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Mythology Final Study Guide

Demeter and Persephone


























HH13: Prelude to longer hymn
HH2: :Long HH to Demeter
Demeter and Kore Myth:
Hymn has 2 events:
1. Abduction of Kore
Theme of Abduction: young girl/boy gets stolen by elder- eventually elder has to make good with the family
2. Eleusinian Mysteries
Worship of Demeter at Eleusis site → no one knows what happened there
HH2 Summary: Abduction of Kore:
Zeus sets up plan, Gaia in on it at as well → sanctioned abduction
Gaia creates “marvelous” flower and lures Kore - Hades takes her
Kore screaming in reluctance- cries to father
Zeus hides in temple to remain blameless
Demeter freaks out for 9 days (no food → no grain)
Hecate tells her that she heard Kore
Helios says that Zeus is the one to blame, also that Hades is not a bad choice for husband (some social status,
powerful ruler)
Demeter wants to remove herself from Olympus
discussed as Doso/ aid woman
means Demophoon- young child- she nourished him and fed him food of gods- tried to make him immortal
Metaneira offends Demeter
Resolves problem with building a temple- divinely sanctioned by Demeter
She will teach them the rights of life/ harvest
Demeter forgets about job- so devastated, grain doesn’t grow
lose worshippers→ gods don’t eat either
All gods try to help her, but she only wants her daughter
Hades lets “Persephone” (first time called this) visit her mother, but she should come back to him
He gives her food of underworld: she ate it, she has to stay for part of time
Persephone is in underworld fall/winter
On land with Demeter spring/summer
Persephone plays up story to mother
Hecate becomes companion to Persephone
Zeus brings Demeter back to Olympia to resume work
Eleusinian myth
way to set up good spot in underworld
Zeus is trying to set up marriage between Hades and Kore so that he is more connected to everyone
Demeter attempts to create divine child
Rites: Purification to make people “right”
make people build a temple to Demeter
Can’t enter city if you have something bad to a mother
“tourists” don’t visit Delphi
hierophany- priest (highest office) revealer of secret things
hiera- sacred things

M&L Summary:
Rites of Eleusis: Begin in Athens→ Piraeus (bathe selves and purification) → Athens (sacrificial prayers) → Eleusis
→ Athens
1st time = mystai









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Multiple times = epoptai
3rd stage = unknown
Open to Greek citizens + almost everyone else
3 compulsory stages:
lesser mysteries and preliminary steps: Purification and Athens
sacrifice, fasting, water purification
greater mysteries and full initiation: Boedrornia (Sept.- Oct.)
things said - legomeno
things done- dronena
things revealed - deiknamena
Thesmophoris:
- women-only festival → dire consequences for men who entered
- 5 days in fall → fertility festival
- Plant objects and hope for good harvest → calls to Persephone and Demeter
Triptolemos:
- Orphan version
- Explanation of seasons
- Character who tells Demeter of abduction → thanks him by giving the gift of agriculture
Demeter of Eleusis → Sanctuary to Demeter
Demeter: Grain Mother
- Meter (metr) = mother
- Metropolis = “mother” city-state
- De = originated from deai = grain
- Dematrizein= to harvest
- Thesaurus = Treasure trove; Storage bin for grain
- Hittites-Telepinos = Male grain god
- Has beloved female who is taken away → death/destruction → girl returns and order is returned
Demeter:
- Sometimes has a son Ploutos = wealth
- Pluto does NOT = Ploutos
- Pluto= Roman Underworld
- Both originate from “wealth”
- Kore(Korai)
- Demeter’s daughter
- Means virgin, maiden, unmarried girl
- Referred to as Persephone after trip to underworld and becomes Hades partner
- Demeteres= the two demeters = Demeter and Kore




Interpretations:
Structuralism:
Great mother goddess vs. Patriarchal god
Myth mediating between life and death
Persephone/ Hades - legalized rape- it’s okay if you marry her
Jung: archetypal element - psychoanalytical myth ritual
reflects the bond between mother and child, specifically between mother and female child

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not just mother/ daughter thealogy.Semele makes Jupiter promise that he will do what she asks and then asks him to make love in all of his diviness .Liber (free one/ fertility.Buries serpent’s teeth in ground at the request of Minerva .Cadmus fails and is exiled → prays to Apollo about where to live .C.Zeus cannot break his promise → his diviness is too much for her and kills her .Zeus saves the baby. vegetation. B.Apollo tells him that a female cow will lead him to the place where he should establish a city . who did not die because he is divine → sows him up in his thigh so he can keep growing until ready to come out Europides’ Bacchae: 3 .Only god to be born human OVID Book 3: . etc.5th c.Juno convinces Semele to have Zeus show her all his diviness .A serpent comes and kills almost all of his men → Cadmus then kills serpent .Male counterpart to Demeter/ Persephone .Cadmus goes hunting with his grandson.study of the goddess Carol Krist: The laughter of Aphrodite Rape is a patriarchal addition Art Work: * Demeter . Actaeon .Marble statue of her sitting * Hades and Persephone statue by Gian. more men come up from ground and fight → the 5 left alive agree to peace and Thebes in born .Europa’s father threatens exile to Cadmus if he cannot find Europa .)/ Liber Pater .Actaeon stumbles upon Diana bathing in her grove → this offends her → she turns him into a deer .Cadmus’ household is cursed .Juno (Hera) finds out and disguises herself as an old women and goes to see Semele .Actaeon is then hunted and killed by his own hunting dogs . is pregnant with Jupiter’s (Zeus) son . Hermes. Italic . Cadmus’ daughter.Lorenzo Bernini * Hades and Persephone terra-cotta plaque *Persephone.Semele. and Hecate Athenian red figure krater *The Departure of Triptolemus red figure cup Dionysos and his Posse Dionysus: .● ● ● ● ● not a universal mythological theme Feminists: female bond.Roman Bacchos→ Bacchus .As a result.

