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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/csite

exchanger tube equipped with regularly-spaced twisted tapes

as swirl generators

P. Eiamsa-ard a, N. Piriyarungroj b, C. Thianpong b, S. Eiamsa-ard c,n

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang,

Bangkok 10520, Thailand

c

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530, Thailand

b

a r t i c l e in f o

abstract

Article history:

Received 27 November 2013

Received in revised form

22 April 2014

Accepted 22 April 2014

Available online 14 May 2014

Effects of the regularly-spaced twisted tape (RS-TT) on the heat transfer, friction factor and

thermal performance factor behaviors in a heat exchanger are reported along with those

of a full length twisted tape. The full length (or typical) twisted tapes with two different

twist ratios (y P/W 6.0 and 8.0), and the regularly-spaced twisted tape (RS-TT) with two

different twist ratios (y 6.0 and 8.0) and three free space ratios (s S/P 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0)

were employed for comparative study. The article also presents the application of a

mathematical model for numerical simulation of the swirling flow in a tube induced by

regularly-spaced twisted tape (RS-TT) insertion. The numerical simulation was performed

in order to gain an understanding of physical behavior of the fluid flow (decaying swirling

flow field), fluid temperature and local Nusselt number characteristics of a tube fitted with

RS-TT in the turbulent flow regime. The NavierStokes equation in common with the

energy equation was solved using the SIMPLE technique with the RNG k turbulence

model. The experimental results show that heat transfer rate and friction increased with

decreasing twist ratio and space ratio. At similar conditions, full length twisted tapes

(s 0) offered higher heat transfer rate, friction factor and thermal performance factor

than RS-TT ones (s 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0) as they induced more consistent swirling flows and

thus turbulence. This reveals that it is possible to gain promising tradeoff between

enhanced heat transfer and increased friction by selecting the twisted tape with proper

geometries.

& 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC

BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Keywords:

Heat transfer

Swirl flow

Twisted tape

Regularly-spaced twisted tape

1. Introduction

Swirl flows are found in nature, such as tornadoes, and have been of considerable interest over the past decades because

of their promising characteristics for several industrial applications, such as cyclone separators, vortex tubes, agricultural

spraying machines, heat exchangers, gasoline engines, diesel engines, gas turbines, furnaces, vortex dust collectors and

many other practical heating devices. Swirl flow devices are designed to impart a rotational motion about an axis parallel to

the flow direction to the bulk flow. Twisted tapes belong to one important group of swirl generator which mostly applied for

n

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: smith@mut.ac.th (S. Eiamsa-ard).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2014.04.002

2214-157X/& 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

87

Fig. 1. The visualization of swirl flow pattern and local Nusselt number in tube equipped with twisted tape. (a) visualized swirl by dye technique. (b) Flow

field and local Nusselt number for y 6.0 by numerical method. (c) Flow field and local Nusselt number for y 8.0 by numerical method.

heat transfer improvement. Fig. 1 shows the visualized swirl flow induced by a typical twisted tape, achieved from dyetechnique and numerical-technique. The heat transfer enhancement by twisted tapes are attributed to (1) a reduction of a

hydraulic diameter causing resulting in an increase of flow velocity and curvature which in turn increases the shear stress at

the wall and drives secondary motions and (2) an extra heat transfer through thermal contact (3) an increased shear stress

at the wall and mixing by secondary flow. In general, the twisted tape with small twist ratios (y) give higher swirl intensity,

leading to higher shear stress at the wall and mixing then thinner of thermal boundary layer and higher heat transfer rate

than the ones with larger twist ratios (y).

Modified twisted tapes with different tape geometries have been proposed in comparison with typical twisted tapes.

