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Hydraulics Manual for Fishermen

Installation of Hydraulic Power


Transmission Systems

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STEP I

TRAWL GEA=

nous Specfal Publication 37

STEP 2

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Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1978


Available by mail from:
Printing and Publishing
Supply and Services Canada
Ottawa, Canada K1A 0S9
or through your bookseller

A deposit copy of this publication is also available


for reference in public libraries across Canada
Catalog No. Fs 41-31/37-5
ISBN 0-660-01838-1
ISSN 0701-7650

Canada: $2.00
Other countries: $2.40

Price subject to change without notice


Ottawa

Printed in Canada
by
Friesen Printers
Altona, Manitoba, Canada
Contract No. KF 801-8-0161

Correct citation for this publication:

Published by

Publi par

Depa rt ment of Fisheries and the Environment. 1978. Installation of hydraulic power transmission systems, 26
p. In Hydraulics manual for fishermen. Fish. Mar.
Serv. Misc. Spec. Publ. 37 (Booklet 5).

Lie Fisheries and Environment

Pches et Environnement

Cover design: Christine Rusk

Canada

Canada

Fisheries and

Marine Service

Service des pches


et de la mer

Scientific Information
and Publications Branch

Direction de l'information
et des publications scientifiques

Ottawa K1A 0E6

MISCELLANEOUS SPECIAL PUBLICATION 37


(La version franaise est en prparation)

Hydraulics Manual for Fishermen '


Booklet

Installation of Hydraulic Power Transmission Systems

Department of Fisheries and the Environment


Fisheries and Marine Service
Fishermen's Services Branch
Ottawa, Canada K1A OE6

DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT


FISHERIES AND MARINE SERVICE
Ottawa 1978

1This manual is based on a study prepared by R.J. Harding P.Eng.


Dowty Equipment of Canada Limited under contract to Fishrmen's '
Services Branch, Fisheries and Marine Service, Department of Fisheries
and the Environment.

NOTICE
The use of proprietary names does not imply
endorsement of the product or company. No reference
to the Department of Fisheries and the Environment
(DFE), or to this publication, shall be made in any
advertising or sales promotion which would indicate
or imply that DFE approves, recommends, or endorses
any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to
cause directly or indirectly the advertised product to be
used or purchased because of this DFE publication.

CONTENTS
FOREWORD

Vi
1

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

INSTALLATION MECHANIC

3.

NEED FOR CLEANLINESS

1
1

3.1 Hydraulic Components from Factory


1
3.2 Clean Up Working Area
1
3.3 Do Not Remove Port Caps
4.
5.

MOUNTING HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS


INSTALLING ACTUATORS

Installing Cylinders
2
2
5.1.1 Rigidly mounted cylinders
2
5.1.1.1 Avoid distorting cylinder
3
5.1.2 Pivot-mounted cylinders
3
5.1.2.1 Fixed clevis-mounted cylinders
3
5.1.2.2 Trunnion-mounted cylinders
3
5.1.2.3 Universal clevis-mounted cylinders
3
5.1.3 Cylinder port positions
3
5.2 Installing Hydraulic Motors and Rotary Actuators
4
5.2.1 Motor mounting types
4
5.2.2 Motor shaft alignment
4
5.2.3 Side loads on motor shafts
5.2.4 Flexible couplings
4
5.1

5.2.4.1 Flexible coupling types


5.2.4.1.1

Splined-shaft couplings

5.2.4.1.2 Flexible couplings for keyed shafts


6.

INSTALLING HYDRAULIC POWER TRANSMISSION PUMPS

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Direction of Rotation
5
Side Loads on Pump Shaft
Pump Suction Line
5
Installing Reservoir
5

6.4.1 Reservoir mounted above pump


7.

INSTALLING ACCUMULATORS

7.1 Mounting Accumulators


7.2 Accumulator Drain Line
7.3 Charging the Accumulator
8.

6
6
7
7

Mounting Valves to Avoid Distortion


8.1.1 Line-mounted valve
7
8.1.2 Foot-mounted valve
7
8.1.3 Panel-mounted valve
7
8.1.4 Back-mounted valve
8

8.1.4.1 Valve subplate


8.2 Identify Valve Ports
8
9.

INSTALLING HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT


9.1 Power Unit Storage
9

9.2 Moving Power Unit into Position


9.3 Mounting Power Unit
9

9.3.1
10.

INSTALLING HYDRAULIC VALVES

8.1

Special services for prime mover

INTERCONNECTING PIPING INSTALLATION

9
9

10.1 Piping Installation Conditions and Defensive Practice


10.2 Hydraulic Power Transmission Tubing
9
10.2.1 Fabricated tubing runs
10
10.2.2 Bending tubing
10

10.2.3 Tube fittings


10
10.2.3.1 Tube fitting materials
10
10.2.3.2 Flared-tube fittings
10
10.2.3.3 Flareless and self-flared fittings
10.2.3.4 Checking joint tightness
11
10.2.3.5 Screw Thread Types
12
iii

11

CONTENTS (continued)
12
10.2.3.5.1 NPT threads
10.2.3.5.2 SAE straight pipe thread, 0-ring boss type
13
10.2.3.5.3 BSP parallel threads
10.3 Pipe Installation
13
10.3.1 Pipe material
13
13
10.3.2 Problems with pipe
10.3.2.1 Pipe condition
13
13
10.3.2.1.1 Pickling process
14
10.3.2.2 Pipe joining methods
10.3.2.2.1 Screwed joints
14
10.3.2.2.2 Flanged joints
14
14
10.3.2.2.3 Assembly of 4-bolt, split-flange joint
10.3.2.3 Pipe fabricating
14
10.3.2.3.1 Pipe fittings
14
10.3.2.3.2 Bending pipe
15
10.3.2.3.3 Pickling pipe assemblies
15
10.4 Rigid Piping Installation
15
15
10.4.1 Clamping lines
10.5 Flexible Hose Installation
16
16
10.5.1 Flexible hose for hydraulic systems
10.5.2 Flexible hose storage
17
10.5.3 Installing couplings on hose
17
10.5.3.1 Attaching hose couplings
17
17
10.5.3.1.1 Reusable couplings
17
10.5.3.1.2 Permanent-type couplings
18
10.5.3.1.3 Checking the assembly
10.5.4 Installing flexible hose assemblies
18
10.5.4.1 Attaching hose assemblies
18
10.5.4.2 Mounting hose assemblies
18
18
10.5.4.2.1 Avoid abrasion damage
18
10.5.4.2.2 Allow for changes in hose length
19
10.5.4.2.3 Avoid overflexing hose
20
10.5.4.2.4 A neat assembly
10.5.4.2.5 Safety precautions
20
10.5.4.3 Clamps for flexible hoses
20
10.6 Air-Bleed Points
20
10.7 Pressure Tappings
20
10.8 Installation of Component Drain Lines
21
10.9 Checking Reservoir
21
11. RECOMMENDED HYDRAULIC OIL 21
21
11.1 Oil Storage
21
11.2 Use New Quality Oil
11.3 Cleanliness of Oil Transfer Equipment
11.4 Oil Transfer Equipment
22
11.5 Points for Filling System
22
11.6 Filling System Reservoir
22
12. CHECKING PIPING SYSTEM 22
12.1 Pressure Testing
22
12.1.1 Pressure testing requirements
12.2 Flushing Piping System
23
12.2.1 Alternative flushing equipment

21

22

13. PREPARATIONS FOR SYSTEM TESTING 24


13.1 Connecting Pressure Gauges into Circuit
13.2 Initial Start-Up of System
24

23
24

14. TESTING CYLINDER CIRCUITS 24


24
14.1 No-Load Testing of Cylinder Circuits
24
14.1.1 Checking cylinder alignment
24
14.1.2 Purging air trapped in cylinders
25
14.2 Final Testing of Cylinder Circuits
iv

12

CONTENTS ( concluded)
15.

TESTING HYDRAULIC MOTOR CIRCUITS


15.1 No-Load Testing of Motor Circuits

25
25

15.1.1 Adjusting pump relief valve


25
15.2 Final Testing of Motor Circuits
25
15.2.1 Counterbalancing hoisting winches
26
15.2.2 Sea trials for fishing winches
26
15.2.2.1 Counterbalancing fishing winch loads
15.2.3 Final system checks
26

26

REFERENCES (inside back cover)

FIGURES
1
Rigid cylinder mountings
2 Fixed clevis mounting
3

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Trunnion mounting
3
Universal clevis mounting
3
Location of cylinder oil ports
3
Mounting a hydraulic pump, motor, or rotary actuator
4
General requirements for a pump suction line and reservoir installation
Mounting an accumulator
6
Charging an accumulator
7
Valve mounting types
8
Standard power unit
8
Fabricated tubing run
10

13

Using hand-held tube bender

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

11
Bench-mounted bending machine
Examples of good and bad tube bends
11
11
The 37 flared-tube fitting assembly
Hand-held flaring tool
11
Good and bad tube flares
12
Method of checking tightness of joints
12
How the straight-thread O ring seals
13
Effect of insufficient clearance for O ring
13
Assembly of SAE 4-bolt flange connection
14
SAE 4-bolt flange assembly guidelines
15
Align tubing accurately with fittings
15
Hydraulic piping clamps
16
17
Hose end fittings
Hose installation requirements
18
Avoid abrasion damage
19
Allow for changes in hose length
19
Avoid overflexing hose
19
Route hose for neat appearance
20
Protect hose from heat
20
21
Hose clamps
Typical pressure test circuit
22
Typical flushing circuit
23

10

FOREWORD

If the fisherman is to achieve a good standard of living he must obtain a good


profit from his catch. He has little control over the number of fish available or
the demand for his product; his expertise is catching fish. To do this efficiently
it is necessary to have good but not necessarily the most expensive equipment.
However, the equipment must be safe, efficient, reliable, durable, and economical.
Deck machinery helps men handle nets and process fish and this machinery needs
a source of power. Because the power must be transmitted, the prime mover and
transmission have to be as reliable as the machinery. It is a common opinion that
machines and prime movers are reliable but that the weak link is the transmission,
particularly when it is hydraulic. There is some justification for this opinion
because in the past many mistakes have been made in the design and installation
of hydraulic transmissions. However, transmission of power by hydraulics is
especially suited to the needs of deck machinery. Properly designed and installed
it is safe and dependable, and is good enough for use in large aircraft. But to be
successful, a hydraulic transmission must be designed, installed, and maintained
by knowledgeable people.
This Manual consists of six separate Booklets. They outline the ideas,
materials, and methods used to create a safe, efficient, and reliable hydraulic power
transmission. Generally, the discussion of each topic is brief and, no doubt, some
points are missed; however, the intention is to help the practical worker understand
hydraulics. Although written mainly for mechanics, the Manual should also be
of value to system designers and draftsmen because it emphasizes practical requirements. The mechanic must have some knowledge of the principles behind the
design of hydraulic power transmissions, appreciate the great need for cleanliness
inside the system, and the necessity to keep the operating temperature at a reasonable level. He should understand how the various components work, and how to
carry out necessary troubleshooting and repair procedures. Special knowledge and
skill are needed by the hydraulic systems mechanic and this Manual will supply
some of that knowledge. Skill will be obtained when he applies this knowledge
to his work.
Fishermen's Services Branch
Fisheries and Marine Service
Department of Fisheries and the Environment

vi

1. INTRODUCTION

This Booklet deals with the installation of components commonly used in hydraulic systems. To maintain efficiency and reliability of components, a system
must be cleaned and checked after assembly, and this
is discussed together with piping materials and the
installation itself.
2. INSTALLATION MECHANIC

When a hydraulic power transmission is ready for


installation, the responsibility for the system passes to
the installation mechanic. The designer has done his
part and the practical man must convert the designer's
ideas into a safe working system.
The hydraulic power transmission mechanic must
know how to install properly power-transmitting components (pumps, valves, actuators) and oil-conditioning
components (filters, reservoirs, coolers). He must be
familiar with acceptable interconnecting piping materials (tubing, pipe, flexible hose) and know how they
are fabricated, installed, and joined. He must know
how to handle the hydraulic oil to prevent it becoming
contaminated before being added to the system, and
he must know how to clean and test the transmission
when it is complete. This practical knowledge makes
the hydraulic power transmission mechanic special. The
tricks to this trade are not difficult to learn and they
must be applied conscientiously if hydraulic power
transmissions are to give safe, reliable, and efficient
service.
3. NEED FOR CLEANLINESS

ponents test every component under controlled condi-

tions to ensure that each one delivered meets a rigorous


performance specification. After testing, the component
ports are sealed with plastic or metal caps, and the
component is then carefully packaged to keep it from
being externally damaged. Manufacturers know dirt and
water are harmful to their products and are more than
careful to keep out these contaminants. When hydraulic
components are received, they should be inspected to
see that (1) all hydraulic ports are properly sealed and
(2) the component has not suffered external damage in
transit. Reject any component that does not meet these
simple checks. It is not advisable to proceed with the
installation of a component that is not in factory-fresh
condition.
3.2 Clean Up Working Area

No matter how much traffic there is in the working


area, it is always worthwhile to find and clean a suitable
spot to store and work on hydraulic components. Good
housekeeping is a sign of good workmanship for any
trade and it is especially true for the hydraulic power
transmission mechanic.
3.3 Do Not Remove Port Caps

The conditions of the area where hydraulic systems are to be installed are far dirtier than can be
tolerated by clearances inside the components. Therefore, it is advisable not to unpack any component until
immediately before its installation. Often boxes and
packing cases are removed so the equipment can be
moved onto the site in preparation for installation, but
there is no reason to remove any port caps or packaging
from the smaller components until installation actually
takes place. A component left lying around in the
working area with the ports open becomes contaminated in a very short time. When caps are removed
keep them in a clean bag until the installation job is
completed. Clean plastic caps are often handy for other
temporary capping jobs.
Although it is extremely important to keep the
ports capped, it is equally important to remember to
remove them at the proper time. A cap left in place
after the hydraulic lines are attached causes faulty
operation of the transmission, and creates many problems before the cause of trouble is located.