Cadmus goes to city where Agaue (mother of Pentheus) is carrying around his head boasting bc she thinks it’s a lion’s head -Cadmus brings her back to reality à intensifies grief. Dionysus has driven all women of Thebes (including Semele’s sisters) from their homes in frenzy to Mt.If Thebes tries to drive away the Bacchae (people who worship him) he will join in their crazed efforts as their war leader .Tiresias.Play opens with Dionysus going to Thebes disguised as a male Lydian leader of female bacchants because his Mom’s intergrity has been questioned .still won’t admit his divinity .Pentheus gets extremely angered and the stranger. to do all these bacchic rites . but the stranger tells him that he is not allowed to know anything .There Pentheus tries to claim that Dionysus is no god at all.He then continually tricks Pentheusà Pentheus comes to the stranger and wants to fight.In response.Pentheus pictures killing the Dionysian wizard and cutting his hair à sees Cadmus and Tiresias all dressed up . HH1: 4 .Pentheus is angered by the women and thinks that he shouldn’t have to pray to a god that was made through Semele’s mortal affairs . he will show himself as a god to all of Thebes and then continue to other places .Pentheus wants to destroy stranger (Dionysus) à imprisons him . Cithaeron à filled them with madness and now they are singing to him .Does this to show Thebes that they don’t know everything about Dionysus . Dionysus is captured under the disguise of a stranger and is taken to Pentheus .A cowherd interrupts saying that he thinks that Dionysus is real and that he women are in a frenzy and are vicious too by killing cattle .Pentheus wants to get on the top of the tree to see the maenads indecencyà stranger pulls down tree so Pentheus can get up there and then straightens the tree .Yells at them for their foolishness à Tiresias says that he’s wrong and that Dionysus is the god of their water and that he is a powerful god who they should respect and who deserves respect . Cithaeron to person bacchic rites . Dionysus.Dionysus then calls from the heavens for his maenads to kill the enemy in the tree . a wise old seer ( can see future). goes to Cadmus and the two of them dress in bacchic styles and go to Mt.Since Pentheus never worships him. is very calm à lets him know that all of his prisoners have returned to the mountains .The maenads go crazy and attack tree.His mother is one of the maenads and the takes his decapitated head back to the city thinking it’s a lions head .Pentheus threatens to destroy Tiresias religious objects and storeà Tiresias and Cadmus flee .Back in Thebes.Pentheus tries to find out about the bacchae mysteries. but the stranger (Dionysus) tells him that he has been instructed directly by Dionysus.Pentheus gets all dressed up as a female bacchae and Dionysus puts him in a sort of frenzyà he starts seeing hallucinations ..finally get him down and tear him to pieces .The sister’s of Semele and Pentheus (grandson of Cadmus and now the king of Thebes) think that she became pregnant by a mortal and the Cadmus made up the whole part about Zeus and how his blast of lightning killed her .Pentheus wants to kill them à Dionysus steps in and as the stranger convinces Pentheus that he will show him the rites of the maenads but that he should dress in a specific disguise to get past the maenads . the god.Pentheus is getting too excited about killing maenadsà ignoring Dionysus’ growing violent warnings .Dionysus easily escapes and causes an earthquake at the palace and a fire at the grave of Semele .

turned into goat .Praying to him to be happy and have abundant seasons Story: .This scares the pirates and they jump overboard to avoid the lion → turned into dolphins upon jumping . Goats 2.They soon realize that he is not a normal man→ he is a god → they plan to return him to shore .Taken to Mt.When he got old enough he would wander the forest . then back into a lion .teaches him the art of viniculture (art of making wine) . Hermes took him to Semele’s sister Ino and Athamas .Etiologically why dolphins are friendly to have by ships HH 26: .crushed grapes → discovers process of making wine .First lover.Puts stick on grave as a substitute and keeps promise 5 . Intoxication 3.gorge to death . Creative Ecstasy Dionysus in the Underworld: . Wine 2.Ampelus. Large Wild Cats God of: 1.Dionysus is captured by Tyrrhenian Pirates . then a bear..Encounters Prosymnos/ Polymnos) → will give directions in return for sex .Sown in the thigh of Zeus HH7: .Dionysus causes a vine to grow and take over the ship → it blossoms → smells of wine .needs to speak his knowledge → finds Ikarios/ Icarius who is very nice to him .As a youth. Nysa to be brought up by nymphs .Taken away from Greece.He eats his own vines & the shepherds kill him Dionysus: Associated with: 1.Hera attacks him in vunerability→ makes him go crazy .Dionysus grew up with the nymphs in Nysa .His wine affects him differently → his chief contribution Story of Wine Making: .Returns from trek but Prosymnos is dead → still needs to make good on promise .Dionysus makes the dolphins happy and nice though → but he establishes his dominance as Dionysus .tears shed cause vine to come out of body with grapes .Trek to save mother .Dionysus then turns into a lion.Birth of Dionysus .

