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Abstract:

In order to learn and acquire the necessary skills in using a meter rule, vernier

calipers, micrometer screw gauge, laboratory balance, ammeter, milli ammeter,

micro ammeter, and a travelling microscope, we used these instruments to measure

the diameters, the weights and the length of a steel ball, copper wire and a glass

rod. Also, in order to learn how to execute the expression of data using significant

figures, we will take the measurements obtained, make calculations and obtain new

information from these calculations, i.e. the volume and density of various items.

Notably, the accuracy and precision of our measurements should increase with the

increase of the precision of the instruments used. This would be determined by the

calculation of the standard error.

Introduction

Measurement can simply be described as the process of determining the magnitude

of a quantity, let’s say, mass and length, relative to a unit of measurement such as

kilogram and meter. Precision measurement on the other hand can be described as

the process of evaluating the consistency of measurements by obtaining data using

several instruments. Various quantities have different standard units of

measurements (SI units). For the purpose of this experiment it would be important

to be acquainted with the various quantities and their standard units of

measurement.

Length

The measure of a straight line distance between two separate points along an

object. It can also be described as the longest dimension of an object. The SI unit of

length is meter (m). The other various sub units include centimeter (cm), millimeter

(mm) and micrometer (µm).

Mass

The measure of the quantity of matter in a body regardless of its volume or any

external forces acting upon it. The SI unit of mass if kilogram (kg). The other various

sub units include gram (g) and milligram (mg).

Electric current

The measure of the rate at which charge flows through a conductor. The SI unit of

electric current is the Ampere (A). The other various sub units include milliampere

(mA) and microampere (µA).

NB: It is important to note that the precision and accuracy are in fact not the same

thing. The accuracy of a measurement is the extent of closeness of the

measurements to the actual value. Conversely, the precision of a measurement is

the extent to which repeated measurements show the same results under

unchanged conditions. A measurement system can be precise but not accurate,

2. 3. An accurate and precise system is said to be ‘valid’. In the 2nd part: 1. and mass) of the objects provided were then taken using the appropriate measuring instruments. The measurements (length. Apparatus/ Equipment Meter rule Vernier calipers Micrometer screw gauge Laboratory balance Ammeter Milli ammeter Micro ammeter Travelling microscope Copper cylinder Steel ball Copper wire Glass rod Procedure In the first part: 1. 2. and laboratory balance) were determined and recorded. Results: ITEMS Meter rule Vernie r caliper Micromet er Screw Balan ce MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Ammet Milli Micro er Ammet Ammet er er Travelling microscope . both or neither. vernier calipers. mill amperes and microamperes) were determined 3. The various zero errors of the various measuring instruments provided (Ammeter. The results were recorded. The various zero errors and reading errors of the various measuring instruments provided (meter rule. diameter.accurate but not precise. milliammeter and micro ammeter) were determined and recorded. micrometer screw gauge. The measurements (Amperes. The results were recorded.

79mm 5.1cm _ X Y Z +4 µA 0.59c m 1.1cm 5.5m m 5.52c m 5.9g Steel ball: Electrical balance-15. D) Steel ball (diameter) Copper wire (length) Copper wire (diameter) Glass rod (diameter) Glass rod (length) Current 0.8g 2.58c m 5.02 5 260mA 250 µA 4.00c m _ _ 2.15c m 1.9cm 0.00 +5mA 1.8g _ Copper cylinder (weight): Manual balance-15.0cm 0.09mm _ 0.00 g 0.8g Volume Density of the material .25g Manual balance-4.02m m 0.1cm 1.00g Electrical balance-4.0cm Reading error Copper cylinder height Copper cylinder(ex t.96c m 25.01A 15.0mA -0.16c m 5.692g Copper wire-0.82mm _ 1.0 µA 0.02 5 0.01mm 0.01c m 5.0g 0. D) Copper cylinder(int .00 0.02A 0.4A Zero error 0.19c m 11.00 0.692 g 0.8g Glass rod-2.02 5 0.6cm 0.68mm 0.s gauge +0.1g 0.

Internal volume of copper cylinder External volume of copper cylinder Volume of the steel ball Volume of the glass rod Calculation of voltage: Instrument From Ammeter From milli Ammeter From voltmeter Value of Resistance Density of the material .

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