Considering the conditions under which most


hydraulic components and systems are installed, it may
seem impossible to follow the strict cleanliness practices
demanded by hydraulic equipment suppliers. Usually
welders, electricians, and other tradesmen are working
where the hydraulic system is to be installed, and the
refuse from this work makes it difficult to meet the
demand for clean working conditions. Wind, rain, and
snow can add to the mechanic's difficulties when the
equipment is installed on an open deck. However, it is
essential to build a clean system and this is not as
difficult as it may seem. The key to success lies in
4. MOUNTING HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS
understanding the importance of keeping dirt and water
There are three rules for installing components
out of hydraulic components, and then learning and
practicing a few simple procedures that help ensure properly :
1) Be sure components are mounted without distorcomponents are kept clean, inside and out, to the
tion. If the body of a component is distorted during
moment of installation.
installation, running clearances change and friction and
3.1 Hydraulic Components from Factory
wear increase. This results in unsatisfactory perforAll manufacturers of high quality hydraulic corn- mance and short life.
1

2) Install each component so the interconnecting


piping is as simple as possible. Provide enough space
around the component to allow the piping to be connected conveniently. Also try to locate the component
so the piping goes straight in and out of the ports to
avoid elbow fittings.
3) Ensure that each component is accessible for
servicing. It is bad practice to place components that
require regular attention where they are not readily
accessible or where they cannot be seen. For example,
the reservoir must be positioned so that it is easily
drained and refilled, and where the oil level indicator
is clearly visible. Filters must also be visible and accessible so they are not overlooked when the system is
serviced. Power-transmitting components such as
pumps, valves, and actuators may need servicing at
some time and should be easy to reach.
Of course, practical considerations of locating
components inside a ship have to be considered, but by
following these rules the best possible installation can
be achieved. The discussion on designing system hardware (Booklet 4, Part II, Section 13) will be useful to
the installation mechanic as well as the designer because,
as often happens, the mechanic is handed the components and asked to lay out the installation.

the cylinder rod, the rod will be deflected sideways as it


moves in and out causing wear of the rod, the sealing
gland, and the piston inside the cylinder. It is extremely
important to align the cylinder accurately with the
motion of the load, but this cannot be done until the
rod is extended by oil pressure. Cylinders may have
rigid or pivoted mounting. Certain precautions must be
taken when installing both types.
5.1.1 Rigidly Mounted Cylinders A cylinder of this
type is mounted by a flange attached to one end of the
cylinder or by lugs (usually called feet) attached to the
sides of the cylinder. Because these cylinders have no
flexibility in their mountings it is essential the movement of the piston rod be perfectly aligned with that of
the mechanism it operates. The alignment must be
maintained under both low and high pressures so the
supporting structures to which the cylinder and its load
are attached must also be rigid. If they deflect under
the effects of load and temperature the piston rod will
be side loaded and wear will be accelerated (Fig. 1).
FLAT SURFACE, SQUARE WITH LOAD TRAVEL

FLANGE MOUNTING
RIGID SUPPORT--+

5. INSTALLING ACTUATORS
Hydraulic cylinders, motors, and rotary actuators
are connected to the devices they drive and there can
be little choice in their location. However, it is necessary to ensure there is adequate space for the piping
and for servicing.

NOTE: IN BOTH CASES


CYLINDER & LOAD MOTION
MUST BE COAXIAL
FOOT MOUNTING

l
^

l)

MOUNTING SURFACE MUST BE FLAT

5.1 Installing Cylinders


A cylinder depends on the highly polished finish
of its piston rod to provide an effective oil seal and low
friction. Unfortunately, when the rod is extended it is
easily damaged, so it is essential to keep any piston rod
fully retracted during installation. A piston rod should
not be extended until its system pump can supply
filtered oil, and this cannot be accomplished until the
system installation is almost complete. Never extend
the rod by pulling it out mechanically, as cylinder ports
must then be open, and airborne dirt and moisture will
be drawn in as the rod is extended. When installing the
rod fitting (usually a rod-eye or a clevis bracket) on the
end of the rod be sure, it is tight against the shoulder.
Use a wrench on the flats provided to prevent the rod
from rotating, because this motion could ruin the rod
and piston seals and score the cylinder bore. Never use
a pipe wrench or any other tool on the piston rod of a
cylinder. The motion of the cylinder rod is a straightline push and pull and the cylinder has to be mounted
so that only this motion is applied to the load. If the
movement of the load does not exactly match that of
2

& IN LINE WITH LOAD MOVEMENT

FiG. 1. Rigid cylinder mountings

5.1.1.1 Avoid Distorting Cylinder A rigidly


mounted cylinder must be attached to a flat machined
surface so it can be bolted down without distorting the
cylinder casing. Flange-munted cylinders are attached
to the structure at one end only. However, a flat
mounting surface is required because it allows initial
alignment to be achieved easily, and maintains the
alignment under load if the supporting structure is
rigid. The mounting of side-lug (foot-mounted) cylinders is more critical, because both ends of the cylinder
are fastened to the supporting structure and an uneven
mounting surface will cause the cylinder to bend or
twist. After the foot-mounted cylinder has been accurately aligned with the load, it is advisable to locate the
cylinder positively (with dowels for example) to prevent
the loss of alignment with use. A cylinder must be
positively located at one end only. Dowels (or keys) at
both ends of a cylinder cause it to distort under pressure and temperature changes.

5.1.2 Pivot-Mounted Cylinders When movement of 5.1.3 Cylinder Port Positions When cylinders are
the driven mechanism is not a straight line, or if accu- mounted horizontally, ports should face upward so the
rate alignment is difficult to achieve, pivot-mounted
air, trapped inside when the system is filled with oil, is
cylinders are used. The three commonly used types of easily released. Hydraulic cylinders should be installed
pivot mounting are: (1) fixed Clevis mounting, (2) so unwanted air can be purged with no problem (Fig. 5).
trunnion mounting, and (3) universal clevis mounting.
CYLINDER FREE TO
SWING IN THIS PLANE

5.1.2.1 Fixed Clevis-Mounted Cylinders A U


bracket is attached to the cap end of the cylinder. The
U bracket contains a cross-hole accurately sized to
receive a sturdy steel rod (usually called a pin) that
attaches the end of the cylinder to a drilled plate
protruding from the supporting structure. This pinned
connection allows the cylinder to swing freely in one
plane only, and in this plane accurate alignment of
piston rod movement with the load is not important.
However, in any other plane the cylinder mounting is
rigid, and accurate alignment is essential (Fig. 2).

3B-

RIGID SUPPORTING STRUCTURE

CYLINDER MOUNTING RIGID IN THIS PLANE

TRUNNION SUPPORT BEARINGS MUST BE


ACURATELY ALIGNED WITH EACH OTHER
AND LOAD MOVEMENT

LOAD MOTION

FIG. 3. Trunnion mounting

CYLINDER MOUNTING RIGID IN THIS PLANE

FIG. 2. Fixed clevis mounting

5.1.2.2 Trunnion-Mounted Cylinders These


have two short stub shafts that are in the same straight
line and protrude from opposite sides of the cylinder
body. Like the fixed clevis mounting, the trunnions give
the cylinder freedom to swing in one plane only.
Each trunnion is mounted in a bearing that must be
accurately aligned to avoid cylinder distortion. If selfaligning trunnion bearings are used the mounting operation is simplified, but the piston rod motion must be
accurately aligned with the load motion in all planes,
other than the swinging plane (Fig. 3).
5.1.2.3 Universal Clevis-Mounted Cylinders
This mounting is similar to the fixed clevis arrangement
except the U bracket on the cap end of the cylinder is
replaced with a male tang. This single piece of steel
plate contains a hole that houses a self-aligning bearing,
and (as with the fixed clevis arrangement) a sturdy steel
pin in the bearing connects the end of the cylinder to
a U bracket mounted on the supporting structure. To
complete the universal mounting, a rod-eye containing
a self-aligning bearing is attached to the end of the
piston rod. The universal clevis mounting reduces the
need for accurate alignment of the cylinder and load.
The self-aligning bearings permit approximately 5
movement in normally rigid planes (Fig. 4).

-I

CYLINDER FREE TO SWING


IN THIS PLANE

LIMITED MOVEMENT
T IN THIS PLANE

BRACKET MUST BE ALIGNED WITH LOAD MOVEMENT TO TAKE


MAXIMUM ADVANTAGE OF SPHERICAL BEARING

FIG. 4. Universal clevis mounting


OIL PORTS SHOULD BE POSITIONED ON TOP
OF CYLINDER TO ASSIST AIR BLEEDING

FIG. 5. Location of cylinder oil ports

5.2 Installing Hydraulic Motors and Rotary Actuators


These actuators have rotating shafts, so there is
not the problem of protecting a highly finished shaft as
when installing a cylinder. However, the shaft of a

motor or rotary actuator is accurately sized for a close


fit with a coupling and must be protected from damage.
It is important to mount a hydraulic motor or rotary
actuator without distortion and to align their shafts
accurately with the machines they drive. It is also important to ensure that caps on the hydraulic ports are
kept securely in place throughout the installation
operation.
5.2.1 Motor Mounting Types A hydraulic motor is
usually mounted by a flange on the motor casing at
the shaft end. A pilot shoulder, concentric with the
shaft is machined on the flange so the motor can be
simply plugged in to a mating depression in the
mounting bracket. Often the mounting bracket is part
of the driven machine but if the bracket has to be
manufactured, the following rules should be followed:
1) Bracket must be robust and rigid so it does not
deflect under load and abuse.
2) Bracket must have a flat machined face to receive the motor flange, to ensure motor casing is not
distorted when bolted to the bracket.
3) Machined face of bracket must have an accurately machined pilot bore (or mating depression) to
receive motor locating shoulder with a diametral clearance of .001.113 inch (in.).

Motor Shaft Alignment The rotating shaft of


a motor or a rotary actuator has to be accurately
aligned with the shaft it drives. Misalignment introduces
repeated bending of the shaft, which increases the
loading on the motor bearings and shortens their life.
In general, motor and machine shafts should be in line
within .005 in. total indicated reading (TIR) on a dial
indicator. If the motor mounting is part of the machine,
satisfactory alignment is no problem, because the pilot
bore must be concentric with the drive shaft. If a
separately mounted bracket is necessary, it must be
positioned so the motor mounting face is square with
the machine shaft axis and the pilot bore is concentric
with the axis within .005 in. TIR. The bracket should be
positively located with dowel pins to maintain accuracy,
then the motor can be mounted and remounted if
necessary without time-consuming realignment (Fig. 6).
5.2.2

SHAFTS MUST BE ACCURATELY ALIGNED

5.2.3. Side Loads on Motor Shafts If possible,


power from motors and rotary actuators should not be
delivered through belts, chains, or gears with the sheave,
sprocket, or gear mounted directly on the motor shaft.
These drives can generate high side loads on the shaft.
Many motors can accommodate severe side loads without harmful effects but some cannot. If it is necessary
for a motor or rotary actuator to have a side drive,
check with the supplier to verify that the component
can take side loading (see also Section 6.2).
5.2.4 Flexible Couplings Some flexibility in the
coupling between the motor and machine is essential
because perfect alignment of the shafts is difficult to
achieve and impossible to maintain under all working
conditions. In addition, accurate alignment of these
shafts is still necessary because, although a flexible
coupling can accommodate a slight misalignment, the
more the shafts are out of line the more the coupling
flexes and applies side load to shafts and bearings.
5.2.4.1 Flexible Coupling Types There are two
types of flexible couplings for shafts. One is the splined
shaft type and the other connects parallel, keyed shafts.
5.2.4.1.1 Splined-shaft couplings These couplings consist simply of a splined motor shaft fitting
into the female splines of the driven machine. Flexibility is obtained by virtue of the clearance between the
male and female parts. They are easiest to install and
most suitable for the close-coupled, plug-in mounting
usually found on power take-off gear boxes. The pilot
diameter on the motor enters the pilot bore on the
machine motor mounting face. The splined shaft of the
motor enters and drives a concentric female spline
inside the machine casing. Two rules to follow when
installing a splined shaft drive are (1) lubricate motor
shaft splines with an extreme pressure grease, and
(2) be sure the motor can be pushed into the locating
(pilot) bore easily and the motor flange positively meets
the mounting pad. Sometimes the motor shaft is too
long or the female splined socket is too shallow. Then
the motor shaft is end loaded when the flanges are
bolted together, and motor failure quickly occurs.