on March 17th.Tragedy: tragos.another modern term for maenad .Dionysus planted in Semele and born from her and Zeus → consume body of Dionysus to cleanse self . white hair → inner wisdom of old age/ drunkenness .Dionysus Zagreus: Orphic translation with different story of birth .Maenad (Bacchae) .Satyrs: sometimes equated to faun : not originally the same→ symbols of unrestrained male sexuality .Sileness: older drunken male character . Patricks day City of Dionysia: central part of his festival .song .Son of Zeus and Persephone → Zeus wanted to make Dionysus a divine son .Catharsis: emotional release → occurs when watching dramas → mental cleanse .mad woman . ode.personality of a satyr → white beards.Liberalia remained .Dionysos= combo of divine knowledge of underworld/ power .Bacchantes .banned in government because it was so loved (Bacchinalla) .Orphism anticipated doctrines of Christianity Dionysus of Thebes vs.Comedy= Komoidia → Komos (songs) → Parade of Revellers 6 .Each group (deme) had a 50 man chorus & a 50 boy chorus → complete with dionysian hymn Satyr play: Comedy to make fun of previous tragedy plays -Dionysus only appears as a main character in Bacchi .Hera hires titans to “kill” Dionysos .first inner: Thesbis → thesbian → supposedly created tragedy/ drama . Jesus of Nazareth Shared Qualities: Sons of Main God Sons of Virgin Surve murder attempts as infants Perform miracles to show divinity Battle supernatural evil Go home & get rejected/ denied Descend/ Pass on to underworld Rise to divinity Evangelizing their own worship Dionysus: Actually punishes opponents Invented wine Jesus: Will come back to pass judgement Turned water into wine Anthesteria: Hieros Gamos.male goat.Sacred Marriage Festivals: .same day as St.

Referred to any non-Greek who could potentially destroy Greek civilization 11. Survives danger as a child (ex. A human father figure 4. Infancy a. Usually has to battle at least 1 in serpent or dragon form 10. Demonstrates powers/abilities as a child 5. Gains a newfound awareness 7 . Isolation a. society. Journey’s climax ends with “ketabasis” a. A genetic donor (some divine force) b. Battle with barbarians a. Discovery about self. Trip to the Underworld b. and Satyrs *Pentheus *Dionysus and Satyrs *Dionysus *Pan Pursuing a Goatherd Perseus the Proto-Hero and Herakles The 12-Step Hero Journey 1. Gradually separates from fellow mortals during quest 9. Conflict with nightmarish creatures/monsters a. universe 8. Birth a. Maenads. Has 2 “fathers” a. Confrontation with divine/cosmic powers a.Narrative by Homer . Powers are tested on quests 7. Quest proves to be journey of discovery a. Unusual/unnatural birth 2.Faunus/ Fauna : half goat → different than satyrs Impact: .. Grows into adulthood and craves adventure 6.Athenian playwriters Art: * The Death of Semele by Peter Paul Rubens * Reenactment of the Marriage of Dionysus and Ariadne *The Indian Triumph of Dionysus *The Birth of Dionysus *The Second Birth of Dionysos by George Platt Lynes? * Dionysus and Maenads * Dionysus. Does this on his own 12. attack by a relative) 3.

he leaves and becomes king of Tiryns. Athena and Hermes tell him how to perform task -Perseus goes to the Graeae (sisters of the Gorgons). one of first stories to use it -Abas (great-grandfather) --> Akrisios. enters chamber in form of golden shower. ex. lays with her -Danae gives birth to Perseus. hoping to rid of Perseus -Perseus despairingly begins his quest. -Akrisios discovers Perseus after hearing him playing. hides him in chamber for 4 yrs. winged sandals. marries her. Andromeda.The Hero -connection between mortal and immortal worlds -ties him to cycle of life/death/rebirth -symbolic character who is able to revive mankind -shows people individual potential -final burden is to confront mortality (death) -has to pursue death in hopes of immortality -isolation from mortals on quest. Perseus accidentally kills Akrisios using a discus -shamed. puts head in kibisis. he pursues dying in order to live -told by oracle at Delphi to serve King Eurystheus (cousin) after he kills Megara (wife) for retribution 8 . king of Argos (grandfather) --> Danae (mother) -oracle said that Danae would have a son who would kill Akrisios. founds Mycenae Story of Herakles -name meaning “glory of Hera” -subject to violent outbursts -idea of PTSD. they land on island of Seriphos. saves princess Andromeda by killing a sea-monster w/ his objects. and Danae return to Argos. especially women -interpretation: female interaction is threatening/destructive Story of Perseus (Proto-hero) -argolid-employs the aid of women -new undeveloped idea. of apotropaic device (used to ward off evils) -Perseus. saved by Dictys -Polydectes (king of Seriphos) falls in love w/ Danae. have son Perses -Perseus returns and saves mother by turning Polydectes into stone using Medusa’s head -gives head to Athena. who puts it on her aegis (animal skin/shield). who refuses him -orders men of the island to each bring him a horse -Perseus claims he could easily bring head of a Gorgon instead -Polydectes agrees. Akrisios locks Danae away in his palace to protect himself -Zeus enamored by her. they share one eye/tooth -takes eye/tooth from them. escapes from sisters using invisibility cap -Pegasus born from her neck -decapitation interpreted as castration (vagina dentata-fear of female genitalia) -on return home. and wallet or kibisis) -also receives Hermes’ scimitar (special sword) -Perseus flies to home of the 3 Gorgons (Medusa is only mortal one) -using reflection in his shield. they agree -Gets 3 objects from nymphs (Cap of invisibilty. locks Danae & Perseus in a chest and throws it into the sea -Zeus protects them. forces them to send him to nymphs that possessed special objects to aid him in his quest. he is able to behead her.

