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UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Module Name: Concrete Tech. & Engineering Materials

Module Code: CIVE 1008 Y (1)

Student ID: 1310749, 1310372, 1315999, 1314488, 1315308
Name of Assessor: Mr. Cadersa

Signature of Assessor:

Date: 4/4/14

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................ Spot test for bitumen................... 1 3................................................................................................... 3 5........... ......................... Determining the ductility of bitumen .......................................... 1 2................................... Penetration testing on bituminous material ............................. Determination of softening point of Bitumen using the ring and ball apparatus........................................................... 3 4........ 7 .................................. Solubility of bitumen ......................................................................................................... 4 References .......................................................Contents 1..........

due to modern refining practices. The result of the test is often used in conjunction with the penetration result. if cracked bitumen is present. Purpose and significance of the test: Bitumen does not have a fixed temperature where a change from solid to liquid state occurs. Spot test for bitumen.1. then the purity of bitumen is confirmed. Test procedure: Basically. there is a range of temperature within which the bitumen will be hard but gradually softens with increase in temperature. the spots appear deeper in colour towards their centres than that along the periphery. This damage. often called ‘cracking’. However. 1 .  About 2 g of bitumen is dissolved in 10 ml of naphtha and 2 spots are put on a filter paper. Thus at a given penetration. Nowadays the spot test is rarely used and specified because. Cracked bitumen tend to be less ductile and more susceptible to ageing effects. Determination of softening point of Bitumen using the ring and ball apparatus. Significance of spot test The spot test is used to determine whether or not. the spot test is a form of paper chromatography. 2. a high softening point means that the sample has a low temperature sensitivity. The softening point test is a means of standardizing the hardness (or consistency) of bitumen since any sample of bitumen has the same consistency at the softening point. cracking is not easily caused. the latter which will vary. Rather. one at 1 hour and then the other at 24 hours after the solution has been prepared. The test defines this consistency as the temperature at which a steel ball of specified weight initially placed on a sample of bitumen falls a distance of 25mm as the bitumen softens with increasing temperature. Conclusion If the strains of the spots are uniform in colour. occurs because the actual molecules are thermally broken apart. The purpose of this test is to determine the temperature at which a specified arbitrary consistency is reached. bitumen has been damaged during processing due to overheating.

0: Apparatus set-up for the test. The average temperature for the two recorded values is calculated. The temperature is raised at a constant rate of 5oC per minute with continuous stirring of the medium using a stirrer. For example a road can get deformed on application of stresses during service affecting its structural performance or if used for waterproofing.The latter is important in the selection of bitumen for a particular purpose. Otherwise glycerine is used. the bitumen can flow and make the structure more permeable. 3. The whole assembly together with the rings and two steel balls are allowed to reach a uniform temperature which is least 10oC below the expected softening point temperature for at least 15 minutes. If the temperature during service is high. Test procedure: Figure 1. then a high softening point is desirable so that the bitumen binder does not soften during service which may result in problems. The steel balls should be placed at the bottom of the beaker and not on the samples. The temperature at which each bitumen sample just touches the bottom plate is recorded. The two prepared samples of bitumen which have been fitted inside two respective brass rings are placed in the medium as in figure 1. 1993) 1. 2. After this time. (Millard. 4. both steel balls are transferred onto the ball-centring guides by means of forceps and the temperature is increased by heating the beaker. 2 .0 (Millard 1993). The medium is pure distilled water if the softening point is expected below 80oC. The bitumen sample cover a distance of 25mm since the bottom plate is 25mm below the brass rings.

The result of this test will show the amount of elasticity and tensile strength of bitumen. Determining the ductility of bitumen Introduction In the flexible pavement construction where bitumen binders are used. The solution is filtered and the residue is retained. Figure 2. Solubility of bitumen Pure bitumen is completely soluble in Carbon disulfide.0: Ductility machine 3 . The amount of bitumen is expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the sample. The acceptable tolerances for the average temperature which is also the softening point will depend on the type of bitumen and the medium used. The contents of a bituminous compound are measured by its solubility in carbon disulfide. 3. 4. which is very important for Road designer to know how much is this value. Apparatus: 1. 3. it is of significant importance that the binders form ductile thin films around the aggregates. carbon disulphide being highly flammable. trichloroethylene is used. Knife.5. 2. Ductility machine 2. Briquette moulds. Increasing this value will results the good properties of bitumen and finally is better product for paving of road. The residue is dried and weighed. Thus the solubility test is also a purity test for bitumen. Test Procedure: 1. The test is repeated a second time and the average temperature is again calculated. 3. A very little amount of purity can occur. This test determines the amount of Tensile of bitumen (normal or Modified). About 2g of bitumen is dissolved in 100ml of carbon disulphide. This serves as a satisfactory binder in improving the physical interlocking of the aggregates. 4. The standard solubility test using trichloroethylene is specified in ASTM D 2042. However.