,FLEXIBLE COUPLING ALWAYS NEEDED

5.2.4.1.2
MACHINE
OR
PRIME MOVER

\-

-MOUNTING FACE MUST SE


FLAT AND SQUARE WITH
DRIVE SHAFT

DOWELS REQUIRED TO ENSURE PERMANENT 1


ALIGNMENT

FIG. 6. Mounting hydraulic pump, motor, or rotary actuator


4

Flexible couplings for keyed shafts

There are many different designs of flexible couplings


suitable for connecting keyed parallel shafts. They
generally consist of two hubs, one fitted to each shaft,
and a flexible driving member installed between the
hubs. Some flexible couplings need lubrication but
others do not, so it is always advisable to obtain installation data from the supplier. The clearance between
the shaft and coupling hub bore is important. The
motor shaft size is usually held to a tolerance of .001 in.
and the fit required ranges from a push fit to a shrink

fit. Be guided by the recommendations of equipment


suppliers.
6. INSTALLING HYDRAULIC POWER
TRANSMISSION PUMPS

The rules for installing hydraulic motors also


apply to pumps because the mounting methods are
similar (see Section 5.2). The pump is driven continuously at high speed by the prime mover and this
demands accurate shaft alignment. A flexible coupling
is required in every pump drive. The pump mounting
bracket must be rigidly constructed to prevent deflections in service and a flat machined surface is necessary for mounting the pump without distortion.
6.1 Direction of Rotation

Before installing a pump, check the direction the


shaft must rotate because this must match the primemover shaft rotation. If the prime mover is an electric
motor the rotation can be changed to suit the pump.
However, the shaft rotation direction of a diesel engine
usually cannot be changed and a pump must be chosen
to suit the engine. The pump may be unidirectional (one
direction of rotation permitted) or bidirectional (either
direction of rotation permitted). Unidirectional pumps
are preferred because they are more efficient and less
expensive than bidirectional pumps. With the bidirectional pump either port can be used as inlet or discharge and the ports are the same size. Unidirectional
pumps have the correct direction marked on the pump
body and the inlet port is always larger than the discharge port. If any doubt exists as to the correct rotation of the pump shaft, check with the supplier or the
manufacturer's catalog.
6.2 Side Loads on Pump Shaft

Generally pumps are less able to withstand this


type of shaft loading than motors. When the pump
drive is being selected, check with the supplier to ensure the pump can withstand the side loads that will be
generated by the type chosen (belt, chain, direct gear
drive, etc.). V-belt drives create the highest side loads
because of their initial pretensioning requirements. With
any side drive it is best to mount the pump shaft sheave,
sprocket, or gear on a jackshaft mounted in its own
large bearings. The jackshaft bearings then take the
side loads rather than the pump. A flexible coupling
between the jackshaft and the pump shaft is required
to transmit torque only and not the side loads.
6.3 Pump Suction Line

The satisfactory installation of the pump suction


line is most important in building a hydraulic system.
This line transfers the oil from the reservoir to the

pump inlet port, usually with no impelling force other


than atmospheric pressure. To ensure the oil reaches
the pump in good condition, the pump suction line must
be considered a super highway along which oil flows
with minimum resistance to the pump inlet port, and it
must have the following features:
1) Be as short as possible.
2) Be as straight as possible. Avoid sharp elbows.
3) Have as large a bore as possible. The line should
not be smaller than inlet port size of the pump.
4) Have a minimum number of joints. The more
joints the greater the possibility of a leak but, instead
of oil leaking out, air can be drawn into the pump with
the oil. An airoil mixture is absolutely unacceptable
because it causes spongy operation of the system and
rapid wear of the pump.
5) Be flexible. Either construct all or part of this
line from flexible hose, or alternatively flexibly support
a steel suction line in the top of the reservoir with a
tightly fitted rubber grommet mounted in a flexible
sheet-metal flange called a suction-line flange. Suctionline flanges are readily available from most hydraulic
component suppliers.
6) Leave the reservoir at a point well below lowest
oil level.
6.4 Installing Reservoir

The requirements of a good pump suction line


make the choice of reservoir location important and
Fig. 7 shows the general requirements for pump, suction line, and reservoir relationships. The main rules
to follow are:
1) Install reservoir close to pump inlet.
2) If possible, mount reservoir approximately 3 ft
above pump to give a positive pump inlet pressure.
Where a reservoir oil level is below the pump inlet ports
the oil has to be lifted into the pump, and this creates
undesirable vacuum conditions inside the inlet port.
3) Mount reservoir so it can be filled easily.
4) Mount reservoir so it can be drained and cleaned
easily.
5) Mount reservoir level so oil level indicator is
clearly visible and gives a realistic indication of oil
depth. If the reservoir is tilted, two or more indicators
should be fitted on opposite sides of the tank, because
one indicator alone may give a false reading.
6.4.1. Reservoir Mounted Above Pump This is the
most desirable location, but requires a shut-off cock
installed in the suction line to allow pump removal
without the need to drain the reservoir. A valve or cock
in the suction line will cancel the advantages of an
elevated reservoir unless the following precautions are
taken:
1) Shut-off cock or valve must be sufficiently large
to create almost zero resistance to flow. A ball-type
5

REMOVABLE TOP WITH GASKET FOR


AIRTIGHT SEALING

SHORT, LARGE-BORE,
FLEXIBLE SUCTION LINE.
OIL SPEED 5 ft/s MAX
IF POSSIBLE, INSTALL RESERVOIR SO
OIL LEVEL IS ABOVE PUMP

FIG. 7. General requirements for a pump suction line and rescrvoir installation

valve is a good choice, but make sure the hole through


the ball is equal to the suction line bore size. Some ball
valves have bores smaller than their pipe size indicates.
2) Ball valve is opened and closed by a quarter-turn
of the handle and can be accidently closed and damage
the pump, and a full-flow gate valve is probably the
safest type of valve to fit in a suction line. It must be
possible to lock the valve or cock in the open position,
possibly with a padlock.

the bore of the accumulator. When the U bolts are


tightened, the casing can be distorted and prevent the
piston moving freely. The best method of mounting an
accumulator is to place the gas-charging valve end
against a very strong bracket, then clamp the accumulator lengthwise against the bracket with long tie bolts
(Fig. 8).

7. INSTALLING ACCUMULATORS
Accumulators in a hydraulic power transmission
system store oil at high pressure and must be handled
with respect and installed carefully. If the line or connection to a charged-up accumulator fails, the oil in
the accumulator is ejected from the break at great
speed. The accumulator attempts to "take off like a
rocket" and continues to do so until all the oil is discharged. This is extremely dangerous and creates a
serious fire hazard.
7.1 Mounting Accumulators
An accumulator should be mounted standing on
end rather than on its side. It is important to mount the
accumulator firmly so that it will not break away if the
oil line fractures. This means there must be a strong
mounting bracket at the end of the accumulator opposite the oil connection. Piston-type accumulators must
never be clamped with U bolts, because the piston that
separates the nitrogen gas from the oil fits closely inside

SUPPORT ACCUMULATOR WITH STRONG


END BRACKETS & TIE BOLTS

FiG. 8. Mounting an accumulator

7.2 Accumulator Drain Line


Always connect a small high-pressure needle valve
into the accumulator oil supply line and then run the
valve outlet back to the reservoir. The needle valve is
normally kept tightly closed and is opened only to

drain the oil from the accumulator during servicing


operations.
7.3 Charging the Accumulator
Accumulators must be charged only with dry
nitrogen gas as other compressed gases create dangerous conditions. Nitrogen gas is readily obtainable in
bottles (approximately 10 gallon) and pressurized to
approximately 2000 pounds per square inch (psi). An
assembly consisting of a gas-charging valve, a pressure
gauge, and a flexible hose is also required and can be
obtained from the accumulator manufacturer or the
hydraulic system supplier. A typical nitrogen charging
procedure follows:
1) Drain all oil from accumulator.
2) Screw gas-charging valve of the assembly to gas
valve on accumulator.
3) Connect the assembly's flexible hose to nitrogen
bottle. Screw thread on nitrogen bottle valve may be
either righthand or lefthand. Verify type of screw
thread and number of threads per inch (TPI) before
obtaining a charging valve assembly.
4) Fully open gas valve on accumulator when nitrogen bottle is connected to accumulator.
5) Crack open valve on nitrogen bottle and allow
gas to flow slowly into accumulator. Close valve frequently during charging operation to stop flow of gas
then read pressure gauge. Continue operation until
required precharge pressure is reached. This procedure
must be carried out very slowly because the gas in the
accumulator heats as a result of being compressed.
6) Tightly close gas valve on accumulator.
7) Fully close nitrogen bottle valve.
8) Disconnect flexible hose at nitrogen bottle connection. Gas-charging valve assembly may be left attached to accumulator to make precharge pressure
checking convenient (Fig. 9).

8. INSTALLING HYDRAULIC VALVES


Hydraulic valves are the only components for
which there is a choice of location. Manually operated,
directional control valves must be fitted so the operator
can see the machinery while operating them, but remotely controlled valves such as solenoid operated
valves and those that do not require adjustment in service (pressure and flow-rate controls) can be installed
in any convenient place. It is usually convenient to
group these valves together on a metal framework to
form a valve panel. If this is possible, the valve panel
assembly can be built in a workshop or an area away
from the point of installation where working conditions
are better. The result is always a neater, more reliable
job and the installation operation only involves mounting the valve panel in a suitable place and connecting
the necessary hydraulic lines.
8.1 Mounting Valves to Avoid Distortion
Valves are either line-mounted, foot-mounted,
panel-mounted, or back-mounted. Each of these methods has its advantages and limitations (Fig. 10).
8.1.1 Line-Mounted Valve This style of valve is
intended to be supported by the hydraulic piping. Often
the piping must be clamped to a supporting structure
to take the strain off the valve connections and to
prevent flexing in service. The pipe clamping operation
must be done carefully as it is possible to distort the
valve enough to prevent its operation. One and a
quarter inch and smaller valves have female, screw
threaded ports (usually called tapped ports). Larger
valves, particularly for high-pressure service, have
flanged port connections. Be especially careful when
tightening taper pipe thread connections, because their
wedging action can distort the valve enough to prevent
internal parts from moving freely and in extreme cases
can split the valve body.
8.1.2 Foot-Mounted Valve A valve that contains
mounting bolt holes is called a foot-mounted valve, and
may be bolted directly to a supporting structure before
the piping is connected. The valve body must be
clamped only at the bolt holes to ensure there is no
distortion when the valve is bolted down. A manually
operated, directional control valve often has four holddown bolt holes. Any valve with four hold-down bolts
is likely to be seriously distorted unless the supporting
structure is flat or the feet of the valve are carefully
shimmed to create a level surface.

Fic. 9. Charging an accumulator

8.1.3 Panel-Mounted Valve This type of- mounting


is suitable only for small pressure and flow-rate control
valves. The outside of the body that contains the valve
adjusting screw is threaded and supplied with two locknuts. A clearance hole for the threaded part of the body

PANEL MOUNTING

LINE MOUNTING

1114111.111

UM

1111.1.13.1111.11
0

SUB PLATE

PIPING CONNECTIONS

CLAMPS

Ecpj,( Q
FOOT MOUNTING

BACK
MOUNTING

SPACER UNDER EACH BOLT HOLE

Fm. 10. Valve mounting types

is drilled in the valve mounting panel, the threaded part


is inserted through the hole and held in place by
clamping the panel between the two locknuts. Because
this is a single-point mounting, distortion of the valve
is unlikely.

check valves are marked with an arrow to indicate the


direction the oil freely flows through the valve.

Back-mounted valves do
not contain their own piping connections. These are
contained in a separate subplate bolted to the back of
the valve. The faces of the valve and the subplate are
machined flat and highly finished, and these mate
together. The oil passages between the valve and subplate are sealed with 0 rings. This type of mounting
is preferred because it minimizes the possibility of valve
distortion and also permits removal of the valve for
servicing without the necessity to disconnect the piping.

The big advantage of the hydraulic power unit is


that it combines the oil reservoir, prime mover, pump,
oil-conditioning components, and some, if not all, of
the system control valves into one package. A hydraulic
power unit can be assembled away from the site and
tested to ensure proper performance of components
before installation. This procedure simplifies the system
installation work. It lessens the chance of difficulties
during installation, system start up, and in service,
because the power unit is assembled under the best
possible conditions (Fig. 11).

8.1.4

Back-Mounted Valve

8.1.4.1 Valve Subplate The subplate is usually


a separate component and is attached to the supporting
structure before the valve is mounted. A subplate has
four mounting bolt holes and although quite thick and
rigid, care must be taken not to distort it during installation. If the valve mounting surface is not perfectly
flat a leakproof oil connection between the valve and
subplate is impossible. For the same reason, protect the
valve mounting face during installation. A bruised or
scratched surface will result in a leak that cannot be
sealed without refinishing the surface.