H. Lernaean Hydra a. Golden deer sacred to Artemis (cant be touched w/o angering her) b. in story w/ centaurs) -shoots first. H. plants the first olive tree 6. Hera sends a giant crab to make things more difficult. brings back to Eurystheus alive c. (who hides in a jar in fear) ***labor brings about parerga*** -meets up w/ friend. potentially a reindeer? 4. thinks later -yet displays impeccable will in completing some of his tasks The 12 Labors of Herakles 1. brought back to E. with the help of Iolaus (nephew). and dedicated to Hera ***another parerga*** -meets King Admetus. Cretian Bull a. forms the Olympics after this. Erymanthian Boar a. Antles signify male deer. they defeat the monsters d. who is saddened by death of his wife Alclestis -wrestles deity Thanatos (death). 9 headed serpent (9th was immortal) from Lerna. Brought back to E. and is forced to fight off other attacking centaurs -Pholus dies after dropping poison arrow on his foot 5. but does not hold his word. Thracian Mares a.-kills Megara after fit of rage sent on by Hera -labors (imposed by Eurystheus) designed to destroy him mentally & physically (however. H. H. forcing him to return Alclestis to Admetus 9. strangles it & uses its claws to kill it b. captures and brings back to E. Was supposed to be invulnerable. his athloi were largely physical) -first 6 labors undertaken in the Peloponnesse (gradually requiring wit). becomes constellation Cancer c. other 6 elsewhere -last 3 known as “conquests of Death. diverts rivers Alpheus and Peneus to flow through stables c. 2 more grew back b. returned w/ an army and killed Augeas d. dips arrows in Hydra’s blood 3. Startles them w/ help of Athena. then shoots them 7. lion skin & wooden club become recognized visual attributes 2. owned by Diomedes b. Stymphalion Birds a. Thus.” moving from animals to trickery -depicted as man and animal -sometimes shown as hairy -extreme drunkenness (esp. the centaur Pholus. Girdle of Hippolyte (belt) 9 . Augeas (king of Elis-Olympics) had stables that had never been cleaned b. each time he cut off a head. H. H.. after the labors. released near Marathon and later caught by Theseus 8. Ceryneian Hind (deer) a. Augeon Stables a. H. Nemean Lion a. Bull that King Minos had failed to sacrifice to Poseidon b. Flesh-eating. Forced to kill birds that flocked by lake Stymphalus b.. Augeas had promised 1/10 of his herd as reward. Pursues for 1 yr. Trapped destructive beast. captures them and tames them by feeding them Diomedes c.

Hesperides (daughters of Night) guarded golden apple tree (symbols of immortality b. D collects the blood so that H would not love another woman as much as her. took the world from Atlas. and Oedipus at Colonus -also can refer to bloody series of events Thebes was a part of during that time -Thebes founded by Cadmus after searching for his sister Europa (abducted by Zeus) -noble families of Thebes called the Spartoi. Owned by Geryon (3-headed monster) on island of Erythia b. fetches her belt w/ magical powers ***another parerga*** -rescues Hesione from sea-monster in Troy 10. H. marries Deineira by wrestling Achelous -when returning to Tiryns. came to being after serpent was killed from which armed men sprung. wedding of great extravagance because he was one of the greatest men of his time -was able to hear the muses sing (one of the greatest honors a mortal could possess. traveled to the Underworld to bring Cerberus (Hades’ 3-headed dog) b. Represents journey to realm of death 12. received many gifts from the gods -Spartoi: -2 batches sown from teeth of the serpent slayed by Cadmus. learned where garden was located from Nereus c. H. Upon returning. In The Odyssey. Later returned him to Hades d. Cerberus a. kills Geryon c. kills Queen Hippolyta (of the Amazons). sets up Pillars of Herakles near Spain (major imagery) 11. He wears it at a sacrificial ritual. Gained ketabasis ***after labors.a. Antigone. -burning symbolizes purification Virtual Lecture: The Theban Cycle . and H. and the Calydonian Boar Hunt) The Theban Cycle (441-431 BC) -refers to trilogy of plays by Sophocles -Oedipus the King. D+H come across Nessos (centaur) who carries D across river Evenus. The Argonauts. those of Thebes (by Cadmus) and those by Iason (commander of the Argonauts) 10 . Nessos attempts to violate D. with help of Athena. Sails to Geryon in cup from Helius. where he is burned to death. H. claimed this was the hardest labor c. Apples of Hesperides a. shoots him with his poison arrows. they then fought and killed each other. H. -Deineira hears that H loves Iole. and smears the blood on a shirt that is given to Herakles. while Atlas reached the apples. for killing the serpent. had to trick him into taking the world again d. Cattle of Geryon a. H. Cadmus was forced to serve Ares -Cadmus married Harmonia (daughter of Ares and Aphrodite).