keep the plate assembly along with the sample in a water bath. coat the surface of the plate and interior surfaces of the sides of the mould with mercury or by a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and dextrine. The penetration is defined as the distance travelled by the needle into the bitumen. (x) Start the machine and pull clips horizontally at a speed of 50 mm per minute. Penetration testing on bituminous material Introduction Penetration value is a measure of hardness or consistency of bituminous material. This test is used for evaluating consistency of bitumen. (ix) Adjust the pointer to read zero. It is the vertical distance traversed or penetrated by the point of a standard needle in to the bituminous material under specific conditions of load. Maintain the temperature of the water bath at 27° C for half an hour. (v) Remove the sample and mould assembly from the water bath and trim the specimen by levelling the surface using a hot knife.Test procedure: (i) Melt the bituminous test material completely at a temperature of 75°C to 100° C above the approximate softening point until it becomes thoroughly fluid. time and temperature. (iii) After stirring the fluid. (vii) Remove the sides of the mould. This distance is measured in one tenths of a millimeter. 5. (viii)Hook the clips carefully on the machine without causing any initial strain. (vi) Replace the mould assembly in water bath for 80 to 90 minutes. (xi) Note the distance at which the bitumen thread of specimen breaks. (iv) After about 30-40 minutes. pour it in the mould assembly and place it on a brass plate. (ii) Strain the fluid through BS sieve 30. In order to prevent the material under test from sticking. 4 .

1°C Needles to be checked for straightness and cleanliness 5 .0: The penetration test Errors that may be involved in experiment    Poor sampling and sample preparation Badly maintained apparatus and needle(s) Incorrect temperature and timing Precautions and accuracy   Temperature control to  0. 8. 9. such that it should just touch the surface of bitumen. 4. Clean the needle and place a weight (usually 100g) above the needle. 3. Mount the needle on bitumen. 6. Take at least three reading Figure 3. Heat the sample until it becomes fluid. After 5 seconds stop the penetration. Then start the stop watch and allow the penetration needle to penetrate freely at same time for 5 seconds. 5. 7. Use the water bath to maintain the temperature (usually 25°C) of specimen. the depth of sample is at least 10mm greater than the expected penetration. Result will be the grade of bitumen. 2.Apparatus:      Needle (of specified dimensions) Container Water Bath Thermometer for Water Bath Stop watch Test Procedure: 1. Allow it to cool in an atmospheric temperature. Pour it in a container to a depth such that when cooled.

If penetration <50 4dmm range each value must lie 2. The acceptable repeatability and reproducibility quoted in BS 1426:2000 for the penetration test are as follows: Repeatability: 1. If penetration <50 2dmm(decimillimetre) range each value must lie 2. If penetration ≥50 4% of the mean of the two results Reproducibility 1. Automatic timing devices are preferred Results An average of the three values obtained is done and recorded to the nearest whole unit. If penetration ≥50 8% of the mean of the two results 6 . The recorded penetration is valid if the recorded values are within a certain range from each other.

J.References Nanyang Technological University.org/practical-guide/ductility-of-bitumen/2569/ [ACCESSED DATE 02/04/14] Read John. Professor Mang Tia.edu.nerdc. Whiteoak David. 2003.COM/2011/02/DUCTILITY-TEST-1208-1978. and Whiteoak. http://nersp. ‘Bituminous Materials’. London: Thomas Telford Publishing.Ductility Test.html 7 . Laboratory – Pavement materials.5th ed. The Shell Bitumen Handbook.sg/cts/tlab/002. D.org/to-perform-penetration-test-on%20Bitumen.HTML [ACCESSED DATE 02/04/14] The CONSTRUCTOR CIVIL ENGINEERING HOME .ufl.BLOGSPOT. Available From: http://theconstructor..aboutcivil.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2014] Read. The Shell Bitumen Handbook http://www. Available from: http://www3. Available From: HTTP://CIVILQCLAB. viewed on 3rd April 2014.pdf Civil Quality Control Lab .Ductility of Bitumen.ntu.edu/~tia/Bituminous-Materials.