9. INSTALLING HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT

8.2 Identify Valve Ports

Before installing a hydraulic valve, become familiar with the porting arrangement so there is no danger
of errors when connecting the valve into the circuit.
On good quality valves each main port is clearly
marked but often drainline and external pilot connections are not. It is advisable to clarify the locations of
all ports with the manufacturer's catalog, or the supplier if necessary. Check valves and valves containing
8

Fm. 11. Standard power unit

9.1 Power Unit Storage

Hydraulic power units should be stored in a clean,


dry, and heated area whenever possible. Sometimes
when a unit is delivered to the installation site it is left
in the open for several days, and it is essential to
protect the power unit from weather and abuse. In
general, follow these rules:
1) If hydraulic power unit is crated when received,
do not remove crate until unit is moved to installation
site.
2) If power unit is not crated, or if crating is damaged, check that all hydraulic connections are firmly
sealed and each component undamaged.
3) Store power unit in sheltered place away from
weather and traffic.
4) Stand power unit on blocks, off ground and cover
completely with a good tarpaulin.

9.3.1 Special Services for Prime Mover If the prime


mover is an electric motor, electric power and motor
control equipment are necessary. A diesel engine requires services such as fuel, cooling water, lube oil,
engine starting (compressed air, electric, or hydraulic),
and exhaust. Engine exhaust ducts occupy a great deal
of space. There should be room for all necessary additional services when the power unit is positioned.
10. INTERCONNECTING PIPING
INSTALLATION

The piping installation mechanic should create an


efficient, neat, and leaktight system. Piping runs should
be kept straight, and sharp, 90 elbows avoided if possible. Use all three piping materials (tubing, pipe, and
flexible hose) to their best advantage. Steel hydraulic
tubing should always be first choice because it comes
9.2 Moving Power Unit Into Position
Ports should be capped and identified when the hy- in a thoroughly clean condition, is easily formed, and
draulic power unit is received at the installation site. is made specially for the hydraulic power transmission
Do not remove the caps or identification until the industry. Copper and aluminum tubing cannot be used
power unit is installed and the system piping is ready in hydraulic power transmission systems. When circuit
to be connected. A well-designed power unit contains flow rate approaches 50 U.S. gallons per minute (gpm),
lifting points that make moving less hazardous for men pipe should be considered, particularly for long,
and the power unit. If lifting lugs are not provided, the straight runs because hydraulic steel tubing larger than
installation mechanic must decide the best way to 11/4 in. outside diameter (OD) is difficult to obtain and
handle the unit. The hydraulic power unit must be fittings are expensive. Some flexible hose is required
moved into position without damage to any component. in every hydraulic system to allow pivot-mounted
If components are removed from the power unit or if cylinders to swing, allow expansion, and dampen noise
it is modified to make installation easier, the benefits and pump pulsations. It is the easiest and quickest
of assembly work and previous testing will likely be piping material to install, but is also the least durable
cancelled. To reduce problems to a minimum, plan and and most awkward to support, particularly on long
check the installation procedure before starting the job. runs.
9.3 Mounting Power Unit

The hydraulic power unit must be accessible and


located where air can circulate around the reservoir to
help the oil-cooling process. It must be firmly bolted
to the deck, but this must not cause unacceptable distortion. Unacceptable distortion is misalignment between the prime mover and the pump. The prime mover
and pump mounting frame must be firm enough to
handle the power unit, but an uneven bed plate can
introduce serious misalignment unless bolting points
are carefully shimmed. It is important, too, that the oil
reservoir is level to ensure oil level indicators give an
accurate reading. After the power unit is firmly bolted
down, recheck that the shafts of the pump and prime
mover are still aligned within .005 in. TIR, or closer
if the component supplier has so specified.
The power unit is often installed at an early stage
of construction and then used as a platform or step by
men working in the area. It is advisable to build a
temporary frame, perhaps from pieces of the original
packing case to protect the power unit from damage.

10.1 Piping Installation Conditions and Defensive


Practice

The interconnecting piping in a hydraulic system


usually is made up on site. The piping installation mechanic will have to work under whatever conditions
exist, so it is important to ensure that each line is
thoroughly cleaned after fabrication and immediately
before installation. Do not install a hydraulic line if a
welder or grinder is operating in the same area. The
flying abrasive grit and spatter seriously contaminate
previously clean piping. Open ends of piping should
be securely capped before other tradesmen work in the
area and before leaving at the end of each shift. The
skilled hydraulic system mechanic knows the importance of a clean piping system and prevents others contaminating his work.
10.2 Hydraulic Power Transmission Tubing

Steel tubing is the only type of tubing allowed in


the construction of hydraulic power transmission circuits. The most suitable and widely used material is
9

SIDE VIEW

END VIEW

FIG. 12. Fabricated tubing run

Joint Industry Council (JIC) hydraulic tubing made


from a low carbon steel (SAE 1010) that is cold drawn,
annealed to a soft condition, and pickled (acid treated)
to remove surface scale, rust, etc. It is shipped with a
highly finished bore protected by a rust preventive
grease, and the ends of each tubing length (approximately 15 ft) are plugged to keep out dirt and water.
The plugs and rust preventive grease should not be
removed until the tubing is required for fabricating.
If rust is in the bore, remove it by pickling or other
means before using the tubing in a system. Tubing
made from stainless steel (types 304 and 316) is also
suitable in hydraulic systems and is used when extremely corrosive conditions exist. Stainless steel is
more difficult to work with and much more expensive
than JIC steel tubing that is completely satisfactory
for most shipboard hydraulic power transmission
systems.

in the system. Replacing sharp elbow fittings with


smooth large radius bends makes the piping more
efficient, eliminates several possible leakage points, and
creates a much neater and serviceable arrangement.
Tubes must always be bent on special machines made
by such companies as Parker Hannifin, Grimsby, Ont.,
and Imperial Eastman, Barrie, Ont. Hand-held machines are made for tubing up to 1 in. OD and benchmounted models are available for tubing to 21h in.
OD. Dies are required for each tubing size to provide
the proper bend radius and support the tube to prevent
crinkling and flattening during the bending operation.
The machines are not difficult to use, but as with any
tool, it takes practice, patience, and common sense to
use them effectively (Fig. 13, 14, 15).
10.2.3 Tube Fittings Although the tube fitting
clamps onto the tube end so it can be screwed into
another component, to be practical a tube fitting is
screwed into the component port before clamping the
fitting to the tube. Then the detachable connection is
between the tube end and the fitting rather than the
fitting and the component.

10.2.1 Fabricated Tubing Runs A fabricated tubing


run consists of hydraulic steel tubing bent to the most
suitable shape to connect two hydraulic components
and with a fitting attached to each end of the tubing.
The tube fittings make the tube ends suitable for
screwed connection with other components. Tubing
runs that are welded, brazed, or soldered together to
make joints that cannot be disconnected are not used
in a hydraulic system (Fig. 12).

10.2.3.1 Tube Fitting Materials All tube fittings


used in hydraulic power transmission systems must be
made from steel (carbon or stainless), as specified by
the designer. Brass and aluminum tube fittings are not
acceptable.

10.2.2 Bending Tubing Tubing is easily formed into


a single, jointless line between two other components

10.2.3.2 Flared-Tube Fittings The flared-tube


fitting is widely used and inexpensive. The main disad-

INSERTING TUBE

READY TO BEND

FIG. 13. Using hand-held tube bender

10

COMPLETED 90 BEND

FIG. 14. Bench-mounted bending machine

the burr small. It is more di.flicult to cut the tubing


square with a hacksaw and a file is necessary for a good
finish on the tube ends. However, a hacksaw is the only
suitable tool for cutting stainless steel tubing, because
it work hardens rapidly during the cutting operation.
2) Neatly deburr tubing bore and outer surface but
do not create large chamfers.
3) Thoroughly clean end of tube to remove all metal
chips because they scratch and dig into the flare and
prevent tube from sealing completely.
4) Slip nut and then sleeve onto tube before flaring
the end.
5) Firmly clamp clean tubing into the correct die of
flaring tool and form flare by following tool manufacturer's instructions (Fig. 17).

WRINKLED BEND

NOT ACCEPTABLE

FIG. 15. Examples of good and bad tube bends


vantages are (1) it requires a special tool to bell out the
end of the tube into a suitable flare and, (2) the required
37 half-angle flare is sometimes confused with the
45 half-angle flare on engine fuel systems and refrigeration piping. The 45 flare is not acceptable in
hydraulic systems. It is easy to check that the total
flare angle is less than 90 (the total angle of a 45
flare is 90 and that of a 37 flare is 74) by using the
corner of a square. If the fitting is brass or aluminum
and only has two pieces (a body and a nut) do not use
it in the hydraulic system. The official 37 flared tube
fitting is always made from steel and has three pieces
in the assembly, a body, a nut, and a sleeve to clamp
the tube and prevent damage by the rotating motion of
the unit (Fig. 16). To flare the tube end:
NUT

FOR TUBE OD TO 4 in.

FiG. 17. Hand-held flaring tool

When finished, the flare should be highly polished


on the bore and outer surface and free of axial
scratches, pock marks, and splitting. The maximum
diameter of the flare must be within the limits shown
in Fig. 18, and square and concentric with the tube end
and sleeve. If the flare does not meet these standards
recut and repeat the procedure. A poorly made flare
may blow out under pressure, leak, or cause the fitting
sleeve to split when tightened.

SLEEVE PREVENTS NUT FROM

/ TWISTING TUBING

TUBE

10.2.3.3

Flareless and Self-Flared Fittings


These clamp onto the end of the tube and deform
to make a seal as the fitting is tightened. The manufacturers claim no special tools are required for preparing the tube end. However, some manufacturers
recommend the use of special presetting tools to ensure
the tube end is properly formed before the joint is
finally made. Because of the many types of fittings on
the market, it is necessary to study the joint assembly

^ ^3

^^^^i

FIG. 16. The 37 flared-tube fitting assembly

1) Cut off tube square with special tube cutting tool


or hackshaw. The tube cutting too] tends to throw a
burr into the bore of the tube, but a sharp tool keeps

instructions for the fittings supplied (see manufacturer's


catalog) and follow them carefully. However, a basic
requirement is that the tubing must be cut off square,
deburred, and thoroughly cleaned before the joint is
made.

10.2.3.4 Checking Joint Tightness In a hydraulic piping system there are many fittings to be tightened
11

OD OF
SLEEVE -y

TOE OF
SLEEVE

02/ OF
I- SLEEVE ---1
.--FLARE(
- .
MAXIMUM FLARE DIAMETER
EQUAL TO OD OF SLEEVE,
MINIMUM FLARE DIAMETER
EQUAL TO MAXIMUM
INSIDE DIAMETER OF SLEEVE

MAX FLARE

MIN FLARE

SPLIT FLARE NOT ACCEPTABLE

POCK MARKED BY CHIPS OR FILINGS


NOT ACCEPTABLE

Fm. 18. Good and bad tube flares


and it is easy to overlook one or two. Methods to ensure tight connections are:
1) Screw fitting hand tight or use wrench to make
sure fitting is properly seated.
2) Use marker pen to draw a line along fitting nut
and body.
3) Tighten fitting the specified amount (the difference between the two lines shows that the joint has
been tightened and the amount of tightness) (Fig. 19).
(1)

TIGHTEN NUT FINGER TIGHT

MARK LINE

BEFORE TORQUING
(2)

DRAW LINE ALONG NUT


AND ADAPTER (USE INK
MARKER)

(3)

TIGHTEN FITTING AMOUNT


RECOMMENDED BY MANUFACTURER

MISALIGNMENT
OF MARKS SHOWS
JOINT IS TIGHT

Fm. 19. Method of checking tightness of joints

10.2.3.5 Screw Thread Types The body of the


tube fitting carries a thread that can be screwed into the
port of another component. Normally the component
ports carry female screw threads but, unfortunately,
they are not all the same type. Hydraulic component
ports can be obtained with any of three threads (1)
American National Standard Taper Pipe Threads
(NPT), (2) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
straight thread (0-ring boss type), and (3) British
Standard Pipe (BSP) parallel thread. The NPT is the
most common, followed by the SAE, while the BSP
thread is used mainly in European made equipment.
10.2.3.5.1 NPT threads This joining system is
the least desirable because it is difficult to seal and, if
overtightened, can split a component body. NPT
threaded joints require a sealant to prevent leakage and
there are several sealants available such as Parker Hannifin Unipar, Loctite Pipe Thread Sealant, and
12

Teflon tape. Pipe thread sealant also acts as a lubricant and it is easy to overtighten the fitting and destroy
the mating component. This occurs most often when
the fitting is an elbow or a tee because the outlet must
point in a particular direction and must be tightened
until it points in that direction. Never undo a pipe
fitting to achieve the correct direction of the outlet;
but if it is too tight to screw up the fitting another turn,
remove it, reapply thread sealant, and reinstall the
fitting.
Apply pipe thread sealant (1) To male threads
only. (2) Start two threads back from the end of the
male thread. Sealant applied too close to the end of
the male fitting is squeezed into the bore and contaminates the system. (3) Teflon tape is a clean, handy
method to seal and lubricate pipe threads. As some
brands are better than others try a few different types
to obtain the best results. Tightly wrap one or two
layers of tape around the clean pipe thread starting
two threads back from the end of the male thread, and
making a right-hand helix. Press firmly into the threads
without splitting the tape.

