.1 School/college/madrasa At present there is no School.But there is no pond in our village. North Bahir Kamta also has a river that is situated in the Eastern side. 3.3 House type We found there were several types of houses in our village. After that some student of this school goes to Kamta Government primary school and some of them were stop reading. it is kacha. There are two concrete made floors in our village.

and “Supari or Boroi" trees.Torab Ali’s house. Villagers said that people graves finishing to their room's floor by mixing water with little amount of cow dung. Students are easily goes to town for their higher study and the opportunities of business also increased. rickshaw van. Villagers also have the rooms for cattle's in front of their houses.7. which they use as the drawing room of their houses. onion. Villagers go there to say their prayer. Villagers said that in their houses they have palm. The DhakaAricha highway is mainly used as the route to the town from the village.6 Communication and Transports There is only one way to get into the village. The upper layer is "Etel" soil.5 Mosque There is no mosque in our village. 3. baby-taxis. The sources for communication with Manikgonj are rickshaws.sugar and many of their necessary things. which is through the Saturia main road. bicycle.7. date. Chocolate. buses and tempo.4 Shop There is only one tin shed shop in the middle of the village. which is situated beside of our village.bread. chips. This road improved villager’s life slandered. But there is one mosque. coconut. they have stocked their strand here. 3. ginger .7. 3. which is a big pot is made of mud. Most of the households have straw in front of their houses. The communication system of the village is not very good. They some trees here as well as. The villagers buy their daily essential things from this shop. It helps her to work in his house and shop both. Some villagers may have two or more houses in their propriety. Van. tea . Biscuit. potato. They cattle's are fed in "Chari". rickshaw. According to the villager this road was build in six . motorcycle and other light vehicles are used for communication. They are one room for "Kachari ghar. This soil is very hard. This shop is beside of owner’s residence and with the main road. The floor is made with the lower layer of the soil and it is "Bele" soil.

The villagers use river water for their irrigation and daily use. deep-tube-well. 3. which they use for irrigation. household and domestic purposes. The villagers use the water from the well for drinking.Almost every house has its own it’s own tube well. and villagers can also find enough rickshaw.7. Balir Ghat(part of Dholesshori) and tube well. Almost every house has their own hold to put all the wastes.7 Sources of water The main water sources of this village is Dholesshori river.7. baby-taxi. 3. This sandy loamy soils are blown by the river for long . But from the Saturia there are bus service available. So the overall production price of the crops increases. Their development efforts have created a revolution of rising expectation of people for better life. better well being.to eight years ago.9 Soil Type The types of soil we found in the village are sandy loam. so the truck cannot enter inside the village and the farmers have to pay high price to higher rickshaw and van to take there crops to the market. But during rainy season the kacha rasta of the village get really messy. The main road of the village is not large. The other source of waters areShallow tube-well. They also use Dholesshori and Balir Ghat for their and their domestic animal bath. Not everywhere. This communication is indicating that the revolution that is taking place in the grass root level in the form of chronological change due to political modernization and gradually increasing activities of the NGO’s after the Liberation War. The river plays an important role for this fertility of the land.8 River The village has a river “Dholesshori” which is important river of Bangladesh. but in some places the soil is of clay. it is muddy.7. even in completely isolated villages. And the improvement of communication system started after the flood of 1988. tempo. 3.

mango. 3.7. we can say that the ‘pricing’ of the crops. They also use chemical fertilizers for good production of crops. 3. They are twenty. There are no Aush. Spinach. Aman and Boro. Kalizira. The villagers grows only IRRI paddy through out the year. Brinjle. farmers get seeds. B11. The villagers are very happy with the production capability of the land. For irrigation they use deep tube well which is called ‘Shallow machine’ by them. Most of the lands are paddy lands. Like coconut. such as potato. vegetables and spices follow the simple economic principle of supply and demand. Nazarshail. The prices are high when demand for a particular crop exceeds its supply and vice versa. That’s why other crops could not grow in that land.11 Trees Different types of trees are found all over in the village.7. The most common crop is mustard and tobacco. There are many different types in IRRI. Bean pumpkins. In North Bahir Kamta village. The major advantage for the farmers in North Bahir Kamta is that all of their cultivatable land is located at one side of the village. Bitlob. Pumpkin. Tobacco is profitable because it does not need any pesticide more over the paddy is given by Tobacco Company. But now farmers not interested to grow tobacco because it decreased fertility of land. watermelon. Rajvog. They also grow winter crops like Rabi Shashwa.times. China Irri etc. jam. fertilizer and pesticides from their nearest “Proshika” NGO organization and also from other external sources. Varda. Therefore it is easier for them to supply water to the lands in the dry season.10 Agriculture and Cultivation As the most of the villagers are farmers. Paddy is grown here vastly. spices etc in the winter season. The soil is famous for its fertility. Almost every household has . Papaw etc are mostly seen. beans. banana. Their land is very fertile. which allows them to produce crops and vegetables throughout the year. so they are grown paddy in a large number. jackfruit. Gourt. There are various types of fruits that are available in the village all the year round. After analyzing the seasonal timing of growing crops in village.