Murugesan et al. [1] investigated the thermal performance characteristics in the heat exchanger tubes fitted with

trapezoidal-cut twisted tapes. Saha [2] studied the effect of the rectangular/square duct with internal axial corrugations

equipped by twisted tapes with oblique teeth on the heat transfer and friction factor. Sivashanmugam et al. [3] conducted

experiments of heat transfer, friction and thermal performance using circular tubes fitted with right-left helical screws of

equal and unequal length of different twist ratios. Eiamsa-ard et al. [4] examined the heat transfer, friction factor and

thermal performance behaviors in a tube with a loose-fit twisted tape insert at different clearance ratios (CR 0.0 (tight-fit),

0.1, 0.2 and 0.3). The experimental results revealed that thermal performance factor tended to increase with decreasing

clearance ratio. Among the examined tapes, the tight-fit tape (CR 0.0) gave the highest thermal performance factor. Jafari

Nasr and Khalaj [5] analyzed heat transfer and friction factor in a corrugated tube fitted with a twisted tape through the

artificial neural network approach. Bhuiya et al. [6] reported the effect of triple twisted tapes on heat transfer rate, friction

factor and thermal performance characteristics. They showed that the presence of triple twisted tapes led to the higher heat

transfer rate and friction factor over the plain tube up to 3.85 and 4.2 times which resulted in thermal performance up

to 1.44. The thermal performance was up to 1.44 by the use of triple twisted tape inserts. Bhuiya et al. [7] reported the heat

transfer, friction factor and thermal performance factor in tubes with perforated twisted tape inserts with different

porosities. They found that the Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance factor in the tubes with perforated

twisted tape inserts were respectively up to 340%, 360% and 59% above those of the plain tube. Eiamsa-ard et al. [8]

conducted the heat transfer enhancement in a tube using twisted tapes with alternate axes at different alternate lengths

(l/y). As found, the twisted tapes with both uniform and non-uniform alternate lengths (TAs and N-TAs) yielded higher Nusselt

number and friction factor than the typical tape. The thermal performance factors associated by TAs with ratios of alternate

length to twist length of l/y0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, were respectively, 20%, 16%, 12% and 7% higher than that given by TT.

In addition, N-TAs yielded higher thermal performance factor than TT and TAs by around 3% and 8%, respectively. Bhattacharyya

et al. [9] presented the friction factor and heat transfer in a tube having integral transverse ribs and centre-cleared twisted-tape.

They showed that the centre-cleared twisted tapes in combination with transverse ribs perform significantly better than the

individual technique acting alone.

Saha et al. [10] studied the turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop behaviors in a tube fitted with regularly spaced

twisted-tape elements connected by thin circular rods at different twist ratios, space ratios, and rod-to-tube diameter ratios.

They reported that on the basis of both constant pumping power and constant heat duty, regularly spaced twisted-tape

elements did not perform better than full-length twisted tapes. Date and Saha [11] numerically studied the friction and heat

transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted-tape elements. The prediction showed that the

88

considerably enhanced thermo-hydraulic performance was achievable by increasing the number of turns on the tape

elements, reducing the connecting rod diameter, at high fluid Prandtl numbers. Saha et al. [12] investigated the heat transfer

and pressure loss characteristics in a tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted-tape elements in laminar swirl flow regimes.

The difference of heated friction factor and isothermal friction factor for the periodic swirl flow was substantially less than

that in case of straight flow through plain tube. Eiamsa-ard et al. [13] examined the effect of the regularly spaced twisted

tapes on the heat transfer and friction loss characteristics in a double pipe heat exchanger. It was found that the heat

transfer rate increased with decreasing twist ratio and free space ratio. Hong et al. [14] investigated the heat transfer and

friction loss behaviors in a converging-diverging tube with evenly spaced twisted-tapes at different twist ratios and rotation

angles for Reynolds number ranging between 3400 and 20,000. Their results showed that the twisted-tape with twist ratio

(y) of 4.72 (the smallest twist ratio) and rotation angle 1801 gave the highest thermal performance factor. It was also

found that the tube inserts with space ratio s 48.6, yielded thermal performances from 0.85 to 1.21 times and from 1.07 to