10.2.3.5.2 SAE straight pipe thread, 0-ring boss


This threaded connection is better than the taper
pipe thread for two reasons, (1) it employs a parallel
thread so there is no tendency to split the mating component as the connection is tightened, (2) a simple
0 ring prevents the joint from leaking rather than the
messy thread sealants that are likely to contaminate
the system. However, a specially shaped chamfer is
necessary in the entrance of the tapped port of the
component to guide the 0 ring into position as the
connection is made (Fig. 20).
The 0 ring fits into a groove next to a shoulder
on the fitting body and has to be pushed carefully over
the male threads. It is advisable to cover the screw
threads with a plastic thread protector cap, electricians
tape, or other means before the 0 ring is fitted to
prevent damage to the threads.
type

FLAT FACE

LUBRICATE
0 RING WHEN
CONNECTION
MADE

FIG. 20.

How the straight-thread 0 ring seals

It is important to lubricate the 0 ring with a light


petroleum base grease (Vaseline is suitable) before
screwing the fitting into the component. This prevents
the 0 ring from being pinched as the connection is
tightened.
On SAE straight threaded elbows and tees, a
washer and locknut form the shoulder on the body of
the fitting so the outlet can be adjusted to the desired
direction. Before installing this type of fitting, back off
the locknut to provide the 0 ring the largest possible
groove in which to sit. Clean the threads and mating
faces of the boss and fitting shoulder. Lubricate the
0 ring and screw the fitting into the port until the
shoulder washer contacts the boss face. Check that the
0 ring is not pinched, preventing contact of the metal
surfaces. If the direction of the fitting outlet has to be
adjusted, unscrew the body as much as one turn, then
carefully tighten the locknut against the boss face (Fig.
21).

NFIT I G

NUT USING UP
0-RING GROOVE

BODY

,.%

e
WAGNER
0 RING

FIG. 21.

.
0 RING
PINCHED_ .
AS FITTING
TIGHTENED

Effect of insufficient clearance for 0 ring

10.2.3.5.3 BSP parallel threads These are similar to the SAE threads because they also employ a
separate soft sealing component and a parallel thread
connection. The sealing component is either a steelbacked rubber washer called a bonded seal or a simple,
soft metal crush washer. These sealing devices do not
require a specially chamfered tapping in the matching
component.

10.3 Pipe Installation

Generally the choice of pipe (sized by bore) should


take second place to hydraulic system tubing (sized by
OD). However, pipe is better for (1) low-pressure lines
and (2) large diameter lines (PA in. diameter bore and
larger) at pressures above 2000 psi.

10.3.1 Pipe Material Black steel pipe is the only


type of pipe used in hydraulic power transmission systems and it must conform to specifications ASTM A106
grade B, or ASTM A53 grade B type F or S, depending
on pipe size and working pressure. Aluminum, brass,
copper, and galvanized steel pipe are not acceptable
materials.
10.3.2 Problems With Pipe Three problems must be
overcome before pipe is completely suitable for hydraulic systems: (1) condition of the pipe when received
from the supplier, (2) joining methods, and (3) fabricating the pipe run.
10.3.2.1 Pipe Condition Pipe from a supplier is
never received in condition suitable for a hydraulic
system. The pipe has not been treated to effectively
remove mill scale, the ends of pipe lengths are always
open allowing dirt to enter, and rusting usually takes
place during storage. To bring the pipe to an acceptable
condition all mill scale, dirt, and rust have to be
removed. If the pipes are short and straight they can
be shotblasted clean, but if they are long or curved
they must be cleaned by a pickling process.
10.3.2.1.1 Pickling process This is a chemical
cleaning process that uses an acid solution to clean
off pipe scale and rust. The chemicals are dangerous
and must be treated cautiously. Always keep the chemicals in the proper containers and handle with extreme
care. A typical pickling process uses three tanks, each
containing a special liquid. Tank one contains the
actual pickling solution. It is important to keep the
solution at the temperature recommended by the manufacturer, because higher temperatures will evaporate
some ingredients and leave only the acid. Tank two
contains a neutralizing solution that also has to be kept
at the recommended temperature. Tank three contains
antirust liquid.
The pickling procedure has eight steps:
1) Thoroughly degrease pipes with trichlorethylene
or similar commercial solvent.
2) Immerse pipes in tank number one for a time,
depending on amount of scale and rust to be removed.
(This calls for judgment by the process operator.)
3) When completely clean, remove pipes and rinse
in cold running water.
4) Place pipes in tank two and immerse for time
recommended by chemical manufacturer.
5) Remove pipes, rinse thoroughly in hot water, and
allow to drain.
6) Immerse pipes in tank three, ensuring that bore
of pipes is completely wetted by antirust liquid.
7) Remove and drain pipes.
8) Cap pipe ends with clean caps to keep out further
contamination. Do not cap pipe ends with rags or anything that can be lost in the pipe and cause trouble
after installation.

13

10.3.2.2 Pipe Joining Methods In a hydraulic


system pipes may be joined with screw threads or bolted
together with flanges. Never permanently weld pipe
lengths.
10.3.2.2.1 Screwed joints The most common
method of joining pipes is the American National Taper
Pipe (NPT) thread system. The pipes are screwed into
fittings such as elbows, tees, Y pieces, couplings, and
unions, and also into components, and are thus built
into a system. The NPT thread is not suitable for highpressure piping but can be made leakproof with a pipe
thread sealant. The screw thread is usually cut on the
pipe at the installation site with a pipe-threading
machine, and to obtain a good joint it is essential to
have a good thread. Use sharp screw-cutting dies and
lubricate them when cutting thread. Careful operation
is needed to produce a leakproof thread. A leakproof
seal is difficult to obtain when threads are too long, too
short, ragged, or torn.
10.3.2.2.2 Flanged joints The flanged pipe
connection used in hydraulic power transmission systems is the SAE 4-bolt, split-flange connection (Fig.
22) and is markedly different from the more common
ASA pipe flange that is unsuitable for hydraulic systems. It is suitable for high-pressure hydraulic piping
and includes a circular flange that is attached to the
end of the pipe and has an O ring groove in its face. An
O ring fits into the groove and the flange face is pulled
up evenly and tightly against a mating flat surface by
two half-flange clamps, each containing two bolt holes.
When the sealing flange is clamped against the mating
surface there should be a .010- to .030-in. gap between
the bottom of the split flange clamps and the mating
face. This is to ensure the sealing Range is always positively pressed against the flat mating surface. Two
split flange clamps overhang the sealing flange so the
hold-down bolts clear the sealing flange.
The sealing flange may be screwed or welded to
the pipe end. Screwed joints are more convenient than

.010-.030 in.THIS GAP MUST DE


THE SAME ALL AROUND

Fro. 22. Assembly of SAE 4-bolt flange connection

14

a welded connection but are less reliable, so welded


joints (if made by a good welder) are better. A sealing
Range designed for welded connection to the pipe end
is recessed on the back face to provide a location for
the pipe. After welding is completed, clean out scale
that has formed inside the pipe bore and any other
contamination so that it is perfectly clean.
10.3.2.2.3 Assembly of 4-bolt, split-flange joint
When properly assembled this is a reliable, highpressure joint, but it is sensitive to human error and
incorrect bolt torquing. If the .0 10- to .030-in. gap is not
maintained evenly under the split flanges when the bolts
are tightened, high pressure in the pipe may cause the
sealing flange to tip slightly inside the clamping flanges
and allow oil to pass the O ring. Start assembly by
lubricating the O ring with a light grease to keep the
ring in its groove. Ensure that the flange mating surfaces are clean. Hold the sealing flange squarely against
the mating face and finger tighten the bolts. Use feeler
gauges to check that the gp under the clamping
flanges is even. Torque all bolts evenly, in sequence, a
little at a time, checking that the gap remains even.
Do not use an air-operated wrench.
If the bolts are overtightened, the split clamping
flanges deflect to close up the gap at the bolt locations,
and reduce the clamping force at the points midway
between the widely spaced bolts. When high pressure
is generated in the pipe, the sealing flange is pushed
back and oil leaks past the O-ring seal. Use alloy steel
bolts (SAE grade 5) with these flanges, and tighten the
bolts to the torque values shown in Fig. 23. When
tightening the bolts keep the split flanges pushed in
close to the pipe. Do not let them slide back as the
bolts are tightened.
10.3.2.3 Pipe Fabricating Pipe is most suitable
for long straight runs but, as with tubing, changes in
direction can be made with fittings or by bending the
pipe.
10.3.2.3.1 Pipe fittings Only fittings of either
malleable cast iron or steel can be used in hydraulic
systems. Malleable cast iron fittings are threaded for
making screwed joints and are used only for lowpressure service. Steel fittings can be obtained with
screwed ports or with ports suitable for welded connection and can be used for high-pressure service.
Screwed fittings are more convenient than the
welded fittings, but are more likely to leak. Screwed
elbow fittings are available only in the short-radius style
that gives the pipe a sharp bend. Such bends should
be avoided whenever possible because they cause
additional resistance to oil flow. Screwed pipe fittings
are usually dirty when received and must be thoroughly
cleaned before use. High quality pipe fittings are also
available from tube fitting manufacturers; these are

APPLY RECOMMENDED BOLT TORQUE

ey

- OVERTORQUING
CAUSES FLANGES
AND BOLT TO SEND

NO CLAMPING AT
CENTER OF SHOULDER

RECOMMENDED TORQUE VALUES (USE GRADE 5 BOLTS)


DO NOT ALLOW FLANGE TO
TIP WHEN TIGHTENING BOLTS
BECAUSE 0 RING WILL BLOW
OUT UNDER PRESSURE

FIG.

-8
-12
-16
-20
-24
-32

21
40
40
60
90
90

HEAD MARKING
OF GRADE 5 BOLTS

23. SAE 4-bolt flange assembly guidelines

supplied in a clean condition, have the Dryseal type of


pipe thread, and are more suitable for hydraulic system
service than the forged steel fittings conventionally used
for water, oil, or gas (WOG) service.
Welding fittings are available in two types, socketwelding and butt-welding. Socket-welding fittings are
preferred because they provide a good guide for positioning pipe end, and the welding bead is away from the
internal end of the pipe, thus reducing the chances of
welding scale and spatter entering the pipe. Unfortunately, socket-welding elbows are available only in
the short-radius style. Long-radius welding elbows can
be obtained only in the butt-welding pattern. Longradius elbows cause less resistance to oil flow; however,
their butt-welded joints allow contamination to enter
pipe during the welding operation.
10.3.2.3.2 Bending pipe Problems of unreliable joints and contamination are reduced if the pipe is
bent to the required shape instead of fabricated. As
pipe has a thicker wall than tubing of the same size,
it cannot be bent to as small a radius and more force
is required to bend it. Pipe-bending machines are
generally power driven and are more ruggedly built
than tube-bending machines, although the operating
principle is the same.

is usually
best to pickle pipe assemblies after the fabrication process (welding or bending) is completed, but before
the end fittings are attached. End flanges with tapped
holes should be welded to the cleaned pipe. As they
are at each end of the pipe assembly, the joints are
easily inspected for contamination and easily cleaned.
10.3.2.3.3

TORQUE (lb - H)

CONNECTION SIZE

Pickling pipe assemblies It

omy. A simple sketch can help in planning the best


route. If piping system has been designed by a designer
check the route proposed to verify it is practical.
2) Route lines to avoid interference with movement
of machinery, doors, actuators, controls, and equipment
operator.
3) Route lines so they are protected from abuse and
not a hazard for the crew.
4) Lines should be grouped where possible to make
a neat installation and permit piping to be clamped
easily.
5) Bend piping rather than use fittings to change
direction of the run. This minimizes the pressure loss
in the line and the number of fittings required. Fewer
fittings mean fewer joints and fewer possible leaks.
6) Accurately shape the line to fit end connections.
Do not force the line into position as this adds extra
strain on the line and joint (Fig. 24).
7) Work as cleanly as possible.

......4
mum

fier

delta"

131

TUBING ALIGNED
CORRECTLY WITH
FITTING

Ii

TUBING BADLY ALIGNED


ADDS EXTRA STRAIN WHEN

CONNECTES

1 in
s- 11
e
-

LU

iiIIf

In.
awl

siniti

MT'

FIG.

24. Align tubing accurately with fittings

Clamping Lines Firmly clamp all rigid


hydraulic lines to a supporting structure to eliminate
movement in service caused by vibration and shock.
1) Use clamps designed for hydraulic system piping.
Electrical conduit clamps, plumbing pipe clips, and
hangers will not support hydraulic power transmission
piping adequately.
10.4.1

10.4 Rigid Piping Installation

The following rules will simplify the installation


of rigid piping:
1) Plan route of hydraulic lines before starting fabrication. Position end points of line and plan runs to
obtain maximum efficiency, serviceability, and econ-

15

2) Never weld a hydraulic line directly to a support.


