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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 203 (2015) 291 – 296


Creative Teaching with ICT Support
for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities
Svetlana Obradoviüa*, Dragana Bjekiüb, and Lidija Zlatiüc
a EEEK KATERINIS, 60100 Neo Keramidi, Katerini, Greece,
bFaculty of Technical Sciences in ýDþak – University of Kragujevac, Svetog Save 65, ýDþak, 32000, Serbia
cFaculty of Teacher Education in Užice – University of Kragujevac, St. Sava Square 36, Užice 31000, Serbia

Every person has creative capabilities. Creative inclusive education has to recognize and support the development of the
creativity of people who also have some specific learning disabilities (SLD), taking into account their distinctiveness as a result
of certain developmental disorders. In the paper, we analysedthe possibilities for offering creative and instructional support to
students with dyslexia, to develop alternative and compensatory strategies, which lead to the realization of established goals in
their daily and academic activities.The basis of amultisensory approach in the process of learning and training students with
dyslexia has been an integral part of many programs for remedyingand overcoming readingdifficulties.A creative use of ICT
tools in teaching should be organized to promote studentparticipation and cooperative learning with and without SLD. There are
some examples of the creative use of ICT as a teaching support for students with SLD.
by by
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
© 2015
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of EPC-TKS 2015.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of EPC-TKS 2015.
Keywords:specific learning disabilities; creativity; teaching; e-education,

* Svetlana Obradoviü. Tel.: +306938471239

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of EPC-TKS 2015.

which is characterized by global perception. the dominant view is that this developmental disorder is characterized by deficient linguistic processing. Hudson. which significantly affects the frequent occurrence of innovative and creative solutions in all scientific and artistic fields. In this paper. With all the difficulties they had in education. but also small everyday creative activities of ordinary people ( the style of learning. Creative inclusive education has to recognize and support the development of the creativity of people who also have some specific learning disabilities. it is also very important to consider both. Carroll et al. atypical processing of information is the basis for difficulties of people with dyslexia (Vicari et al. Specific Learning Disabilities and Creativity Improving the educational process involves the formation ofa broad. that it can be shown in all areas of human activity. ready to recognize and develop individual qualities and talents of each participant in this process. Archibald &Gathercole. 2003. It is known that amended. 2007. the great achievements of eminent persons or geniuses. taking into account their specificities as a result of certain developmental disorders. with or without specific learning disabilities. phonological working memory deficits or difficulties of recalling verbal stored materials) is not accompanied by analogous difficulties in processing visual material (Spaulding et al. 2005. and that it is possible to make the school environment “friendly” for the expression and development of different and innovative approaches and activities. / Procedia . Among the different perspectives of cognitive specificity of dyslexia. Walley et al. 2007).Teaching creatively is one way of teaching for creativity. According to National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education in UK (NACCCE. 2005). there is a need to make a creative school environment and it is a possible way to awake and allow. despite the extraordinary intellectual potential. there are opinions (Davis. thinking in images.. From that point of view. The traditional approach is that dyslexia represents anunexplained reading difficulty that exists despite normal intelligence. flexible and motivating educational system. teaching creatively is defined “as using imaginative approaches to make learning more interesting and effective”. In recent years. De Clercq-Quaegebeuret al. perhaps the most important one for the pedagogical implications is to primarilyconsider the creative potential of every person and the ways in which the educational process can assist in their development. It is possible that creativityis what allows student with dyslexia. however. 2003). intuitive and multi-dimensional thought and curiosity. depending on the environment (Birsh. 2003.. which lead to the realization of established goals in their daily and academic activities. 2008. to develop alternative and compensatory strategies. it is our duty to find and promote forms of inclusive education that can make it possible for all of them to find and develop their creativity. 2010) that dyslexia itself carries aparticular learning style. According to many findings. we will not analyze if there is a connection between specifically altered cognitive functioning of people with dyslexia.292 Svetlana Obradović et al. and giftedness and creativity.Social and Behavioral Sciences 203 (2015) 291 – 296 1. 2003): creative education represents “forms of education that develop young people’s capacities for original ideas and action”. such aninterference of phonological processing (degraded representations of words. for all the students. 2. 2010). 2000. In other words. Teachers’ roles in the process of creative teaching are important. . But. Snowling. we agree withand adopt the definition of creative education made by Loveless (Loveless.We believe that every person has creative capacities. or . 2004. despite theirlearning difficulty.. For that reason. but also to gaining access to the data in the learning process. although it is an issue that has attracted the attention of many scientists in recent decades. it is important to mention that the emergence of the world's minds had unexplained difficulties in reading and writing. they have. and in defiance of the whole social system which is based on the transmission of information in writing. reached a peak in their fields. Asymmetry in the quality of processing visual and verbal information in people with dyslexia might contribute to the visual preferences in relation to verbal information in various stages of automated data processing.. 2004: 77). 2006.Botting. 1999. according to Jeffrey & Craft. 2007). appropriate sensory and motor functioning and adequate conditions for learning. It is a quite frequent disorder which is identified in about 5-11% of schoolchildren.. When it comes to the analysis of the creative product. Introduction Imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value (NACCCE. based on degraded phonological representations (Gillon. 1999). and teaching for creativity is defined “as forms of teaching that are intended to develop young people own creative thinking or behaviour”. While there are different views and definitions of creativity.the creative potentials of students to grow.