1.15 times of those offered by the plain tube and the converging-diverging tube alone, respectively. Jaisankar et al. [15]

performed the comparative study of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater

with twisted tapes fitted with rod and spacers. As compared to full length twist tape, the twisted tapes fitted with rod and

spacers, gave lower heat transfer rates around 11% and 19%, respectively which accompanied by the decreases of friction

factors around 18% and 29%, respectively. Ananth and Jaisankar [16] examined the heat transfer and pressure drop behaviors

of thermosyphon solar water heater fitted with regularly spaced twisted-tape with rod and spacer. Their results

demonstrated that as spacer length increased, both heat transfer rate and friction factor decreased. Zhang et al. [17]

performed numerical simulation to study the thermal and fluid flow of multi-longitudinal vortices in a tube induced by

triple and quadruple twisted tape inserts for the Reynolds number from 300 to 1800. As compared to the plain tube, the

tubes with triple and quadruple twisted tapes possessed higher heat transfer rates up to 171% and 182%, respectively, these

accompanied with the increases of friction factors of around 4.06 to 7.02 times, respectively. In addition, the thermal

performance factors of the tube inserts varied between 1.64 and 2.46.

The above literature shows that the performances of twisted tapes mainly depend on their geometries. Mostly, the

modified twisted tape can further improve heat transfer rate as compared to typical twisted tapes. However, the enhanced

heat transfer is usually accompanied by the increase of friction penalty. The evaluation of overall performance of twisted

tape is therefore based on the tradeoff between both increased heat transfer and friction factor. According to the above

literature, both experimental and numerical studies on heat transfer enhancement using twisted tapes. However, for each

research either experimental work or numerical work was carried out. The present work offers both experimental and

numerical investigations on heat transfer enhancement using twisted tapes, in order to assess the agreement between the

experimental and numerical results and to gain a better understanding of heat transfer enhancement. Although, numerical

simulation is capable to analyze the effect of twisted tapes with different structure, the experimental study is an essential

tool for evaluating the practical use of tape inserts. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of modified twisted

tapes in form of the regularly-spaced twisted tape (RS-TT) with two different twist ratios (y 6.0 and 8.0) and three space

ratios (s1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) in comparison with that of the full length (or typical) twisted tapes, in order to find an optimum

tradeoff between the enhanced heat transfer and the increased friction factor for Reynolds numbers between 5000 and

12,000. Details of flow structure, temperature field and local Nusselt number in a tube fitted with RS-TT at different space

ratios are analyzed using numerical technique for better understanding the heat transfer mechanism.

2. Experimental setup

2.1. Concentric tube heat exchanger

The arrangement of the experimental system of a concentric tube heat exchanger was set up as depicted in Fig. 2. The

double tube heat exchanger consisted of two concentric tubes arranged in a counter flow; an inner tube for hot air flow and

an outer tube for water flow. The inner tube was made of copper with an inner diameter of 19 mm while the outer tube was

made of steel with an inner diameter of 40 mm. Both tubes were 2000 mm long and 1 mm thick. The storage tank which

supplied water was maintained at a constant head pressure. The outer tube of the heat exchanger was insulated lengthwise

using asbestos disks to prevent the heat transfer to surroundings.

Regularly-spaced twisted tapes (RS-TTs) were made of stainless steel strips with thickness of 1.0 mm and width of 18 mm.

Typical or full length twisted tapes were formed by twisting a straight tape, about its longitudinal axis, while being held

under tension at desired twist ratio (yP/W6.0 and 8.0). Regularly-spaced twisted tapes (RS-TTs) were produced by

cutting a part of full length twisted tapes and connecting them together using stainless steel wire. The length of connecting

wire was equal to a space between each pair of connected RS-TTs. In the present work the space is defined in term of space

ratio, sS/P which was varied from 0.0 (full length twisted tape) to 3.0. All of twisted tape geometry is depicted in Fig. 2.

89

Cold water

Hot air

Warm air

Outer tube

Inner tube equipped with a twisted tape

Outer tube

Cold water

RS-TT

Small rod

RS-twisted tape

Flow in

W

S

P

L

A set of thermocouple type T

S

RS-TT

s =S/P = 1.0

P

s =S/P = 2.0

s = 1.0

s = 2.0

s = 3.0

s =S/P = 3.0

Fig. 2. Details of a concentric double pipe heat exchanger fitted with regularly-spaced twisted tape (RS-TTs) insets.