3) Never place clamps on a bend, but apply as close
as possible to each end of a bend.
4) Clamp small diameter lines at shorter intervals
than larger lines.
Table 1 shows the recommended spacing of
clamps and Fig. 25 shows hydraulic piping clamps.

TABLE 2. Most common types of flexible hose used in the


hydraulics industry.
Hose
specifications
no.

Construction

SAE 100R1

Rubber covered,
single wire

SAE 100R2

Rubber covered,
two wires
Rubber covered,
single wire
Textile covered,
single wire

SAE 100R4

TABLE 1. Recommended spacing of clamps.


Spacing of clamps
(f f)

Tube OD
(in.)

I/4 , 3/8

1/8, 1/4

5
7

I/2 - 1

3/8, I/2 , 3/4

I/4 &Up

1&Up

Pipe size
(in.)

10.5 Flexible Hose Installation


Flexible hose is installed in two stages: the
assembly of fittings on the ends of hose to make
couplings, and the actual installation of the hose
assembly in a piping system to ensure safety to personnel and longevity of the hose.
10.5.1 Flexible Hose for Hydraulic Systems There
are many types of flexible hose but only a few are suitable in hydraulic power transmission systems. The
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has standardized types of hose. Table 2 lists the most common types
in the hydraulics industry. Type of service is a general
guide to the hose pressure ratings. The actual allowable

SAE 100R5
SAE 100R9

Rubber covered,
four light wires
Rubber covered,
four heavy wires
Rubber covered,
six heavy wires

SAE 100R10
SAE 100R11

Type of service
Low to medium
pressure
Medium to high
pressure
Vaccuum to
medium pressure
Low to medium
pressure
Bore reduced to
suit tube sizes
High pressure,
heavy duty
Very high pressure,
heavy duty

working pressure of hose is reduced as the size


increases. Refer to the manufacturer's catalog to verify
that a hose is suitable for the intended service. Only
hose type 100R4 is suitable for vacuum pressures.
High-pressure hose may collapse under vacuum pressures and should not be used for pump suction lines if
vacuum pressures are possible. Flexible hose has
limited flexibility. As the hose size increases the hose
is more difficult to bend and the minimum allowable
bend radius is larger. Hose also stiffens as the pressure
rating increases. Single-wire construction is the most
flexible and six-wire hose is much stiffer.

STANDARD
ATTACHING
BOLTS

EXPLODED VIEW OF
TYPICAL MULTICLAMP

FiG. 25. Hydraulic piping clamps

16

Flexible Hose Storage Store hose in a dark,


dry area, away from electrical power equipment, at a
temperature below 32C (90F). If possible, store the
hose in straight lengths, but if coiling is necessary, the
coil should be at least 3 ft in diameter to avoid overstressing. Wrap hose in a suitable soft packing material
for protection and do not pile other equipment on it.
10.5.2

10.5.3 Installing couplings on hose Some wellknown manufacturers of flexible hose and hose
couplings are Aeroquip, Anchor Coupling, Gates,
Parker Hannifin, Imperial Eastman, Stratollex, and
Weatherhead. The hose and couplings of different
manufacturers are not interchangeable so do not use
one manufacturer's hose with another's couplings.

assembly of any reusable hose coupling.


In addition to manufacturer's instructions, some
general rules apply to the assembly of screwed, reusable
couplings:

1) Cut off hose square with a fine-tooth hacksaw.


2) Clean bore of hose (with compressed air if possible).
3) Check coupling requirements against hose identification number and manufacturer's catalog. Some
couplings require removal of the outer cover of the
hose (down to the wire braid) for a certain distance
before the coupling sleeve can be attached. Follow the
detailed catalog instructions.
4) Clamp coupling sleeve in a vise and screw hose
into the sleeve in a counterclockwise direction until it
bottoms, then back it off a quarter turn.
5) Thoroughly lubricate nipple threads and hose
bore with clean oil.
6) When installing coupling on SAE 100R5 hose,
guide nipple down bore of hose with a mandrel to prevent cutting the inner lining. Refer to the manufacturer's
catalog for details. The mandrel must be inserted into
bore of the nipple.
7) Screw nipple (and mandrel if required) clockwise
into hose bore until there is 1A2 to 1A 6 in. clearance
between end of socket and hexagon on nipple. If necessary, remove mandrel and the joint is complete.
8) To remove coupling, reverse assembly procedure.

10.5.3.1 Attaching Hose Couplings As the weak


point of a hose assembly is usually the join between
the flexible hose and the end fitting, the coupling must
be attached correctly. This is not difficult but it must be
done carefully. There are two general groups of hose
couplings: (1) reusable couplings, and (2) permanently
attached couplings (often called crimped or swaged
type). All flexible hose couplings consist of two basic
parts, a nipple that slides into the bore to support
the hose, and a sleeve that fits over the cover of the
hose. The hose is tightly clamped between the bore of
the sleeve and the grooved outer surface of the nipple
(Fig. 26).
10.5.3.1.1 Reusable couplings As the name
The following general rules apply to the assembly
implies these couplings can be reused. If a hose breaks,
of clamp-type reusable couplings:
the end fittings can be salvaged and used again on the
1) Cut off hose square with a fine-tooth hacksaw.
replacement assembly, so only spare hose is needed
2)
Clean hose bore (with compressed air if possible).
on board ship. In addition, these couplings can be
3)
Thoroughly lubricate hose bore and outer surface
attached with standard wrenches. Reusable couplings
of
nipple
with clean oil.
are either screw-on or clamp-on type and the main
4) Push nipple fully into hose bore.
difference between them is the method by which the
5) Attach clamps over cover of hose following
sleeve is applied to the cover of the hose. The screwed
manufacturer's instructions.
coupling uses a tapered screw thread for clamping,
whereas the clamp type uses a direct squeezing action
10.5.3.1.2 Permanent-type couplings In this
to force the hose against the nipple. Refer to the manu- design the hose is clamped by crushing the sleeve. This
facturer's catalog for detailed instructions on the joint is usually more reliable than the reusable type.

PERMANENTLY SWAGED OR CRIMPED

REUSABLE SCREWED

REUSABLE CLAMPED

FIG. 26. Hose end fittings


17

However, a special high-pressure press is needed to


form the joint and the couplings must be scrapped
with the hose if the hose fails. Manufacturers of
crimped couplings also market the presses for installation. A crimping press is simple to use. Follow the
manufacturer's detailed instructions but a few general
rules follow:

twisting occurs if the elbows are not in proper relationship with each other. To correct this, turn one nipple
in its sleeve until twist is removed (Fig. 27).

1) Cut off hose square with a fine-tooth hacksaw.


2) Clean bore of hose (with compressed air if possible).
3) Slip sleave over cover of hose.
4) Insert nipple in hose bore.
5) Place assembly in the press.
6) Operate press according to manufacturer's
instructions.

10.5.3.1.3 Checking the assembly


ing a coupling on each end of hose: ,

After install-

1) Thoroughly clean hose bore. Clean, dry compressed air is best but if not available hot (but not
boiling) water can be used. Drain and dry hose.
2) Inspect hose assembly bore. Reject hose if lining
is cut or bulges. If assembly is satisfactory be sure bore
is clean, then cap each end, and store hose until
required.
3) Pressure test hose assembly before installation if
possible. A simple hydraulic hand pump system is all
that is necessary for this test. Test hose assemblies to
twice the working pressure to prove assembly is
acceptable and reduce chances of trouble at a later and
probably inconvenient time.
10.5.4 Installing Flexible Hose Assemblies A
hose assembly must be carefully installed in the system.
A hose assembly is flexible and must be supported and
guided to ensure that its flexibility does not become the
cause of its destruction.
10.5.4.1 Attaching Hose Assemblies These instructions will help ensure maximum life of the hose
assembly:
1) Use a regular open-ended or good adjustable
wrench on the nipple hexagon when screwing a
threaded hose assembly into a component. Do not use a
wrench on the sleeve hexagon and never use a pipe
wrench.
2) Carefully position elbow fittings in ports of components to point in required direction.
3) A hose assembly must have at least one swiveltype connection to permit it to be installed. If an
assembly has one swivel and one fixed connection (such
as a male pipe), attach fixed end to its component first.
4) Do not twist hose. Hose usually has a colored
line (layline) along the length to indicate whether the
hose is twisted when installed. If it is twisted, slacken a
swivel connection, remove the twist, and retighten. If
a hose assembly has an elbow coupling on each end,

18

WRENCH MUST FIT ONTO


NIPPLE HEXAGON

FiG. 27. Hose installation requirements


10.5.4.2 Mounting Hose Assemblies The following rules are intended to ensure the hose assembly
has adequate support, that it will not be damaged by
abrasion, that allowance is made for changes in
length as pressures change, that it is not overflexed, and
that a neat, safe installation is developed.
10.5.4.2.1 Avoid abrasion damage In service,
flexible hose assemblies deflect appreciably and if not
adequately restrained may rub against moving or vibrating components and structures. The outer cover of the
hose is quickly worn away and no longer reliable. To
avoid abrasion damage:
1) Route hose to avoid points of abrasion.
2) Use clamps that tightly grip cover of hose and
attach clamps securely to suitable structure.
3) Use hose clamps to separate crossing hoses.
4) Terminate hose assemblies vertically if possible.
Horizontally connected hoses (particularly large hoses)
sag unless well supported. Support with hose clamps or
spring guards. Spring guards coil around the outside
of the hose to prevent sag and abrasion (Fig. 28).
10.5.4.2.2 Allow for changes in hose length
Length changes significantly when hose is pressurized.
The length may increase or decrease depending on hose
construction, so there must be some extra length
between terminal points to allow for change without
pulling the hose from the couplings:
1) Use clamps to support long horizontal hoses.
When one clamp is used position it in the center of the
assembly. When additional clamps are needed, equispace them each side of center clamp.
2) Do not put clamps on bends in hose as bends
must be free to take up changes in length.
3) Do not clamp high-pressure and low-pressure
lines together as lengths do not change equally under
pressure and additional strain will result (Fig. 29).

BAD

BAD

BAD

ABRASION POINT

ABRASION POINT

GOOD

GOOD
AW

GOOD

E
USE CORRECT
SIZE CLAMPS

AVOID CONTACT WITH SHARP


EDGES

AVOID MOVING PARTS

AVOID HOSES RUBBING


TOGETHER

FiG. 28. Avoid abrasion damage

I STRAIGHT HOSE RUNS NOT ACCEPTABLE

ALLOW EXTRA HOSE LENGTH

CLAMP AT CENTER OF HOSE RUN


ALLOW BENDS TO
TAKE UP CHANGES
IN HOSE LENGTH

FiG. 29. Allow for changes in hose length


MOTION TWISTS HOSE

BEND STARTS TOO CLOSE


TO FITTING

INSTALL HOSE TO
AVOID TWISTING

USE LARGE BEND RADIUS

CLAMP PREVENTS HOSE


TWISTING IN SERVICE

FrG. 30. Avoid overflexing hose


10.5.4.2.3 Avoid overflexing hose When installing a hose assembly remember that the end fittings
on the hose are not flexible, and:
1) Keep bend radius as large as possible, never
smaller than minimum recommended in manufacturer's
catalog.

2) Be sure hose is not overflexed into too small a


bend radius in any position of movement when connected to moving components. Check hose manufacturer's catalog for recommended minimum bend radii.
3) Bend hose in the plane in which the ends move so
there is no twisting of hose (Fig. 30).

19

USE ELBOW
FITTINGS
SENSIBLY

RUN GROUPS OF HOSES NEATLY


BUT DO NOT CLAMP HIGH-

.-. AND LOW-PRESSURE


HOSES TOGETHER

CLAMP HOSES NEATLY TO SUPPORTING


STRUCTURE

USE MINIMUM NUMBER OF FITTINGS

BAD

GOOD

FIG.

31. Route

hose for neat appearance

10.5.4.2.4 A neat assembly For a good appearance:


1) Use proper hose clamps to hold hoses neatly.
2) Make each hose assembly the proper length. Use
elbow fittings if possible to make installation neater.
However, elbow fittings may not be acceptable, as they
cause additional restriction in oil flow (Fig. 31).

Some special
precautions must be observed when installing a system:
1) Avoid running hose in areas where it can be
stepped on, tripped over, or used as a hand hold.
2) Clamp hose so it will be restrained if it fails.
Usually failure occurs where couplings are attached. Oil
squirting from unrestrained broken hose causes the
hose to whip and is dangerous.
3) Keep hose away from engine exhaust systems and
other hot components. Construct a heat shield to protect
hose if necessary (Fig. 32).
10.5.4.2.5

Safety precautions

Simple
sheet metal hose clamps are available from hose suppliers. Clamps should have a plastic coating to prevent
damage to the hose. Use heavier steel clamps for hoses
larger than 1 in. Remove sharp corners to prevent the
clamp biting into the hose. The clamp must grip the
hose cover tightly as a loose clamp allows the hose to
move and wears away the cover, defeating the purpose
of the clamp (Fig. 33).
10.5.4.3

Clamps

for

Flexible Hoses

small tappings (usually plugged with a 1/4-in. NPT pipe


plug or 1/4-in , tube connection cap) in the top of the
hydraulic line so air trapped during the system filling
operation can be released. Do not overlook the need for
these tappings even if not included in the hydraulic
circuit drawing.
10.7 Pressure Tappings

These are points in the hydraulic circuit where pressure gauges may be fitted. They are situated at points
where it is necessary to know the pressure for start-up
testing and for trouble-shooting operations. Pressure
tappings are always required at the pump discharge
port and at the actuator, but may also be useful at other
points. Tappings should be suitable for a 1/4-in. tube,
37 swivel nut connection because this is the most
convenient fitting for attaching and removing pressure
gauges.
HOSE UNPROTECTED FROM HEAT IS UNACCEPTABLE

HOT PIPE

10.6 Air-Bleed Points

If the actuator is mounted a considerable distance


from the pump, or if there is a considerable difference
in elevation, insert air-bleed points at high points in the
interconnecting piping. Install air-bleed tappings above
the level of cylinder or rotary actuators. Install these
20

ADD HEAT SHIELD AND


CLAMP HOSE TO IT

FIG.