The economic condition of the village is a sustainable and almost all of them are farmers. Guava. Date. They also meet the necessity for the firewood of the villagers. Eucalyptus. Jackfruit. "Ata". Epil epil. Pitasorai. The villagers use the water from the well for drinking and also domestic purposes. "Golapjam". as . Lichi. But only the women have to follow this concept. "jamrul". Shimul and Banyan tree etc are mostly seen. Almost every house has their own hold to put all the wastes. Shishu. Otherwise they have to depend on some doctors whose camber and dispensary is in Bazaar. Lemon. Star-fruit. We found many bamboo bushes that are used in household walls and villagers also can earn money by selling it in the Hut.several trees. Papaw. There used to be bushes and jungles in the village. The health condition of the people whose economic condition is quite good is better than whose economic condition is poor.. Shall. The trees along the side of the main road are SHISHU. Mahogany. The sanitary system is good and there are very few non-sanitary latrines in the village. "Boroi". The villagers lead a bit comfortable. 3. Almost the whole village is aware of family planning. sometimes hard life. "Dalim". Villagers have go to the Sadar for better treatment. "Shupari". These trees are a good source of earnings for the villagers. 'Kotbel". Almost every house has its own it’s own arsenic free tube well. Devdaru. There is no Hospital and Health Center into the village. But now most of it has turn in to agricultural land. The small homestead forests are Palm. contain near Tulsi. Mango. Coconut. Karoi. Most of the homestead also contains may jack fruits tree which are used for making furniture from these villagers also can lot of money.7. Banana.12 Healthcare Center There are no health care facilities or pharmacy in the village. Bamboo. Berry. Rain Tree. Most of the houses have bamboo bushes at the back of their houses. “Amra". olive.

Mayna. “Dhora”. pills (Femicon. Kingfisher.7.8 . “Dudhraj”. % No. ducks and dogs are the domestic animals of the village.a big places where exchange takes place between sellers and buyers. Bulbul. Mother comes here for routine check-up. The others animals are buffaloes. hens. owl. The family planning items are likecondom (Raja. There are also have different types of small and big and poisonous snakes like “Sutanali”. But in big case they go to Jannar haat.7. Pan kowri. A village hut is a large gathering of the village people Haat generally sits at an open place on the skirt of a village by the side of a river or a canal or a road. ghughu. “Pangkhiraj” etc. Maya) are available there. jackal. They don’t have hens and ducks so much because these domestic animals make their house dirty which hampers their prayer.13 Haat and Bazar The definition of haat is. One is a big bazaar and another is a haat named “Jannar haat” The villagers go to Gollara bazar for buy their daily essential things.14 Birds In our village there are different types of birds we seen. 3. Sparrow. Shalik. 3. But Muslim are use to have all types of domestic animals. cock. We found their two types of village market.1 Age and Sex Distribution of Study Population Male Female Age Groups No. cuckoo. Stocks. Nirapod). goats and sheep. Parrot.8 Basic Demographical information of North Bahir Kamta 3. “Daraish”. pea cock etc. Doel. This center manly deals with baby and their mother. horse.7. % 0-10 13 11% 11 9% . 3.the men do not like to follow this. “Gokhro”. 3. 3.1 8 Age and Sex Distribution of Study Population Table: 1.15 Animals In our village most of the houses have domestic animal of cows.They are Pigeon.