In the apparatus setting above, hot air from a high pressure blower was directed through the inner tube, while cold water

was pumped through the annulus (Fig. 3). Two rotameters were used to measure both water and air flow rates. The

volumetric flow rates of the hot air and cold water were adjusted by control valves, situated before the inlet ports. The inlet

air was heated by an adjustable electrical heater. Both the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot air and the cold water

were measured by multi-channel with thermocouple type T. Local temperatures at 15 stations were measured for evaluating

an average Nusselt number. All fifteen thermocouples were installed 0.5 mm beneath the outer surface and connected to the

data logger set. Pressure taps were located at the entrance and the exit of the inner-outer tubes to measure the pressure

drop by connecting them to the U-tube manometer. All temperature, volumetric flow rate and pressure drop data of the hot

air and the cold water were recorded at steady state conditions. During experiments, the temperatures of the inlet air and

cold water were maintained at 80 1C and 27 1C, respectively. The Reynolds number of the heated air was varied from 5000 to

12,000. The calculations of Reynolds number, Nusselts number and friction factor were based on the average tube wall

temperature.

3. Data reduction

For fluid flows in the concentric tube heat exchanger, the average of the heat transfer rate from the hot fluid (air) and

cold fluid (water) of the test tube can be expressed as:

_ h C p;h T h;inlet T h;outlet m

_ c C p;c T c;outlet T c;inlet =2

Q w m

The convective heat transfer rate of the inner tube can be calculated from

Q conv hAT~ w T b

whereas

T b T o T i =2

90

PC computer

Data logger

Thermocouples type T

Outet flow

Concentric

tube Heat

heat exchanger

Concentric Tube

Exchanger

Outet flow

Inlet flow

(Hot air)

Rotameter

Rotameter

Inverter

Variac transformer

Inlet flow

U-Manometer

Water

reservoir

Electrical heater

Centrifugal water pump

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus.

and

T~ w T w =15

T~ w is the mean inside tube-wall temperature of the test section which is computed by taking the average temperatures of 15

axial stations of inner wall temperatures lined between the inlet and the exit of the inner tube (0.5 mm beneath the outer

surface) as seen below. Tw is the local wall temperature, evaluated at the inner wall surface of the test tube.

T~ w Tw1 Tw2 Tw15 =15

The average heat transfer coefficient and the mean Nusselt number are estimated as follows:

h Q w =AT~ w T b

Nu hD=k

Re VD=v

P

f

L=D V 2 =2

91

The prediction of swirl flow characteristics in a tube fitted with RS-TTs was examined using mathematical modeling.

The available finite difference procedures for swirling flows and boundary layer were employed to solve the governing

partial differential equations. Some simplifying assumptions were applied for conventional flow momentum and energy

equations to model the heat transfer process in a constant temperature wall tube with RS-TTs. The major assumptions are;

(1) the flow is steady and incompressible, (2) the flow through the RS-TTs is turbulent, (3) natural convection and thermal

radiation are neglected and (4) the thermo-physical properties of the fluid are temperature independent. Based on above

approximations, the governing differential equations used to describe the fluid flow and heat transfer in a round tube with

RS-TT inserts are established. The continuity, momentum and energy equations for the three dimensional models are

employed. For steady flow, the time-averaged incompressible NavierStokes equations in the Cartesian tensor notation can

be written in the following form:

Continuity equation:

ui 0

xi

Momentum equation:

ui uj

p

ui uj 2 uk

ij

u0i u0j

xi xj

xj

xj xi 3 xk

xj

10

Energy equation:

T

ui E p

keff

;

xi

xj

xj

p u2

E h

2

11

In the present numerical solution, the time-independent incompressible NavierStokes equations and the turbulence

model were discretized using the finite volume technique. QUICK (Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinetics

differencing scheme) and central differencing numerical schemes were applied for convective and diffusive terms,

respectively. To evaluate the pressure field, the pressure-velocity coupling algorithm SIMPLE (Semi Implicit Method for

Pressure-Linked Equations) was selected. Impermeable boundary condition has been implemented over the tube wall.

The turbulence intensity was kept constant at 10% at the inlet. The computation was performed until the difference between

normalized residual of the algebraic equation and the prescribed value fell below a convergence criterion (10 6).

The computational domain for the flow in tube fitted with RS-TT was resolved by regular Cartesian elements.