32.

Protect hose from heat

TYPICAL
HOSE CLAMP
HEAVY CLAMP
FOR LAFid HOSES
PLASTIC COVER
TO PROTECT HOSE
SHEET METAL

CLAMP MUST TIGHTLY GRIP HOSE

FIG. 33.

Hose clamps

10.8 Installation of Component Drain Lines

These small low-pressure lines are important in the


operation of working components. Normally they are
shown on the circuit drawing but some general rules on
their installation follow:
1) Run all drain lines separately back to the reservoir if possible. If joined together, the combined drainline flow may generate back pressure high enough to
cause the valves to malfunction.
2) Make the drain lines as large, straight, and short
as possible.
3) Drain lines must be constructed from steel tube,
pipe, or flexible hose although they are subjected only
to low pressure. Never use copper, aluminum, or galvanized steel.
10.9 Checking Reservoir

The interconnecting piping and the reservoir are


the only fabricated system components in contact with
oil. The rigorous requirements for cleanliness in the
piping system apply to the reservoir as well. Before
filling the reservoir, check for cleanliness. After construction, the reservoir should have been shotblasted
to remove scale, rust, and the welding debris from the
inside, then vacuumed out and wiped with white, clean,
lint-free rags to remove all contamination. Remove the
reservoir end cover or top plate to verify that the
inside is still in first-class condition. Inspect the
inside carefully (particularly the corners) for dirt, scale,
metal chips, and rust. Check the edges of holes for
burrs. When satisfied that the inside is thoroughly clean,
replace the gasket and cover plate. Be sure a complete
seal is achieved so no oil can leak out or air leak in.
11. RECONEVIENDED HYDRAULIC OIL

When installing a hydraulic power transmission,


be sure the inside of components and bore of the interconnecting piping is thoroughly clean to prevent contamination of the oil. It is assumed clean oil is used to

fill the system, but unless precautions are taken this


assumption may not be correct. Oil is shipped from
the manufacturer in sealed containers and should be
suitable for filling the hydraulic system. If poorly stored
and handled by the system builder, oil is contaminated
even before it enters the oil reservoir.
11.1 Oil Storage

Oil drums should be stored indoors, but they are


often delivered to the job site, left outdoors, ignored
until needed, and subjected to the effects of weather and
passing traffic. Because clean oil is important, the
hydraulic mechanic must ensure that it is protected
from the time of arrival until entering the system.
To ensure the good conditions of the oil, store oil drums
on their sides with caps in the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock
positions. Avoid standing drums on end with caps
upward because water and dirt collect on top and
threaten cap seals. Cap seals are usually effective, but, if
allowed to dry out, water and damp air may enter. If
storing drums on their sides is not possible, tilt drums
to prevent water collecting around the caps and cover
the drums with a waterproof tarpaulin.
11.2 Use New Quality Oil

Never put oil that is not in new condition into a


hydraulic system. Oil from a previously opened drum
is permissible, provided the hydraulic mechanic knows
it is unused and the drum has been completely sealed
since earlier use. Even standing oil becomes contaminated with airborne dirt and moisture, so be sure a
previously opened drum is not too old and has been
properly sealed. Do not put used oil or oil collected
from leaks or repairs back into the system.
11.3 Cleanliness of Oil Transfer Equipment

Oil has to be transferred from the storage drum


into the hydraulic system. Often it is difficult to manipulate a full 45-gal drum (approximately 500 lb) into the
engine room and other places where the reservoir is
21

located, so smaller and lighter equipment is needed to


transfer the oil. This equipment must be thoroughly
cleaned with hydraulic oil before use.
11.4 Oil Transfer Equipment
The easiest and cleanest method of transferring
oil is to pump it directly from the drum into the system
with a standard barrel pump or a small electric motordriven pump unit. The oil must pass through a full-flow,
10-micron hydraulic oil filter where it leaves the oil
transfer line, to ensure the oil is clean as it enters the
system.
11.5 Points for Filling System
The system is normally filled through the reservoir
filler cap but in some cases it may be more convenient
to fill the system from another point in the circuit, e.g.
in the return-line piping. It is worth repeating that oil
must pass through a 10-micron filter to ensure only
clean oil enters the reservoir.
11.6 Filling System Reservoir
Fill the reservoir with the specified hydraulic oil
to midpoint of the oil level indicators. There should be
at least two indicators, one on the port side and the
other on the starboard side so that an average reading
can be taken when the vessel is listing. Replace the filler
cap securely.
When the actuator is near the hydraulic power
supply, and connected completely with pressure-tested
flexible hoses, the transmission is ready for start-up.
When the actuator is some distance from the power
source and the interconnecting piping is rigid steel tubing and pipe, a further cleaning operation (flushing)
and pressure testing is required before the transmission
is ready for service.

12. CHECKING PIPING SYSTEM


When a hydraulic system contains a considerable
amount of rigid steel tubing and pipe, the filling operation is usually combined with flushing and pressure
testing. The flushing operation cleans the piping system
of any dirt accumulated during installation. Pressure
testing proves the piping materials and joints can withstand service pressures without leaking and failure. It
also tests the pipefitter's workmanship.
12.1 Pressure Testing
Pressure test the piping before flushing, then any
leaks or weaknesses can be corrected before the final
cleaning operation.
12.1.1 Pressure Testing Requirements Piping should
be tested at 11/2 times the maximum system operating
pressure, usually indicated by the pump relief valve
setting. If the maximum system pressure is less than
2000 psi, the system pump may be capable of developing 3000 psi and can be used for the test, providing
the prime mover has enough power. Otherwise a
separate, low flow-rate, high-pressure pump is required.
A small amount of power is needed to drive the pump,
and for some small systems a hand-operated pump is
suitable. A typical pressure test circuit is shown in Fig.
34. Under emergency conditions, if equipment is not
available to pressure test at 11/2 times the maximum
operating pressure, test at the maximum pressure
obtainable. This maximum pressure is limited by the
pressure rating of the pump and the power available.
Conduct the pressure test with the type of oil used in
the system.
The general procedure to pressure test the piping
system is:

DISCONNECT
ACTUATORS
AND
PLUG ALL
THEIR
SUPPLY
LINES

DISCONNECT
SYSTEM
PUMP

Fic. 34. Typical pressure test circuit

22

1) Disconnect all actuators from piping and plug


open ends of lines with pressure caps.
2) Disconnect all valves mounted in piping if possible, so they are not subjected to the piping pressure
test.
3) Connect pressure test pump to lines under test
and back off relief valve to a low setting.
4) Operate pump to fill lines with oil.
5) Bleed all air from lines at air-bleed points and
line-end plugs.
6) Increase relief valve setting in 500 psi steps, holding at each level for about 5 min. This provides time
for leaks to start and for personnel to check each
pressurized joint. Repair leaks as discovered. Halt test
at a pressure equal to 11/2 times maximum system operating pressure or at test equipment limit, whichever is
reached first.
7) Repeat test on each line subject to high pressure
until all are proven.
8) If a separate pressure test pump is used, remove
it from the circuit when testing is complete.
12.2 Flushing Piping System
Flushing is most effective if the oil is between
55-65C (130 and 150F) (very hot to the touch) and
travelling at high speed (approximately 25 ft/second(s)).
If hydraulic line resistance is not sufi'icient to warm the
oil, a throttle valve inserted in the discharge of the
flushing pump can be adjusted to speed up the heating
process. If the circuit line sizes have been designed to
give an oil circulation speed of 15 ft/s (a reasonable
rate), a separate pump with a flow rate of 11/2 to 2 times
the system pump flow rate is required for flushing. The
flushing pump only forces oil through the piping, so the
pressure level is low and the power needed to drive the
pump is low. The pump draws oil from the reservoir,

forces the oil around the circuit and back through a


full-flow, 10-micron filter. A typical flushing circuit is
shown in Fig. 35.
The general procedure to flush the piping system
is:
1) Remove plugs from ends of lines at the actuator
or remove lines from actuator ports.
2) Connect lines to form a continuous path back to
flushing system reservoir.
3) Start flushing pump and circulate oil through piping and flushing system filter for about 1 hour. Occasionally tap each joint in circuit with hammer to release
trapped contaminants.
4) After 1 hour, switch pump delivery and returnline connections to reverse flow through piping. Run for
1 hour more.
5) Repeat operations until all circuits are flushed.
6) Switch off and disconnect flushing system.
7) Connect lines to actuator,
8) Reconnect valves bypassed during flushing.
12.2.1 Alternative Flushing Equipment If no pump
is available to provide flow rate required for flushing:
1) Run system pump at normal operating speed.
Overspeeding the pump may be possible if the prime
mover is an engine but it is not recommended. The
pump suction line is sized for the operating flow rate
and a higher flow rate may cause high vacuum conditions that could damage the pump.
2) Use the system filter for flushing if a separate filter
is not available. The system filter is sized to handle
normal flow rates, so if a separate pump is used, ensure
that the filter can handle the increased flow rate. When
flushing is complete always replace filter elements with
new ones.
3) Follow the flushing procedure in Section 12.2.

FIG. 35. Typical flushing circuit

23

13. PREPARATIONS FOR SYSTEM TESTING


After pressure testing and flushing operations on
the interconnecting piping are complete, test the system
for operation and performance. This involves two steps:
(1) connecting pressure gauges into the circuit for test
purposes, and (2) initial start-up of the system.
13.1 Connecting Pressure Gauges into Circuit
Pressure gauges indicate important pressure levels
during system testing. It must be possible to read
pump discharge pressure, and the pressure at actuator
ports and all pressure control valves. A good quality
pressure control valve is usually fitted with a pressure
tapping, and a fitting to connect a pressure gauge is
simple to install. Pressure gauges should be capable
of indicating pressures approximately 11/2 times the
maximum expected pressure reading. A fine metering
needle valve must be fitted in the line to each pressure
gauge to suppress any gauge vibrations. The pressure
gauge should be connected into the circuit by a 1/4 -in.
high-pressure flexible hose, which makes the gauge easy
to install and remove after testing. Avoid rigid tube or
pipe connections to the pressure gauge because they
aggravate gauge vibration and accurate readings can
be impossible. When not actually in use, isolate each
pressure gauge by closing the needle valve completely
or removing the gauge from the circuit. Unless one of
these steps is taken, system vibrations soon ruin the
accuracy of a pressure gauge and readings become
meaningless.
13.2 Initial Start-Up of System
Procedure for start-up is as follows:
1) Check reservoir oil level and add new, clean oil
if necessary.

2) It is necessary to fill casings of some piston


pumps and motors with oil before starting, and is done
at this stage.
3) Be sure the prime mover is ready for operation.
4) Ensure all operator control valves are in neutral.
5) Clear all personnel from the area of the prime
mover, actuators, and machinery and see that normal
movement of the equipment is not obstructed.
6) Adjust pump relief valve to a low pressure setting.
7) Check pump rotation drive by starting, then
quickly stopping (jogging) prime mover. If rotation is
incorrect stop the prime mover and reverse rotation.
The prime mover must not continue to rotate in the
wrong direction as this quickly ruins the pump. Run
the system in neutral for a few minutes when the correct
rotation is established. The actuators should not move.
Watch reservoir oil level. Oil from the reservoir may
be required to fill the system piping and cause the level
to drop. Stop the pump when oil reaches the low mark
on indicators and top up the reservoir. Repeat until

24

oil remaiins steady at midpoint of the level indicators.


8) Purge all air from system by carefully opening
each air-bleed tap in turn while oil is circulating. Allow
oil to exhaust until pure and bubble-free.
9) When the transmission operates satisfactorily, in
neutral switch off the prime mover and prepare actuators for no-load testing.