the positive aspects of dyslexia that can be used in the process of learning in small groups. That is. Tacchi. As we mentioned. 2004). it appears that creativity is more pronounced in people with dyslexia.Joyce. West has used theGalburda’s research to show that persons with dyslexia who rely on data processing in the right hemisphere havepractical advantages over the typical population in certain learning situations. creativity is by definition Renzuli (1984) an integral part of talent. 2003. / Procedia . teaching creatively through the use of ICT tools should be organized to promote participation and cooperative learning of students with and without SLD. Psychological fundaments of e-courses designed for students with SLD are the next (Bjekic et al. and this is a way to make the most creative e-learning solutions. this notion that students with dyslexia have different patterns of hemispheric processing of data has led to the expiration of their presumed preferences for visual-spatial learning strategies. 2012). 2003. there has been a great deal of interest and research about the use of ICT in educational process. The material taught this way is easier to remember. This approach is considered to be very suitable for people with dyslexia and bilingual persons who may have difficulty in understanding verbal instructions. Can we say that some people are gifted with dyslexia? Giftedness. On the other hand. project-based learning. content and teaching processes. Hence. The bases of amultisensory approach in the process of learning and training students with dyslexia have been an integral part of many programs for remedying and overcoming readingdifficulties (e. according to some generally accepted guidelines. Wheeler et al. developed visual-spatial skills. due to a failure in people with specific learning disabilities. pointing out the positive aspects of dyslexia and underlining that people with dyslexia have developed the ability to visualize creative thinking. a holistic rather thanan analytical approach. creative and collaborative process in the classroom (Gall & Breeze.Social and Behavioral Sciences 203 (2015) 291 – 296 as well as top achievements in different professions than in the general population. 2002. theintegration of e-learning/e-teaching as the technologies supported in teaching students with disabilities is useful. Information-Communication Technology and Teaching Students with SLD Recently. these concepts are the base of current e-learning technologies. 2005). Palinscar& Brown. and contributing to the achievement of more efficient results in thewhole group and especially the students who have reading difficulties. learn better if the learning contents are presented to them both verbally and graphically. What iscreative education and a fruitful e-environment for the students with SLD? The curricula changing and assessment methods are the part of the teaching adaptation. Therefore. so it is sometimes very difficult for them to receive information from only one sensory modality properly. At the same time.Svetlana Obradović et al. then they can form parallel mental models and engage multiple perceptual system reception). and difficulties in identifying the talent in dyslexia lies in the fact that they are usually unsuccessful in school activities. which are based on student engagement and activities. transformation of information into different representatives (students with disabilities. than in those without it. 1997). ICT isan important tool of teaching creatively and of teaching for creativity.. Creative interactive activities. Trei.This idea is further developed byWest. New technologies can be used in educational settings to enhance learning. by assumption.The multisensory approach refers to any learning activity that provides simultaneous input or output through two or more sensory channels. The classic way of teaching is not helpful for students with dyslexia/specific learning disabilities (SLD). 2004. school experiments. visual presentations. a sensory channel may have restrictions. At the end of the 1990s. and many researchers found that the application of ICT across a range of school subjects can provide a different.g. Sutherland et al. 1984. the rate of progression and acquisition of knowledge and skills.Since learning is a social activity and understanding is socially constructed. and perhaps it could be said that the examination of modal preferences of people with dyslexia were best initiated by West’s highlighting (West. This is the reason why there are many multisensory programs for students with dyslexia inthe last decades and a space for the creative use of ICT in their education. 2008. 2014: 130): theintegration of different media options and theinvolvement of different perceptual processes..Temple et al. are suggested to the students with SLD..implies an ease in learning. The concept of constructivism and socio-constructivism is the basic frame for different types of inclusive teaching (Bjekic et al. 3. the multisensory teaching approach is very 293 . using some gestalt psychological principles of stimuli organization in multimedia e-learning support. and developed skills of practical problem-solving. especially students with SLD.