The numerical analysis was made for RS-TTs at three free space ratios (sS/P 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0). Grid independent solution

was obtained by comparing the solution for different grid levels. The total numbers of elements used are approximately

401,583, 385,801, 386,394 and 379,073 for s 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. The higher numbers of elements employed

for the tape with s 3.0, are due to the larger free space in comparison with the other tapes. The Reynolds number used for

the computation are referred to the inlet value and set at 5000. The inlet temperature was kept constant 353 K while the

tube wall was maintained under constant wall temperature condition at 298 K.

5. Experimental results

In this section, the heat transfer (Nusselt number, Nu), flow structure, thermal structure, pressure drop (friction factor, f)

and thermal performance factor results of the tube with regularly-spaced twisted tapes (RS-TTs) with different twist ratios

and space ratios are reported and compared with those of the tube with typical or full length twisted tapes as well as the

plain tube.

5.1. Verification of experimental facility

To proof the reliability of the experimental facility, the benchmark test between the results of the present plain tube and

those obtained from standard correlations was performed. The standard correlations include Dittus-Boelter and Blasius for

the fully developed turbulent flow in circular tube, as stated below.

Nusselt number correlation:

Dittus-Boelter correlation:

Nu 0:023Re0:8 Pr0:3

Friction factor correlation:

12

92

Blasius correlation:

f 0:316Re 0:25

13

The comparisons between the experimental results of present work and those obtained from the standard correlations

are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The deviations of the experimental Nusselt number and friction factor were within 78.9% and

72.6% as compared to those from Dittus-Boelter correlation and Blasius correlation, respectively. In addition, the

correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor were developed based on the experimental data, the resultant

correlations are shown as follows:

Nu 0:0188Re0:832 Pr0:4

14

f 0:388Re 0:27

15

93

5.2. Flow structure, temperature field and local Nusselt number distribution

The predicted flow structure of the swirling flow, temperature field and local Nusselt number distribution of the tube

fitted with RS-TTs, at Reynolds number of 5000 are shown in Figs. 69. Contour plots of streamline through the RS-TTs in a

tube of different free space ratios (s 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0) are predicted by RNG k model using the QUICK scheme are

demonstrated in Figs. 6 and 7(ad). The predictions showed that swirl flows were induced due to the presence of twisted

tapes. For all RS-TTs, the generated swirls apparently decayed in the spaces between tapes, resulting in the decrease of

vortex intensity. Consequently, the decaying swirls associated with the RS-TTs with larger free space ratio (s) possessed

poorer fluid mixing and thus lower heat transfer rate. As evidences shown in Figs. 6 and 7(d), the decaying swirl flows

induced by the tapes with s of 3.0 transformed to axial flows in the space, prior to reach the next tape. On the other hand,

more consistent swirl flows were induced by the TTs and RS-TTs with the smallest free space ratio (s 1.0), leading to

superior fluid mixing, resulting in uniform fluid temperature in tubes, and thus more efficient heat transfer in comparison

with the larger free space ratio (s2.0 and 3.0) as comparisons shown in Figs. 8 and 9. This confirmed by the experimental

results (Fig. 10) in which, Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with TTs and RS-TTs at s 1.0 were higher than those with RS-TTs

at s2.0 and 3.0 (details in the next subsection).

5.3. Effect of regularly-spaced twisted tape inserts

The results of heat transfer enhancement in term of Nusselt number, with the use of regularly-spaced twisted tapes

(RS-TTs) in comparison with those of the full-length twisted tapes are shown in Fig. 10(ab). For all cases, Nusselt number

increased with increasing Reynolds number. This phenomenon is related to the increase of swirl-flow speed, resulting in a

more efficient destruction of the thermal boundary layer. Depending on Reynolds number and tape geometries, Nusselt

Fig. 6. Contour plots of streamlines in the tubes with RS-TT at different free space ratios (s): (a) s 0.0, (b) s 1.0, (c) s 2.0 and (d) s 3.0.

94

Fig. 7. Contour plots of secondary flows in the tubes with RS-TT at different free space ratios (s): (a) s 0.0, (b) s 1.0, (c) s 2.0 and (d) s 3.0.

numbers of the flows in the tube with twisted tapes were improved up to 56.8% as compared to those in the plain tube.