14. TESTING CYLINDER CIRCUITS


Hydraulic cylinders and rotary actuators are generally used to open and close heavy doors and hatches.
They are directly connected to the load and can be
completely tested at dockside. No-load tests are conducted with the cylinder (usually the rod end) disconnected from the load.
14.1 No-Load Testing of Cylinder Circuits
There are two main reasons for no-load tests: (1)
to check alignment of the cylinder with movement of
the load, and (2) to purge air trapped in cylinders.
Before this procedure, each cylinder should have
been mounted in position with the cylinder rod fully
retracted.
14.1.1 Checking Cylinder Alignment As this is the
first time the cylinder is operated, alignment with the
load must be checked. Use the following procedure:
1) If cylinder is hooked up to its load, disconnect
cylinder from load at load end and support temporarily
so rod can fully extend without interference.
2) Move load to rod-extended position and firmly
support.
3) Start pump and actuate operator directional control valve manually to fully extend cylinder rod.
Manually operate any electrically actuated solenoid
valves, so that their operation is independent of the
electrical control system.
4) Adjust cylinder mounting, if necessary, when
the cylinder is fully extended to allow end connection
to freely enter the connection bracket on the load.
5) Retract cylinder rod and move load to rodretracted position to ensure cylinder end connection
enters load bracket freely.
6) Retest fit of cylinder connection in both retracted
and extended positions until connection easily enters
load bracket in both positions. As alignment is now
satisfactory, attach cylinder to supporting structure
with dowels or other positive means (see Section 5.1)
and permanently connect to load.
14.1.2 Purging Air Trapped in Cylinders Oil does
not flow through cylinders and rotary actuators, and
this dead end traps a considerable amount of air inside
one or both ends of the actuator. Trapped air causes the

load to bounce and must be removed from the system.


If the cylinders are supplied by the manufacturer with
built-in, air-bleed valves, be sure they are fitted in the
uppermost surface of the cylinder, or as near it as
possible. Where no air-bleed points are fitted as part
of the cylinders, they must be installed external to the
cylinder in the piping above the level of the cylinder.
Use the following procedure to purge cylinders:
1) Start pump and manually select cylinder to
reciprocate.
2) Carefully open each air-bleed valve in turn when
the cylinder rod is reciprocating, so aerated oil is
pushed out. Continue the bleeding process until pure,
air-free oil emerges. Tilt the cylinder if possible so the
end being bled is always the highest part.
3) Connect cylinder to load when air bleeding is
complete. Check reservoir oil level.
14.2 Final Testing of Cylinder Circuits
The hydraulic circuit was designed to make the
cylinder travel at a certain speed and move the load
with reasonable oil pressure. Check the transmission to
ensure it does what it was designed to do:
1) Be sure movement of cylinder and load is not obstructed.
2) Start pump and select movement of cylinder. A
certain minimum pressure is required to move the cylinder piston. If the pump relief valve setting was reduced
during initial start-up testing, increase the setting carefully until cylinder moves at constant speed throughout
the stroke. When piston reaches end of stroke, pump
pressure rises to relief valve setting so adjust setting to
at least 200 psi above maximum pressure needed to
move load. Check actual relief valve setting with the
value stated on the drawing. If actual pressure level is
less than that specified by the drawing, increase relief
valve setting to the drawing value. If actual pressure
level is higher than that specified by the drawing report
to the designer and he will determine if the system can
take the increased pressure and remain safe.
3) When pressure relief valve has been adjusted
check the cylinder piston speed. Equipment specifications indicate speed or stroking time of the cylinder.
Use timepiece to check that actual cylinder speed meets
the specification in both directions of travel. Flow-rate
control valves included in the circuit allow adjustment
of cylinder speed.
4) The cylinder is almost certainly subjected to overrunning load if it moves a heavy weight such as a door
or a hatch. Because of gravity or reluctance to stop once
it is moving, the load tries to move faster than the
pump can push. To prevent this, a counterbalance
device is installed in the outlet of the actuator and this
prevents overrunning as the load is lowered. In opencircuit systems this is either a pressure control valve
called a counterbalance (brake) valve or a flow-rate

control valve. Adjust both so the pump maintains a


positive pressure of at least 100 psi during the overrunning operation. If pump pressure drops to zero the
counterbalance device is incorrectly set and must be
adjusted until pump pressure becomes distinctly positive.
5) Remove pressure gauges from circuit, or mount
them so they will be protected from mechanical shock
and vibrations and isolate them from system pressure.
6) Be sure adjustments on all adjustable controls
are locked.
7) Check reservoir oil level and top up if necessary.
8) Ensure that reservoir is completely sealed. Air
must leave and enter only through air-breather filter.
9) Verify that reservoir end covers are not leaking.
15. TESTING HYDRAULIC MOTOR CIRCUITS

Hydraulic motors generally drive winches and


conveyors. Dockside testing is often satisfactory for
these systems. Fishing machinery, such as trawl and net
winches, is finally tested during sea trials because the
load is mainly the drag of fishing gear through the water,
and is difficult to simulate at dockside.
15.1 No Load Testing of Motor Circuits
-

No-load testing of a motor circuit is simpler than


for a cylinder circuit because accurate shaft alignment
is achieved without power and, as a hydraulic motor is
a continuous flow device, purging of air is not as difficult as with cylinders. It is seldom necessary to disconnect the motor shaft from the machine for no-load
testing. Winches are tested before the warps, nets, and
ropes are wound on, and an empty winch drum is a light
load. Empty conveyor drives are also light loads on the
motor. No-load testing of motor circuits is useful
because it permits system controls to be checked and
adjusted conveniently.
Adjusting Pump Relief Valve Check and
adjust pump relief valve setting:
1) Mechanically prevent load from rotating, start
transmission and select to drive.
2) Adjust pressure relief valve to the level stated on
circuit drawing. Rapid adjustment is recommended
because prolonged operation of the relief valve may
overheat system oil.
15.1.1

15.2 Final Testing of Motor Circuits

The hydraulic system was designed solely to drive


the load at a certain speed with a reasonable oil pressure,
so check the performance of the actual transmission
against the requirements of the equipment specification.
If working loads can be simulated at dockside, the
machine can be loaded and operating pressures can
be read from test gauges. Speed of the loaded system
can be measured with an ordinary timepiece.
25

15.2.1 Counterbalancing Hoisting Winches It is important to ensure that hoisting winches will not drop the
load. Some winches (Gearmatic for example) include
a friction brake inside the gearing to hold the load and
prevent uncontrolled lowering. Other winches may need
external counterbalancing and this is usually achieved
with hydraulic pressure control counterbalance valves,
adjusted to hold at least 11/4 times the rated hoisting
load just clear of the deck. Do not raise the load high
until the counterbalance system has been checked and
verified.

the hydraulic system has to be counterbalanced so the


gear will not be pulled from the winch drum too
rapidly. The counterbalancing system works against
the drag of the water rather than gravity. If a pressure
control counterbalance valve is installed in the circuit,
it must be adjusted so the gear will not be dragged
from the drum when the mechanical brake is released
until a selection to shoot-the-net is made. The pump
must always supply a positive pressure to the motor,
even during net shooting. Adjust the counterbalance
valve if necessary to make sure positive pressure is
maintained.

Sea Trials for Fishing Winches Dockside testing proves that fishing winches respond to controls
under lightly loaded conditions. It also allows the system pressure relief valves to be set at the recommended
level. These tests indicate the winch can operate at the
required speed and can develop the specified pressure.
Sea trials are usually conducted to verify that the winch
is capable of hauling the actual service loads and that
the control is acceptable. Pressure gauges should be
left in the circuit during sea trials to match system pressure to actual operating loads.

Final System Checks When operation of the


system has been proven satisfactory take these final
steps:
1) Remove pressure gauges from circuit, or properly
protect gauges from mechanical shock and vibrations
and isolate from system pressure.
2) Be sure adjustments on all adjustable controls
are locked.
3) Check reservoir oil level and top up if necessary.
4) Ensure that reservoir is completely sealed. Air
must leave and enter only through the air-breather
filter.
5) Be sure oil is not leaking from reservoir end
covers.

15.2.2

15.2.2.1

Counterbalancing Fishing Winch Loads

When the winch is required to power-out the gear,

26

15.2.3

DATE DUE

REFERENCES
AEROQUIP CORPORATION. 1964. Piping fluid power system

1970. Guide for routing and installation of flexil:


13 p.
1971. Piping leaks, causes and cures. Bull. 5026E
1972. Trouble-shooting hydraulic systems. Bull.
CATERPILLAR TRACTOR COMPANY. 1970. Reservoir design
lic circuits. SAE Sept. meeting, Milwaukee, Wis. Pap
DETROIT COIL COMPANY. Undated. What is a solenoid? Fe
DOWTY HYDRAULIC UNITS. 1970. Modern high performa
U.K. 24 p.
ENVIRONMENT CANADA.

1971. Hydraulics for small trawl(

1974. Small trawler hydraulic power system. Ind.


INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. 1974/75. Fluid powe 1
500 p.
JAMES ROBERTSON LIMITED.

1974. Hydraulic installations.

JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL (JIC). 1973. Fluid power syn'

Va. STD. No. H-1-1973.


PARKER HANNIFIN CORPORATION. 1972. How to achieve r

Cleveland, Ohio. Bull. FC-1, FC-2.


1973. Fluid power designers handbook. Cleveland
1975. Tube fitters manual. Cleveland, Ohio. Bull,
POLYPAC SEALING SYSTEMS. 1972. Common causes of seal failure. Bull. EE-HB-001-72:
67 p.
SHELL OIL COMPANY. 1963. Mineral oils as hydraulic media. London, U.K. 52 p.
SPERRY VICKERS INCORPORATED. 1970. Industrial hydraulics manual. Publ. 935100A:
200 p.

1975.

Stop leaks. Troy, Mich. Form 75-177: 17 p.

TEXACO OIL COMPANY. 1970. Operation and care of hydraulic machinery. Montreal,
Que. 95 p.
TYRONE HYDRAULICS INCORPORATED. Undated. Diagnosing gear pump failures. Corinth,
Miss. 20 p.
1970. Reservoir design as viewed by a pump manufacturer. Corinth, Miss. SAE
Sept. meeting. Milwaukee, Wis. Pap. 700721.
U.S. BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL.
200 p.

Undated. Fluid power. Navpers, Publ. 16193-A:

WOMACK EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS. 1973. Fluid power in plant and field. Dallas, Tex.
176 p.

Ninrea
USA

REFERENCES
1964. Piping fluid power systems. Bull. 770: 18 p.
1970. Guide for routing and installation of flexible hose assemblies. Bull. 5075:

AEROQUIP CORPORATION.

13 p.
1971. Piping leaks, causes and cures. Bull. 5026A: 12 p.
1972. Trouble-shooting hydraulic systems. Bull. 5215: 3 p.
1970. Reservoir design for mobile equipment hydraulic circuits. SAE Sept. meeting. Milwaukee, Wis. Pap. 700722.
DETROIT COIL COMPANY. Undated. What is a solenoid? Ferndale, Mich. Bull. 6 p.
DOWTY HYDRAULIC UNirrs. 1970. Modern high performance gear pumps. Cheltenham,
U.K. 24 p.
ENVIRONMENT CANADA.
1971. Hydraulics for small trawlers. Ind. Dev. Rep. 80 p.
1974. Small trawler hydraulic power system. Ind. Dey. Tech. Rep. 79: 9 p.
INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHING COMPANY.
1974/75. Fluid power handbook. Cleveland, Ohio.
500 p.
JAMES ROBERTSON LIMITED.
1974. Hydraulic installations. World Fish. Mag. May. 3 p.
JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL (JIC). 1973. Fluid power symbols and standards. McLean,
Va. STD. No. H-1-1973.
PARKER HANNIFIN CORPORATION.
1972. How to achieve reliability in fluid power lines.
Cleveland, Ohio. Bull. FC-1, FC-2.
1973. Fluid power designers handbook. Cleveland, Ohio. 200 p.
1975. Tube fitters manual. Cleveland, Ohio. Bull. 4306-B2: 44 p.
POLYPAC SEALING SYSTEMS.
1972. Common causes of seal failure. Bull. EE-HB-001-72:

CATERPILLAR TRACTOR COMPANY.

67 1).
SHELL OIL COMPANY.

1963. Mineral oils as hydraulic media. London, U.K. 52 p.

1970. Industrial hydraulics manual. Publ. 935100A:


200 p.
1975. Stop leaks. Troy, Mich. Form 75-177: 17 p.

SPERRY VICKERS INCORPORATED.

TEXACO OIL COMPANY.

1970. Operation and care of hydraulic machinery. Montreal,

Que. 95 p.
TYRONE HYDRAULICS INCORPORATED.

Undated. Diagnosing gear pump failures. Corinth,

Miss. 20p.
1970. Reservoir design as viewed by a pump manufacturer. Corinth, Miss. SAE
Sept. meeting. Milwaukee, Wis. Pap. 700721.
Undated. Fluid power. Navpers, Publ. 16193-A:
U.S. BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL.
200 p.
1973. Fluid power in plant and field. Dallas, Tex.
WOMACK EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS.
176 p.

n
Hydraulics Manual for Fishermen
Booklet 1

Part I.

Deck Machinery, Prime Movers, and Transmissions

Part II.

Principles of Hydraulic PowerTransmi^ssion

Booklet 2

Power Transmission Components

Booklet 3

oil=Conditioning Components

Booklet 4

Part I.

Hydraulic Power Transmission Standards and Symbols

Part 11:

System Design

Booklet 5

Installation of Hydraulic Power Transmission Systems

Booklet 6

Hydraulic Power Transmission Maintenance and


Troubleshooting