0 views

Uploaded by findjakebian

© All Rights Reserved

- Rotating optical cavity experiment testing Lorentz invariance at the 10e−17 level
- From Relativity to Dirac Equation
- CU CBCS Physics Syllabus
- A Course In Robust Control Theory.pdf
- ALG Friedberg
- matlab lab2
- Mathematic 113 Full Book.pdf
- Sociological Methods & Research 2011 O Brien 419 52
- Bits Admission Procedure
- Math 1 08
- Subgroup Local Lorentz transformations in F(T) gravity
- A Hundred Years of Larmor Formula
- tensores.pdf
- tifr06.pdf
- Assignment_5.pdf
- Notes Chapter 9
- Matlab Tecnica M
- Lab 1
- Week 10.pdf
- Est A

You are on page 1of 10

Jake Bian

September 30, 2015

Contents

1 Lorentz Group Orbits

3.1 Skew-Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Geometric Intuition for Basis of Generators . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

3

5

4.1 a. Vector fields from Lie algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2 b. The Lorentz Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

5

6

Consider vector space V ' R4 , let V denote its dual vector space. Let ( )

denote a basis for V , and (dx ) the dual basis in V . Define a symmetric

2-tensor V V as

= dt dt +

3

X

dxi dxi

(1.1)

i=1

G V V, (, v) 7 v

(1.2)

Lorentz Group is the set of all linear maps : V V with the property

(v, v) = (v, v)

(1.3)

Bv {v | G}

(1.4)

Bv = {w V | (w, w) = (v, v)}

(1.5)

Bv = {w V | (w0 )2 +

3

X

(1.6)

i=1

of the Bv is sensitive to (v, v), namely

For (v, v) > 0 Bv is a one-sheeted hyperboloid

(1.7)

(1.8)

Now assume v 0 > 0 - that is, v is some point on Bv above the t = 0 plane.

We also restrict ourselves to the component of G connected to the identity. The

following observations follow from the pictures above

When (v, v) > 0, there exist smooth 1-dimensional curves on Bv which

connect v, a point above the t = 0 plane, to a point v 0 , below the t = 0

plane. Since Bv is the orbit of the Lorentz group, these 1-dimensional

curves are the orbits of smooth 1-parameter groups of Lorentz transformations starting from the identity taking v 7 v 0 with v 00 < 0.

1 These

When (v, v) < 0, there are no curves connecting the upper half of the

hyperbloid to the bottom half. Therefore there cannot be smooth 1parameter families of Lorentz transformation which takes v below the

t = 0 plane. There are no other transformations that can take v below

the plane because were restricted to the component of the Lorentz group

connected to the identity, in particular reflection across a plane is not a

smooth transformation, hence lies on another component of the Lie group

G.

This is the desired result.

(v, v) = [v v]

(2.1)

= [ (v v)] = ( )[v v]

(2.2)

= ( )(v, v)

(2.3)

=

(2.4)

=

(2.5)

as desired.

3.1

Skew-Symmetry

= 1 +

(3.1)

= 1 + (1 + 1) + O(2 )

(3.2)

compute

Plug this into result of the last problem 2.5, dropping the O(2 ) term we

find

(1 + (1 + 1)) =

(3.3)

Therefore

(1 + 1) = 0

(3.4)

0 = (1 + 1)[u v] =

(3.5)

= (1 )[u v] + (1 )[u v]

(3.6)

= (u, v) + (u, v)

(3.7)

Let denote the metric transpose (or metric pullback) of . That is, is

a linear operator on V such that

( u, v) = (u, v)

(3.8)

0 = ( u, v) + (u, v) = ( u, v) = (u, v)

(3.9)

=

(3.10)

this with the components version suggested in the problem, consider simply the

component form of the metric pullback. Observe first

(u, v) = ab b ua v , ( u, v) = b ba ua v

(3.11)

where weve labelled the dummy indices so that we can factor out the vector components easily. The definition of the metric pullback 3.8 says the two

quantities above are equal, hence

b ba = ab b

(3.12)

In the usual physicists notation the metric lowers an index, the equation

becomes

a = a

(3.13)

a = a

(3.14)

This is the desired result in component form. One can apply the metric

inverse twice to convert this last equation into an identical result about tensors

with pure-vector (upper) indices.

3.2

forms a vector space Sd of dimension d(d 1)/2.

Observe d(d 1)/2 = d choose 2. There is an intuitive explanation for this:

an arbitrary (Lorentzian) rotation is a composition of (Lorentzian) rotations

which leave a particular dimension 2 plane fixed. This picture can also be seen

very easily from the explicit formula for the vector field generated by Lorentz

group in the next section.

In particular in d = 3 + 1, there are 3 independent rotations and 3 independent boosts.