In addition, heat transfer enhancement by twisted tape inserts as compared to that of the plain tube seemed to be more

significant at higher Reynolds number. This can be attributed to a higher promoted flow turbulence by twisted tapes relative

95

Fig. 8. Contour plots of fluid temperatures in the tubes with RS-TT at different free space ratios (s): (a) s 0.0, (b) s 1.0, (c) s 2.0 and (d) s 3.0.

to that in the plain tube, as Reynolds number increased. At similar conditions, full length twisted tapes (s0) consistently

gave higher Nusselt numbers than regularly-spaced ones (s1.0, 2.0 and 3.0). This can be explained by the fact that full

length twisted tapes induced continuous swirl flow for the whole length of twisted tape while RS-TT ones intermittently

96

Fig. 9. Contour plots of local Nusselt numbers in the tubes with RS-TT at different free space ratios (s): (a) s 0.0, (b) s 1.0, (c) s 2.0 and (d) s 3.0.

produce swirl flow which is allowed to decay along free space. Regarding to the reason mentioned above, twisted tapes with

larger free spaces provided poorer heat transfer than the ones with smaller spaces. As found Nusselt number with the use of

RS-TTs with s 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 were respectively 7.7%, 16.4% and 22.1% lower than that given by full length twisted tape

(s0). At the same space ratio, the tapes with twist ratio y6.0 offered higher Nusselt numbers than the ones with y 8.0

around 6.9%. This result is primarily due to a stronger swirl intensity induced by the tape with a smaller twist ratio or

shorter twist-length resulting in higher shear force on tube wall/more effective thermal boundary disturbance and thus

better heat transfer.

Fig. 11(a and b) shows friction factor generated by an axial flow (in the plain tube) and a swirl flow (in tubes with twisted

tape inserts). A similar trend is found for all cases in which friction factors decreased with increasing Reynolds number.

Friction factors in the tubes with RS-TTs inserts were consistently higher than that in the plain tube, because of the

dissipation of dynamic pressure of the fluid due to the flow resistance caused by the swirling flow. Friction factors of the

flows in the tube with twisted tapes were increased up to 4.38 times of that the plain tube. The influences of twist ratio and

free-space ratio on friction factor were in similar manners found for Nusselt number. According to the experimental results,

friction factors with the use of RS-TTs with s 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 were respectively, 11.7%, 25.9% and 38.8%, lower than that given

by full length twisted tape (s 0). At the same space ratio, the tapes with twist ratio y6.0 caused up to 18.2% higher friction

factors than the ones with y8.0.

As mentioned previously, there is tradeoff between enhanced heat transfer and increased friction by utilizing RS-TTs.

In general, RS-TTs which gave better heat transfer and caused higher friction penalty. For the present work, it was found that

the RS-TTs with y6.0 and s1.0 provided similar Nusselt number with those the full length twisted tape with y8.0. This

97

Fig. 10. Relationship between Nusselts number and Reynolds number for the tube fitted with twisted tapes at various twist ratios (y) and free space ratios (s).

(a) Nu. (b) Nu/Nup.

can be explained that the effect of the stronger swirl intensity and thus turbulence intensity at smaller twist ratio (y6.0)

compensate the swirl decaying of the RS-TTs, and make their overall turbulence to be comparable to that the full length

twisted tape with y8.0.

The tradeoff between enhanced heat transfer and increased friction is usually evaluated by comparing heat transfer and

friction results of enhanced and unenhanced case, at the same pumping power, since a pumping power is relevant to the

operation cost. For constant pumping power

_

_

VP

p VPt

16

This leads to the relationship between friction and Reynolds number in both the plain tube (unenhanced case) and those

with regularly-spaced twisted tapes (RS-TTs) (enhanced case) as

f Re3 p f Re3 t

17

The thermal performance factor () is defined as the ratio of the enhanced heat transfer to the increased friction, where

the enhanced heat transfer is termed as the ratio of Nusselt number in enhanced case to that in unenhanced case and the

98

Fig. 11. Relationship between friction factor and Reynolds number for the tube fitted with twisted tapes at various twist ratios (y) and free space ratios (s).