course developers do not know enough about learning disabilities. N. videos. games etc. e-learning. itpractically creates barriers. E-learning as aneducational technology simultaneously uses different sensory channels. Obradoviü et al. As a matter of fact. producing the talking worksheets and using the PowerPoint in lessons. when using ICT support. writing out in their own words. asynchronous communications is the benefit for students with disabilities. there are a lot of programs specially designed to facilitate reading ability(f. using keyboard stickers. too. Strategies for kinaesthetic learning of SLD: real life activities. and ETTAD. which can bring them an affirmation within a group and boosttheir self-confidence and self-respect. Gall. text to speech. columns or boxes and it is preferable that the paper should be pastel colored.e. the positive effects of e-learning and education in aneenvironment on them and accessibility are (Klomp. games.g. what we need to do in the classroom is to make a creative and cooperative atmosphere and let our students with SLD think in their own way. jigsaws. changing fonts and letter size in text.Social and Behavioral Sciences 203 (2015) 291 – 296 suitable for students with SLD. individuals with SLD develop compensatory learning strategies. 2008): the idea that children with learning disabilities should be transferred from special classes and included in the regular classes in primary schools is not applied correctly. or wide range of e-learning communication tools allows presentation of information in the way adaptable to specific disability. 2014. and they were rarely included in the socially organized learning activities.. Then. word processors and Power Point. hands-on experience. Obradoviü et al. reciting information. ICT and special teacher support. and give students with SLD space to make their own projects and presentation using colors. changing fonts and letter size. In the beginning of this process. multimodal communication. using technology. A sequestered academic achievement is much less important than the opportunity for collaborative and cooperative work in small groups and social interaction in which people with dyslexiacan express their creativity and a different direction to tackle the problem. the children with special needs were present in the classroom with their compensational aid. Some authors emphasized the efficacy of using music as a remedial strategy to enhance reading skills of students with SLD (Register et al. Other researches point out the existence ofsome more problems (Levinsen. voice support etc. weshould give them information in small chunks. Strategies for auditory learning forstudents with SLD: tape recorder including child’s own voice. Then. etc. checking text programs. failure to relate to the real world experience of the user. explaining ideas to someone else. 2014). So. class teachers and subject teachers were not aware of the existence and potentials of the special compensational e-learning and ICT tools. word prediction. and spell check software. Consequently. posters. we can support limitations of working memory and distractibility. Some forms of teaching material adaptations: using visual and illustrated instructional materials.. 2004.etc. According to Price. with pictures (but not too many of them).. 2007).). kinaesthetic learning for students with SLD. When we design aworksheet. visual learning. We split the . As teachers are central to the creative–collaborative process and they are responsible for planning and realization of the creative. e-learning is asuitable teaching technology for students with SLD/dyslexia (Bjekiü et al. instead of text. thereare useful strategies for auditory learning. role play. feeling learning rather than looking. visual-auditory-tactile perception channels. because that way. drama/play. teachers do not develop relevant eteaching competencies. 2012. M. controllability of learning. pictures and voice. etc. rather than reactive and dependent. according to Bjekiü et al. & Breeze. interactive white boards. but what is quite neglected is the fact that byusing a new technology. e. In accordance with thepreferable channel of stimulus reception. projectors. collaborative inclusive work in the classroom using different software. discussing ideas in groups. discussion. not only psychological barriers: missing theguidanceon how to use elearning content. songs. visualization. we have to take care that it’s simple. 2014): peer support by using computer-mediated communication tools and possibilities for peer-to-peer collaboration and to avoid social isolation. it allows students to progress at their own pace and to use their own direction in solving problems. speech-to-text. individual student-teacher communications can take place efficiently and easily. it is easier to work with tape recorders.294 Svetlana Obradović et al. mnemonics. Teachers and school staff can help these students using different mnemonics techniques and adapted teaching materials. they should have very specific education in that field. Bjekiü et al. there is a chance to achieve something really important. adaptation to the learning disabilities is not sufficient.. use of pictures. flexibility in time and space afforded by ICT modalities can address the special educational needs of students. web-based education enables users – students with disabilities to be proactive and self-reliant. The major benefits of developing e-learning courses for students with SLD. Strategies for visual learning of SLD: colorful displays/paper/post. rhymes. (2008) found that the use of ICT in school is not so easy for the teachers.colorful pens/highlighters. 2011. / Procedia . We can support student memory byproviding taped instructions.

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