.8..2 Marital status Male Female Marital Status No.. 2005.4 Primary occupation Table:1. % Income Earner 38 31% 3 2% House Wife 40 33% Student 10 8 % 8 7 % Unemployed . % Married 38 31% 44 36% Unmarried 20 17% 17 14% Widow/Widower . % No.8. % No.5: Total Family Income (Yearly) Income Range No.6 BBS Report of Manikganj Sadar Table 1.6: BBS report Rural Male Female .5 Total Family Income Table 1.. 3.Joint 8 32% Nuclear 17 68% Total 25 100% Source: Field Survey.8.Separated/Abandoned .8.3 Family Type Family Type No % Extended . 3.10-15 7 6% 5 4% 15-20 5 4% 11 9% 20-Higher 36 30% 33 27% Source: Field Survey 2005 3.2 2% Divorced .8. 3.4 Occupation Male Female Occupation No. % 30000-70000 5 7 % 18000– 30000 40 57% 10000-18000 25 36 % Source: Field Survey.8. 2005..Dependent (children) 8 7% 9 7% Dependent (Aged persons) 2 2% 4 3% Total 57 48% 63 52% Source: Field Survey.2005 3..3 Family Type Table: 1.Source: Field Survey 2005 3.2 Marital Status 2 Table: 1..

12 4.87 2.12 17.94 35-39 5.45 94.00 15-19 100.18 83.7 Religion All of the villagers are Muslims.8.18 93.36 1.63 4.23 0.65 1.15 40-44 3.23 43.97 70-74 9.05 50-54 3.17 1.83 95.35 4.64 60-64 2.66 1.22 91.78 94.69 2.72 7.10 5.35 30-34 11.67 91. Parents want to make their children educated.67 67.41 2.68 2.87 5.69 72.83 45-49 2.66 2.32 45. 2000.44 0.41 82. They perform their usual religious activities without any barriers.82 24.89 0.09 91. It is because the parents are given compensation from the government if they let their children to study up to the primary level.86 3. 3.80 91.25 10-14 100.95 2.99 80.04 6.00 .32 23.60 1.94 35.100.22 0.85 55-59 2.84 Source: BBS Report.27 60.8. So that 75% of people of North Bahir .79 42.34 10.46 96.36 54.Never Married Currently Married Widowed Divorced Separated Never Married Currently Married Widowed Divorced Separated Total 47.27 49.34 65-69 4.15 63.58 50.55 1.93 8.54 1..42 2.74 82.00 .15 20-24 74.93 92.8 Literacy In the village of North Bahir Kamta the literacy rate is very good and it increasing day by day.18 30.60.84 14..52 87.98 1. 3.03 25-29 35. Though there is no school in the village but children’s go another village school which is one or one and half kilometer far from the their village.13 51.34 30.

.. They are offer for micro credit. 1 1 . The oldest person of the village named Kala Chan and Torab Ali are present there and give the solutions.. They are creating consciousness for the education among the villagers. Since 1986 PROSHIKA is developing their different activities in Koitta village life. % No.. 3. Grameen Bank..C) 3 2 1 4..0 1 1 5 4 S. agriculture and many other... mass education. % No.S. Students are given all kind of books pencils and other necessaries from the school.. They give loan and job facilities to the villagers.Kamta are literate. These organizations are giving message on education.. their health conditions and hygiene.7 Educational Background: Currently Student Non-student Male Female Male Female Educational Background No. financial condition etc. economical. Interesting things is that the girls also go school as well as boys.Masters .S.9 Administration and Laws Basically there is no administration in North Bahir Kamta. % No. The NGOs have field worker for the village for help and inspection whether the villagers are really getting their services. health...2 2 .C... % Primary 6 5 7 6 3 2 1 1 Secondary (Non S.. For example activities regarding social.8.Graduation . 2005. ASA in the village.Source: Field Survey. .. .H.C.8. At the entrance point of the village there is a police box..10 Roles of NGO There are NGOs like PROSHIKA. Polices are guard whole night but in day time they don’t. Table : 1.. For any kind of problem solving people announced a meeting which is called “Bichar”.S. education. POSHIKA has one of the successful project is Koitta village.. 3.

12 Recreation The general meeting place for the men is the bazaar. Folk song narrates the common social practice. So the sources of ancient means of entertainment are going to be extinct now. 3. norms and history in local language. Skill Development training Workshop to help the communication development. But the females are not allowed to come here and enjoy the circus. It is because the . Most of the families are nuclear and it is increasing. the main source of entertainment is TV.8. People from nearby villages come and takes part in the fair. Some time woman use to watch TV after finishing their housework.Removing poor structurally. And for the women they go from houses to houses and gossip. Exsmall loan. Build and save the nature. as the whole village has electric facility and almost every house has TV (Black-white). Every year there sits a fair in the Kati village. The number of joint families is decreasing. In the fair circus comes from Dhaka. This fair is taking place for almost 40-50 years.9 Major Findings of the village There are about 400 to 450 (approx) people residing in the village and there are about 250 voters in the village. Different development Education program Human development training workshop.8. Developing scope of woman end of income by different activities. Video and Audios. Developing the rights of woman in the society. But now a day. Wood and steel materials are one of the main selling materials of this fair. According to the villagers these are usually sang by the villagers in different occasions. 3.11 Government Organization There is Krishi Bank for giving agriculture and project loan. The village has about 60-70 family units. They have drama and fair in different seasons of the year. 3. Thana sastho comlplex which gives family planning accessories and mother and child cares.