(a) f. (b) f/fp.

increased friction is termed as the ratio of friction factor in enhanced case to that in unenhanced case. With the application

of the constant pumping criterion, thermal performance factor () can be written as

Nu

Nup

f

fp

!1=3

18

Fig. 12 shows the relationship between thermal performance factor and Reynolds number for the tapes with s 0.0, 1.0,

2.0, and 3.0, y6.0 and 8.0. Justified from the result trend, thermal performance factor increased with reductions of the

twist ratio (y), free space ratio (s) and Reynolds number (Re). For the tapes with twist ratio (y) of 6.0, thermal performance

factor varied between 0.86 and 0.97, 0.82 and 0.94, 0.79 and 0.89, and 0.78 and 0.88 for the tapes with s0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and

3.0, respectively.

The correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance factor with the use of RS-TTs in the studied

range, were developed. The resultant correlations (Eqs. (19)(21)) reveal that Nusselt number is affected by Reynolds

number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr) and free space ratio (s) while the friction factor and thermal performance factor are

99

Fig. 12. Relationship between thermal performance factor and Reynolds number for the tube fitted with twisted tapes at various twist ratios (y) and free

space ratios (s).

Fig. 13. Predicted Nusselt number versus experimental Nusselt number of the tubes with twisted tapes.

Nu 0:144Re0:697 Pr0:4 y 0:228 s 1 0:179

19

20

21

The predictions from Eqs. (19)(21) are compared with the experimental values as shown in Figs. 1315. Evidently, the

predicted Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance factor are respectively within 75%, 77% and 73% of

the experimental data.

100

Fig. 14. Predicted friction factor versus experimental friction factor of the tubes with twisted tapes.

Fig. 15. Predicted thermal performance factor versus experimental thermal performance factor of the tubes with twisted tapes.

6. Conclusions

Heat transfer enhancement, friction and thermal performance factor characteristics by means of regularly-spaced

twisted tapes (RS-TTs) with different twist ratios (y) and free space ratios (s), as compared to that of full length (or typical

twisted tapes) are reported. From the experimental results, it can be concluded as follows:

1. At similar conditions, full length twisted tapes (s0) gave higher heat transfer rate, friction factor and thermal

performance factor than regularly-spaced ones (s 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0).

2. The augmented heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance factor decreased with increasing space ratio. At the

same twist ratio, the tapes with s 0 (full length), 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 gave heat transfer enhancement respectively up 56.8%,

46.2%, 30.5% and 22.6% which were accompanied with the increased friction factors up to 4.22, 3.78, 3.17, and 2.63 times

as compared to those in the plain tube.

101

3. The augmented heat transfer and friction factor decreased with increasing twist ratio. At the same space ratio, the tapes

with y6.0 and 8.0 gave heat transfer enhancement respectively up to 46.2% and 34.6% which were accompanied with

the increased friction factors up to 3.78 and 3.21 times as compared to those in the plain tube.

4. RS-TTs with y 6.0 and s 1.0 provided similar Nusselt number with those the full length twisted tape with y8.0 as the

effect of the stronger swirl intensity and thus turbulence intensity at smaller twist ratio (y6.0) compensate the swirl

decaying of the RS-TTs, and make their overall turbulence to be comparable to that the full length twisted tape with

y8.0. In addition, at RS-TTs with large free space ratio (s 3.0) at both twist ratios (y6.0 and 8.0) gave considerably

lower heat transfer rate than other tapes because of the significant decaying of swirl flows.

Appendix

In order to assess the reliability of the experimental facility and operation, the uncertainties of the experimental data

were determined. The calculations of the data uncertainties were based on method of Kline and McClintock [18]. The

uncertainty analyses of the Nusselt number and friction factor are presented and obtained from the equations below.