also marrying his mother zaw -Heavens did not like familial configuration so a plague was sent. incest motif in the Oedipus myth) but rather in the relationship between the various motifs that make up the myth (ex. Oedipus loses power and blinds himself -his sons begin a civil war for power (Seven Against Thebes) Analyzing the Theban Cycle: -most famous interpretations: structuralist and psychoanalytical -Structuralist: -roots in work by Ferdinand de Saussure -emphasis on looking at language in the moment. A myth must be studied in its totality. phobias). men sprung from the teeth he sown and only 5 survived the battle -talked about in Metamorphoses and Oedipus -ghosts of Spartoi believed to haunt fields of Ares near Thebes Thebes: (Oedipus the King. Ovid) -Laius (Oedipus’ father) became king of Thebes and married Jacosta.) -so.-Cadmus slayed the dragon after it killed many of his men. killing monster). then breaks this theme into smaller part (killing relative vs. belief that human beings were originally born from earth (slaying monsters theme) and human beings are born from sexual relations bet. but rather that there is too much "reality" (too many units of too many kinds) to be perceived coherently without some kind of "grammar" or system to organize and limit them -meaning is not found in any specific motif (ex. he became the ruler of Thebes. incest) -these thoughts play out in our dreams -myths are attempt to work out these thoughts -Unconscious fantasies are embodied in all myths. myth is actually about a contrast bet. but in the relationships among them. the transfer of emotion or meaning from one idea to another (e. and after solving riddle of the Sphinx. one another (slaying family members theme) -Psychoanalytical: -Freud: we repress thoughts and ideas which are socially/morally unacceptable (ex. but is a product of our minds. words as signifiers -the order that we perceive in the world is not inherent in the world. killing).g." beyond human perception. -The importance of childhood sexuality 11 . the relationship between the motif of killing the father and solving the riddle of the Sphinx) -Levi-Strauss work: -The meaning of a myth inheres not in its particular details. he was warned by an oracle that he would have a son that would eventually kill him -Oedipus eventually killed his father by accident. they appear in a disguised or distorted form through displacement. deals with pairs of opposites (killing those similar vs diff. It's not that there is no "reality out there. -looks at recurring motifs (ex.

named after ship Argo) to sail to Colchis major Greek heroes included among crew (including Herakles.● ● ● ● ○ ■ ■ ● ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ■ ■ ● ● ● ○ ○ Jason and The Argonauts & Medea: -chief sources: -The Argonautica (Greek) by Apollonius Rhoidus (3rd century bc). only surviving Hellenistic epic -The Argonautica (Latin) by Gaius Valerius Flaccus. behaviors commonly accepted in modern drama -shows the irrelevance of the old codes of heroic behavior in modern (Hellenistic) times -Jason’s adventures with the Argonauts constitute a series of parerga on the way to his main quest of retrieving the Golden Fleece for Pelias. Jason therefore steals fleece with Medea’s help Medea kills and dismembers her younger brother so that dad will have to stop and pick up the pieces.. succeeds only to find that Aeetes reneges and plans to attack. Lemnos: spent a good deal of time with the women there -they had killed their husbands/fathers previously. so he left her for Glauce -an angry Medea sent a robe as a wedding gift. which lit Glauce on fire -she also kills her the children she had with Jason and flees to Athens Overview of Jason -divine ancestry. must fetch the Golden Fleece Expedition – Jason assembles the best men of the time (The Argonauts. Orpheus. ends abruptly -deal with quest for Gold Fleece by Jason and many Trojan War heros Golden Fleece: Pelias sends J. very fragmented text. a drug to protect him and his weapons. -the universe of the Argonauts is not one where cleverness (Odysseus) and bravery (Iliad) triumph but where irony and wit win out. not confident. Jason decided that Medea was only (or crown) helpful during times of turmoil. performed impossible tasks -weak hero. they are banished to Corinth Jason thus becomes the hero without a country. morally weak and corrupt -does not become more enlightened during the course of the epic nor show great improvement -the value of his success comes at a great personal and moral cost. and in return. choosing to live without men -Herakles was said to have guarded the ship while the other Argonauts were on Lemnos Jason and the seduction of Medea (King Aeetes’ daughter): Pelias has insulted Hera by worshiping all gods except her Hera tells Jason to bring Medea back to accomplish revenge upon him Aphrodite assists by causing Medea to fall in love with him Before Aeetes will give Jason the fleece he must: yoke a fire-breathing bull plow a field sow the field with left over dragon’s teeth from the founding of Thebes by Cadmus (Spartoi) Then Jason has to kill the armed men who germinate from these teeth.’s enemy) in order to take back power. they have two children. went on search for glory. compromises his morals and ethics to do so. sometimes Theseus) series of adventures where Jason and crew battle human rivals and monsters on their way to Colchis. J. Overview of Medea -covered by playwright Euripides in Medea -opens with scene after Jason has abandoned her and the children 12 . to obtain golden fleece which is in the distant land of Colchis ruled by King Aeetes (P. Medea gives J. subversion of the Homeric hero (Achilles or Odysseus). Medea has Pelias killed as revenge for killing Jason’s parents. -undesirable qualities that are necessary for success.