They were in hurry because they have to go field for work. Among those 3 of the families were classified as Upper. According to the villagers' opinion these families were divided into three classes – Upper. Alopathy. Pani Pora. That’s why the villagers till now for the common diseases depend on Kobiraj’s. 3. There was no doctor even a pharmacy in the village. Information of total of 25 (twenty five) families were collected for analysis. All most all houses have sanitary latrines. Middle and Lower. for which they cannot afford to stay in joint families. Not only that. Most of the villagers are middle class or poor. we found some margins. We found 80% people of the village were educated. Some of the old people feel very hesitate. They don’t want to talk. According to the villagers they are quite happy as they are.people of the village are getting more self-centered. They could not give appropriate answers of some questions. and homeopathy treatment. Most of our respondents were young people. It is because the parents are given compensation from the government if they let their children to study up to the primary level. the villagers were very much busy at that time. Overall the villagers were not very well off. According to the villagers that their economical condition is not good. the villagers are getting educated and they are growing a tendency to move to the towns rather than stay in the village. 15 were of Middle class and rest was Lower. . More over we spent only one day for drawing the village map and one day for transect map As we worked at morning. The limitations we found are stated below: Time limitation was one of the most important factors because to build a very good rapport with the villagers we need to comparatively longer period of time than we were allotted.10 Limitations As we were unfamiliar with this type of research.

poultry and livestock. fish culture. land use pattern. land type. To get a clear idea about the village and to get primary idea about the natural resources. It represents the structure of the whole village in terms of its components. etc. The application of the map is to illustrate the relationship between the different important components of the village. To know the differences about the village by seeing and by knowledge gathered . types of crops and some important structures etc. and then to get primary ideas about the natural resources of the village like river. The importance of doing transect is to give a birds eye view or a view at glance about the physical picture of the village. economical and social resources of a community.11. 3. To do transact it takes a limited area and within that area we need to describe what we saw step by step from our first step to the last. It depicts a cross section of an area on which a number of physical arrangements are recorded. soils.11 Transect Mapping Transect is micro view of village. trees.2 Objective of village transect The major objective is to get a general idea about the village and village people. by talking with the villagers rapport building is done. They are mainly topography. etc. soil use problems and solutions. 3.There were some topics such as we asked them about the history of their village name.1 Application of Transect Map The goal of the transect map is to get a micro view of the whole village. crops and cropping pattern. The main objectives are: To know the life style of the village people. lands. But they could not answer accurately. plantation. vegetation. It includes generalized soil type. homestead gardening etc. 3.11. land use homestead forest and vegetation. The Transect is a technique that is directly built upon the village map to help the team learn more details about the environmental. When doing village transact.

wood. walk very slowly. and guava. gourd. types of crops. observe everything very carefully around you.11. Different kinds of vegetables were cultivated like potato.locally. Jackfruit. It’s used for residence. silk cotton and bamboo tree. types of animals. birds seen. To promote the group members about the village by transect. onion.4 Transect walk We took the south side of our village North Bahir Kamta. Drawing a rough sketch map of the transect path. 40-60 steps Here land type was low and soil was sandy loamy. Some trees were beside in houses like: Jambura. betel nut. While walking through the village. 3. Observing the general structures as far as eyes can see. If we find any problem also note that down. Asking the villagers what is where. We found some empty land and .11. neem. Asking the villagers the name of the trees and crops which is not known Taking notes of what is seen Summarizing the major features Finalizing of the map. 20 20-40 steps These land were high and soil types was sandy loamy. everything. kadam. Cows and hens were found there. pupil. We consider left side of the road because the left side was resourceful than the right side. lal shak. Transect Map Of North Bahir Kamta 3.3 Procedure of vill village transect Map age At first select the most resourceful way of the village. trees. types of fishes in the ponds. After that we found two double tin shaded houses. soil type and uses. garlic etc. We also found some trees like: palm. and take notes of things like. Here is the detail description of the transect walk we have done in there: 0-20 steps We started our transect walk form cultivable land. vegetation. It was low land and soil type was sandy loamy. coconut. etc. Some houses were made of straw and some of tin.