Nusselt number:

"

2 #0:5 ( 2 2 )0:5

Nu

1

h

D

Nuh

NuD

Nuk

A1

Nu

Nu h

D

k

h

D

where h q=T w T b then

"

2 #0:5

h 1

h

h

h

q

T w

T b

h

h q

T w

T b

"

2 #0:5

q

T w

T b

q

Tw Tb

T w T b

A2

where

q

0:5

_ p T bo T bi

Q mC

DL w

Friction factor:

"

2 #0:5

f 1

f

f

f

f

P

L

D

Re

f

f

P

L

D

Re

"

2

2

2 #0:5

P

L

3D

2Re

P

L

D

Re

A3

where

P h

P

h

and

Re

Re

"

_

m

_

m

2

2 #0:5

D

D

The maximum uncertainties of dimensionless parameters were within 74% for Reynolds number, 74% for Nusselt

number and 77% for friction factor. The uncertainties of the volumetric flow rate, pressure and temperature measurements

were within 74%, 75% and 70.5%, respectively. The accuracies of the measured quantities are 0.05 1C for temperature

different (T), and 0.001 m for L.

References

[1] Murugesan P, Mayilsamy K, Suresh S. Heat transfer in tubes fitted with trapezoidal-cut and plain twisted tape inserts. Chem Eng Commun 2011;198:

886904.

[2] Saha SK. Thermohydraulics of turbulent flow through rectangular and square ducts with axial corrugation roughness and twisted-tapes with and

without oblique teeth. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 2010;34:74452.

[3] Sivashanmugam P, Nagarajan PK, Suresh S. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular

tube fitted with right and left helical screw-tape inserts. Chem Eng Commun 2008;195:97787.

[4] Eiamsa-ard S, Wongcharee K, Sripattanapipat S. 3-D numerical simulation of swirling flow and convective heat transfer in a circular tube induced by

means of loose-fit twisted tapes. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2009;36:94755.

[5] Jafari Nasr MR, Khalaj AH. Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor prediction of corrugated tubes combined with twisted tape inserts using

artificial neural network. Heat Transfer Eng 2010;31:5969.

[6] Bhuiya MMK, Chowdhury MSU, Shahabuddin M, Saha M, Memon LA. Thermal characteristics in a heat exchanger tube fitted with triple twisted tape

inserts. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2013;48:12432.

[7] Bhuiya MMK, Chowdhury MSU, Saha M, Islam MT. Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in turbulent flow through a tube fitted with

perforated twisted-tape inserts. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2013;46:4957.

102

[8] Eiamsa-ard S, Somkleang P, Nuntadusit C, Thianpong C. Heat transfer enhancement in tube by inserting uniform/non-uniform twisted-tapes with

alternate axes: effect of rotated-axis length. Appl Therm Eng 2013;54:289309.

[9] Bhattacharyya S, Saha S, Saha SK. Laminar flow heat transfer enhancement in a circular tube having integral transverse rib roughness and fitted with

centre-cleared twisted-tape. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 2013;44:72735.

[10] Saha SK, Gaitonde UN, Date AW. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of turbulent flow in a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced

twisted-tape elements. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 1990;3:63240.

[11] Date AW, Saha SK. Numerical prediction of laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted-tape elements.

Int J Heat Fluid Flow 1990;11:34654.

[12] Saha SK, Dutta A, Dhal SK. Friction and heat transfer characteristics of laminar swirl flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced twistedtape elements. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2001;44:421123.

[13] Eiamsa-ard S, Thianpong C, Promvonge P. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow friction in a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced

twisted-tape elements. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2006;33:122533.

[14] Hong M, Deng X, Huang K, Li Z. Compound heat Transfer enhancement of a converging-diverging tube with evenly spaced twisted tapes. Chin J Chem

Eng 2007;15:81420.

[15] Jaisankar S, Radhakrishnan TK, Sheeba KN, Suresh S. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon

solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of leftright twisted tapes. Energy Convers Manage 2009;50:263849.

[16] Ananth J, Jaisankar S. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heating system fitted with

regularly spaced twisted-tape with rod and spacer. Energy Convers Manage 2013;73:20713.

[17] Zhang X, Liu Z, Liu W. Numerical studies on heat transfer and flow characteristics for laminar flow in a tube with multiple regularly spaced twisted

tapes. Int J Therm Sci 2012;58:15767.

[18] Kline SJ, McClintock FA. Describing uncertainties in single sample experiments. Mech Eng 1953;75:38.

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