Son of Aithra/Aethra → She sleep with both Poseidon and Aegeus (king of Athens) on the same night . claim that he was killed either in battle with Apollo or by the sons of Thestius -his wife Cleopatra and mother Althaea hanged themselves after his death -when Herakles went to the Underworld to get Cerberus. she opened the chest and caused the death of her son. leads to revenge -concept of kyrios: a female’s male guardian to aid her (by providing dowry) in order for her to achieve main goal of obtaining a suitable husband -no real financial say in her life -Medea did not have a kyrios.Oracle at Delphi tells Aegeus not to get drunk before he gets home or he will have a son that will grow up and kill him → Aegeus gets drunk . stuff will be hidden under a rock → he must retrieve these and bring them back to the kind . as predicted by the prophecy -critics. Meleager received the skin and gave it to Atalanta (a huntress he had fallen for) -sons of Thestius believed that a woman should not receive a gift in the face of a man and claimed that the skin should be rightfully there’s -Meleager killed them and gave the skin to Atalanta anyways -the sons of Thestius were actually his uncles (mother’s brothers). however. tried to find the Golden Fleece -upon return.When Theseus is strong enough he find the sword and sandals under the rock 6 deeds: 1.He is the son of Aethra and Poseidon though -If child is a boy. Periphetes . received the prophecy from the Fates (Moerae) that the child would die once the brand burning on the hearth was burnt out -his mother locked the flame away in a chest -Meleager--virtually invincible--joined the Argonauts. a failure (no continued family line) -Jason’s marriage to Glauce meant that Medea+children had to depend on their good graces. group of noble men assembled to kill it -upon killing the boar. and thus. she had helped him get the Golden Fleece only for him to leave her -her goal: leave him childless. it is said that Meleager advised him to marry Deianira (Meleager’s sister) Herakles and Theseus Theseus: Follows in the footsteps of Herakles .Gnorismata = token of recognition . she married without kin approval or dowry -idea of isolation and dependency -Medea as female--represents non-human and non-Greek -Medea as male--avenges her honor. she sent a giant boar to prevent the land from being used. many Argonauts participated in Calydonian Boar Hunt -this came about bc M’s father King Oeneus had failed to sacrifice to Artemis.Bronze club: clubs people on the way to Athens 13 . destroying people and cattle.-killed her children because Jason had betrayed her. so in her grief. punishes oathbreaker (Jason) Meleager and the Boar Hunters -when Meleager was a child.

he commits suicide and jumps into the sea .Has a bed that he offers to travelers for hospitality → if too short for bed he would stretch you out and if too long for bed he would chop you off to make you fit .Medea recognizes Theseus as Aegeus’ son (she is the only one who does) and sees him as a rival of Medus so she tries to convince Aegeus that Theseus is a threat to his power. King Aegeus sees that the sails have not been changed and so thinking that his son has allowed his son to be killed by the Minotaur. Cercyon .Theseus fits into bed After the 6 deeds.Theseus does the same thing to him 3.Father of Sinus .Theseus kills him and takes his golden club as an attribute 2.Theseus throws him off cliff 5.Female pig who kills people . daughter of Minos.Agrees to change the sails from black to white on the way back to signal that he has survived and succeeded .Ties people to two pine trees and lets go → tearing them to shreds .Once on Crete. .Aegeus is married to Medea → their son Medus is to succeed as king of Athens .As he approaches Athens.she becomes divine .Etiological myth → called Aegean Sea because King Aegeus killed himself in it .Theseus kills pig 4. but after he succeeds he abandons her and forgets to change the sails .Theseus championed by Athenians to replace Herakles b/c Herakles was championed by Spartans . Sinis . Sciron . Crommyonian Sow . Herakles: . the Athenians send 14 people (7 boys and 7 girls) to Crete as a Human food source for the minotaur .Theseus offers to go as one of the 14 and kill the minotaur .Force people to wash his feet then would kick them over a cliff where a Sea Turtle would eat them .He promises to love her.At the banquet dinner Theseus cuts meat with his sword → Aegeus recognizes sword and knocks poisoned glass from his hand and announces him as his son Theseus and the Minotaur: .Force people to wrestle him then he would kill them . Theseus attracts the eye of Ariadne.Theseus then becomes King of Athens Theseus and Ariadne on Naxos: .Theseus wins wrestling match 6. Procustles .he leaves her and Dionysus takes Ariadne .Theseus = symbol for Athenian democracy 14 ..Every 9 years.Theseus goes to Athens and is accepted by Aegeus and the city as a hero .myth reflects political shift from Crete → Athens Theseus vs. and she tells him how to defeat the Minotaur and how to escape the maze afterwards .Medea convinces Aegeus to poison him at the banquet dinner .