eucalyptus and gourd 180 180-200 steps It was also high land and soil type was loamy. palm and mango. which is used as fuel for cooking. 60 60-80 steps A ditch was found here and soil type was clay. 160 160-180 steps The one and only shop was situated here. mustard and tobacco. There were tin shaded houses and goats were found in the house. Here land was used for producing tobacco and coriander. 3. .5 Findings from transect walk We found different variation in this part of transact. After long distance again we found high land and soil type was loamy. No shallow tube well was found for irrigation land. In the next few steps we found another thing. Land was used for producing tobacco and IRRI paddy. We saw some trees like banana.100 steps The land was low land and soil type was sandy loamy. Here land was used for producing mustard. There was cow dung side of the road. mango and bamboo bushes. Bananas. There were some straw and tin shaded houses. mango. It was using fisheries in rainy season.some were used for cultivating mustard. 100 100-120 steps Its also low land and soil type was sandy loamy. Trees like bean. 140 140-160 steps It was low land and soil type was loamy. the villagers called it “Dhormosha” which is one type of straw used as fuel. papaw. neem. date. We found here variation in soil. But land was used for producing corn. Trees were mehegoni. date and palm were found. 120 120-140 steps Land and soil type was same as above.11. 80 80. gourds trees were there and a shallow machine for irrigation. There were some trees like wood. Tin shaded houses were found here also some domestic animals like cow and hen in the house.

trees. coconut etc.11.11. mango. The shop keeper was a woman. tobacco and vegetables all over the year. Only one house wall made of bricks and roof was tin.5. This ditch is mainly used for farming fish.11. We saw in the village bazaar there was available fertiliser and seeds for the farmer.4 Shops This shop is attached of a house. height etc. Lots of trees were found in back side of every house. Usually houses were made in high land because in rainy season the area is affected by flood.1Residence: Most of the houses is mainly tin shaded and “do-chala”. that is source of mosquito. The soil type is mainly clay.2 Cultiv Cultivatable land atable There was lots of cultivatable land. 3. Its soil type is sandy loamy and beside of this land we found some trees like palm. It helps her to .5. The problem is that this water is polluted.11. 3. This land were mainly used to cultivate rice. 3. According to the villagers we found different layers of soil in those parts.5. Regarding those parts we found also some advantages and disadvantages. Villager gets a lot of help from NGO’s like Proshika. mustered.3 Ditch: Beside of cultivatable land we found a ditch. We tried to get the characteristics of those different layers. we can find different sections or zone from one end to another.5. Proshika gives training to the villagers about different cultivation system and also provide seeds. If we look at the transact map of North Bahir Kamta. These are: Residence Cultivatable land Ditch Shops Bamboo bush 3. we tried to find out what kinds of trees are there. We saw that those particular parts have different sorts of trees there.

13 Solution While talking to the villagers. As a result the villagers affect by many diseases. No educational institution. they told some solutions of their problems and we Suggested that these solutions may comfort and easy their life. .12 Major problems of the village During study hour we have tried to get information about some major problems in the village.work in his house and shop both. This bamboo-bush is produced for household.11. Building one or more educational institution Ensure electricity for every house. Insufficient Healthcare facilities. So these bamboos are the source of earning money for the villager. Infected Banana plants. 3. 3. Arrange regular healthcare checkup team of doctors from the city provided by the government. It the shop contained daily essential things. Reduce air pollution by creating Bio-gas plant. After they meet there needs villagers sell this bamboo in the haat. Their suggestions are given below. Modem road system and Pacca road with direct connection with the Dhaka.5. Building more healthy sanitation system. There is no telephone or mobile in the village. Create communication system for example mobile and T&T. Insufficient electricity.Aricha highway. The village has some problems like. Infected Chili plants.bush We found bamboo-bush back side of a house. Muddy road and it is not clear. Arrange scientists and researchers to find out the causes of the infection in Chili and Banana fields. The soil type of this land is loamy.5 Bamboo Bamboo. There is no Gas or bio-gas plant. 3. That’s why air pollution due to the burning of cooking.

But the most important aspect of this section was the initial course of rapport building that we went through during these first few days. We got an idea of their lifestyle. That means what they think they can do. We learned many interesting facts.3. economy and other aspects. which helped us carry out the later sections of the study.14 Ending marks The primary study of the village and the construction of the village and transect map gave us an overview. which seemed to attract us all. was that they are not superstitious and fanatic. . hay just do it without breaking other’s peace. They believe on their own capabilities rather than fate. We got a lot of information. We got both a macro and micro view of the village. demographics. One thing. a rough idea of the village as a whole. That’s why I think village environment as well as society is so calm and quiet.