after war Notes: 15 .returns describes how everyone gets back home Odyssey: how Odysseus gets home Telegony.marble sarcophagus *Dionysus and Ariadne .granted power to get hottest girl→ chooses Helen flee to Troy starts trojan war to get Helen back to Greece makes offering to gods and forgets Artemis she requires sacrifice of Agamemnon’s daughter.Cassandra (never believed) Aegisthus kills Agamemnon Aegisthus marries Clytemnestra Orestes kills Clytemnestra and gains control ● ● ● ○ ○ ● ● ○ ● ● ○ ● ● Time Line: Cyria: Everything up until the Trojan War Iliad: 51 days well into war Trojan Cycle kyklos.kills himself in honor *akevias’ vase Sack of Ilium (Iliupersis) : end of war Nostoi.Trojan prince judges goddesses . Iphigenia Ships return after 10 years.circle group of poems with the same theme Aethiopis: the arrival of Penthesilea Little Iliad: how Odysseus gets Achilles’ arms & Ajax’s madness→ suicide.Orestaia Agamemnon returns with trojan prophet.bronze krater The Mycenaean Saga and The Trojan Cycle ● Perseus may be seen as founder of Mycenae ● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ■ ■ ■ ● ○ ■ ■ ■ ■ Atreus next ruler of Mycenae son of Pelops and Hippodemeia Atreus serves the child Pelops at banquet of gods Condemned to starve Pelops is brought back to life Won bride through trickery Sibling = Thyestes → seduces Pelop’s wife Thyestes sets curse on house of Atreus Either laid out by Thyestes or whole genealogy Sons: Menelaus and Agamemnon In contest for Helen Menelaus wins and Agamemnon married Clytemnestra (sister to Helen) Paris.Art Work: *The Labors of Theseus *Theseus and Amphitrite *Dionysus and Ariadne .

Despite Daedalus’ warnings. wounds boar . Theseus stays with Achelous and they share stories of metamorphoses 16 . especially Meleager’s uncles: Plexippus and Toxeus .This angers the men. Mealeger’s mother. can fly away .Althaea. the daughter of Nisus.During the siege.Scylla then also turns into a bird . which is ruled by Nisus . falls in love with Minos .what happens to Telemacus From Troy to Rome: The Relationship of Greek and Roman Myth AND Native Italic Myths . to Minos .“to/ for the most beautiful” goddesses fight over it Paris decides winner Helen daughter of Leda & Zeus = spartan princess Leda lays 2 eggs 1) Helen & Clythemnestra 2) Castor & Pollus .sending Icaru falling to his death .Meleager is the one who give final blow but wants the honor of the hunt to go to Atalanta . Atalanta. is outraged by her brother death .Many heros try to hunt the boar → finally killed by a woman warrior.Minos is horrified by her betrayal but decides to be fair and leaves the defeated city . Althaea decide to throw the log in the fire→ log burns and Meleager’s life fades away .They fight → Meleager kills both his uncles . Icarus.She scalps her father to give his power.● ○ ○ ○ ■ ■ ● ○ ○ ■ ■ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ Cypria: Oracle states: child of Okionid would be more powerful than father Eris: not invited to wedding.Minos attacks city of Alcathous. who is now an osprey .Remembers that there is a prophecy that says that as long as a certain log is not burned in a fire.Daedalus agree but is not happy about being in exile .voyage home Telegony What happens after Odysseus kills suitors What happens to suitors Marriage to Penelope .Dioscouri (Gemini) → become immortal Achilles Thetis dips her son into the river styx to make him “immortal” except for heel where she held him Kills Penthesilea as he falls in love with her Killed by Paris & Apollo → shot in heel → body rescued by Ajax and Odysseus Nostos. contained in a lock of purple hair. Icarus flies too close to the sun and the wax melts.On the way back to Athens.Scylla angrily runs after Minos’ ship but it stopped by her father. Meleager will live .He builds wings from wax so that he and his son.Back in Crete.After a little time.After Theseus’ victory over the Minotaur his fame spreads and the Calydonians appeal to him for help in slaughtering a boar that is terrorizing their lands . throws apple Kallisthi . Scylla. Minos orders Daedalus to build a labyrinth to conceal the Minotaur (shameful product of a union between Minos’ mother and a bull) .

author who wrote book “The Early Part of Rome” Founding of Rome : April 21 753 B. April 21 Traditions to founding of Rome rooted in 2 sources Romulus & Remus Iliupersis Romulus and Remus: ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ■ ● ○ ■ Underscores importance of Vestal virgin Vesta. mature male deity Helmet if shown as pair with naked woman .ties everything to Iliupersis Back in Troy .no child birth Mars Not the same as Ares Mars= bearded. teach younger girls Once out of priesthood.free of having male partner Increases lifespan.C.beginning with Proca Rome and the Political Use of Myth II: Transformations in the Message ● ● Class Notes: Livy.C.learning cult.Mars & Venus War god like Roma To protect Rhea Silva.Rome and the Political Use of Myth I: Republic to Empire and Beginnings ● ● ● ○ ■ ■ Roman Mythology: Overlaps Rome founded 753 B.Anchises marries Venus and they have a son Aeneus (trojan) Aeneus flees Troy as it’s burning Wife gets killed but he escapes with father and his son Ascanius (Iulus) Need to found new city Son founds site and begins line of Kings.sacred boundary Romulus and Remus fight over name Remus jumps over the line and ruins ritual Romulus kills brother.Hestia girls serve her .. 17 .name it Rome ● ○ ■ ■ ■ ● Iliupersis: Aenid. performing cult. sons are put in woven basket floating down the tiber found and nursed by Lupa Romana found by humans Faustulus & (Acca) Laurentia establish boundary of city delimiate pomerrium Pomerium.

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus Vulva de Veii.told story of Romulus and Remus Virgil told same story ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Aeneid: an epic that tells up the foundings of Rome written during political transition interactions with Greeks and other cultures “Greek epic” but Roman Still stands in mythological realm Others criticize or endorse Augustus ● ○ ● ● ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ Foundations of Rome: Recorded events in relation to astronomy.“ from the city had been founded” named story Ab Urbe Condita.Ab Urbe Condita .domestic scene etruscan art with bright colors and broad gestures vases in etruscan tombs Charu(n) ferryman god metal work.○ ○ ■ ■ Every year after described in AUC AUC .C.3 rocms on pestal buy only steps at front pseudoperipteral cult statue inside temple serves as statue base ● 509 BCE.gold fibula buried in tombs women forbidden from wearing certain height in gold.Jupiter 18 .interpreting religions.expanded into S.Etruria.hat style interior decor (tomb of leopards**). Italy .what omens mean Architecture influenced Romans start face on .frontal association tripartite cella. sandals Augury. Italy buried dead in necropolis . date of origin Palatine hill holds oldest remains location where Romulus and Remus founded Rome with religious practices Forum Romanum great center of Rome places of worship of gods→ taken over by christian practices ground level fluctuates → today is much higher burials underground with urns (huts) that resemble house of Romulus ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ■ ■ ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Etruscans: from N.eclipses combined with archaeological data and literary sources Earliest remains suggest 753 B.

Minerva (Menva. helmet.○ ○ ○ ■ ■ ■ ● ○ ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ■ ■ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ● ■ ● ● ■ ● ○ ○ ■ ■ ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ■ largest temple in Roman using god in architecture. Juno.paternal bond 25 April: Fourteenth Discussion Section Minerva: thoroughly italic goddess created and conceived in Italy Menvra/ menerva dress. spear .attributes wields a lightning bolt can also have wings oracular. like Apollo in Greece etruscans relied heavily on signs/ omens augary.using myth to show political goals capoline triad Jupiter.remade into Roman city rebuilt by Lars Contena.divine children in Etruria Worship centers Punta della Vipera Rebuilt many times First built in 6th century BCE → again in 2nd century BCE single room temple oracular sorting spots healing anatomical ex voti found in ruins possibly chronic borthorox underworld sacrificial altar inscriptions to Minerva in votives Falerii sacked by Rome in 241 BCE.etruscan) strategic warfare family relationship.c of Venus) → Vespasian → Domitian (associates himself w/ Minerva) 19 .part of etruscan cults Healing Minerva mediea Cult temples contain anatomical ex voti terra cotta anatomical votives of body parts dedicated to god to get healed Maternal goes further with Greece Athena with raising child not virgin etruscan variations of Greek myths arm of Hercules around her raised at least 3 semi. not invited Menerva Capta (captive) brought back to Rome strongly supported by Domitian Minerva part of the capitoline triad ruled for longest period of all emperors empire started Julius Caesar → Augustus → Nero (all have divine right to rule b.combines Roman and Faliscan culture fragment with vow to god Menerva Menerva taken to Rome. aegis.

what omens mean Interpretatio Romana-when Romans came into contact with another culture. white hair → inner wisdom of old age/ drunkenness Maenad (Bacchae) .priest (highest office) revealer of secret things Hiera.wine cup Gnorismata .places forum in smaller space but higher importance strange statues commissioned statues of domitian’s read on Minerva she will protect him revolutionary combo of male/ female Alba longa → Ascanius → Numator → Romulus Palladium. they either 1) adopted/merged gods or 2) established one god for another Meter-mother Damatrizen-to harvest Thesauros-treasure trove used to store grain Ploutos-wealth 20 .things revealed in Eleusian ceremonies Satyrs: sometimes equated to faun : not originally the same→ symbols of unrestrained male sexuality Sileness: older drunken male character . builds forum to Minerva.voyage home Pomerium .sacred boundary Augury.interpreting religions.first time to participate in Eleusian Epoptai.things said on in Eleusian ceremonies Dronena.sacred things Mystai.to/ for the most beautiful Nostos.token of recognition Apotheosis.another modern term for maenad Catharsis: emotional release → occurs when watching dramas → mental cleanse Kantharos .personality of a satyr → white beards.cult statues to Minerva connecting himself to trojan Ares Rome and Beyond: The Continuance of Myth-.mad woman Bacchantes .turning into a god Nostoi.things done in Eleusian ceremonies Deiknamena.Where do myths come from? What are They? What will they Become? Potential Vocabulary: Dematrizein= to harvest Thesaurus = Treasure trove.having done the Eleusian multiple times Legomeno.● ○ ■ ■ ■ ○ ○ ■ founded games to Minerva in Alba longu.returns Kallisthi . Storage bin for grain Hittites-Telepinos = Male grain god Demeteres= the two demeters = Demeter and Kore Thealogy.study of the goddess Hierophany.

essentially controls her life bc he possesses the ability to give dowry/blessing to potential husbands 21 . “incidental deeds” -w/ Herakles. athloi describes labors.mind substitutes either a new aim or a new object for goals felt in their original form to be dangerous or unacceptable -psychoanalytical—the hero is discovers himself. prize was immortality).-Ketabasis-hero journeys to the Underworld Freudian interp—feelings of aggression towards father. connects males/females argolid-hero uses the aid of women to complete journey (used with Perseus and) vagina dentata-fear of female genitalia apotropaic device-something used to ward off evil forces athloi-used to describe labors for a prize (w/ Herakles.” task in addition to original job. desire to kill 1 of 2 fathers. “athlos” meaning contest parerga-“secondary business. solidify psyche -feminist—descending into the womb of the gods.a young female’s male guardian. parerga describes everything else he does apotheosis-the change from mortal to immortal kyrios. displacement theory.