Constants

4.1

ab dxa dxb

in fact lives in the subspace V V

a

b

V V , for wich a basis is {dx dx }, and in these coordinates we label the

components of the tensor as

= ab dxa dxb

(4.1)

want construct a linear operator - or a rank (1, 1) tensor in V V . Colloquially

we want to raise a index. We do this with the isomorphism given by the inverse

metric V V

: V V

1 : V V V V

(4.2)

(4.3)

under the above map

1 [

] = ab dxa [dxb ] = ab b dxa = a dxa (4.4)

where we took the usual definition of the wedge product between a V and

b V as

a b a b b a

(4.5)

with a vector x x V yields

kx [x 1] = ab dxa b [x 1]

5

(4.6)

dxa b [x 1] = (dxa b dxb a )[x 1]

a

= dx [x ] b dx [x ] a

a

= x b x a

(4.7)

(4.8)

(4.9)

kx = [x 1] = ab (xa b xb a )

(4.10)

Observe the metric inner product in the first component is invariant under

the following shifting of indices

ab (xa b xb a ) 7 ab (xa b xb a )

(4.11)

This is desired result. To get the exact form of the result as suggested in

the problem statement, recall is related to an element of G by Lie algbera

exponentiation, infinitesmally we can consider a Lorentz group element infinitesmally close to the identity

= 1 +

(4.12)

v v v = v

(4.13)

v = ab (xa b xb a )v

(4.14)

4.2

Luv Lab = Luv (xa b xb a ) = Luv (xa )b Luv (xb )a

(4.15)

(4.16)

= (x a x a )b + (x b x b )a

(4.17)

Lab Luv = (xa b xb a ) + (xa b xb a )b

Hence

(4.18)

(4.19)

= a (x b xb m u) + a (xb x b ) + b (x a xa ) + b (x a xa )

(4.20)

= a Lb + a Lb + b La + b La

(4.21)

1

iab jcd [M ab , M cd ]

4

1

= iab jcd (( ac M bd a b) c d)

4

[Ji , Jj ] =

(5.1)

(5.2)

Rewrite the first term using an identity for the levi-civita symbol

1

1

iab jcd ac M bd = icb jcd M bd = (cbi cdj )M bd

4

4

1

1

1

= (bd ij bj id )M bd = Mbb ij M ji = M ij

4

4

4

(5.3)

(5.4)

where in the last equality we used the fact that M ab is skew symmetric, and

therefore has vanishing diagonals. Repeating this for each term in the original

expression and taking the sum, we find

[Ji , Jj ] = M ij

(5.5)

Now observe

1

kab kcd M cd

2

1

= (ac bd ad bc )M cd

2

1

= (M ab M ba ) = M ab

2

abk Jk =

(5.6)

(5.7)

(5.8)

[Ji , Jj ] = M ij = ijk Jk

(5.9)

equally tedious manner. For completeness we type it below.

7

Consider commutator

1

1

iab [M ab , M j0 ] = iab (( aj M b0 a b) j 0)

2

2

the first term looks like

[Ji , Kj ] =

(5.10)

1

1

1

iab ( aj M b0 ) = ijb M b0 = ijb Kb

(5.11)

2

2

2

the j i part vanishes because each term is multiplied by a factor like a0 ,

which vanishes because a > 0. The b a part yields an identical term. Hence

[Ji , Kj ] = ijb Kk

(5.12)

[Ki , Kj ] = [M i0 , M j0 ] = (g ij M 00 g 0j M i0 ) (g i0 M 0j g 00 M ij )

0j

0i

0i

= (g M ) (g M

00

=g M

ij

= M

ij

0j

00

ij

+g M )

= ijk Jk

(5.13)

(5.14)

(5.15)

where terms like gi0 vanish because i, j > 0 and gab is diagonal. We also

used the fact g 00 = 1 for flat Minkovski metric.

H = H0 + H1

(6.1)

where

Z

H0

d3 x a Aa|x

(6.2)

h

2 + U (x) and the interaction part is

where A(x) 2m

Z

H1 d3 xd3 y V (x y)a (x)a (y)a(y)a(x)

(6.3)

We first verify the usual commutators of the number operator with the ladder

operators

Z

[N, a(x)] =

Z

=

Z

=

(6.4)

(6.5)

d3 y (x y)a(y) = a(x)

(6.6)

identically

[N, a (x)] =

Z

Z

=

Z

=

(6.7)

d3 ya (y)[a(y), a (x)] + 0

(6.8)

a (y)(y x) = a (x)

(6.9)

where we used the known commutation relations between the ladder operators. Also observe

[N, A] = 0

(6.10)

where A was defined as above, where the term involving the derivative vanishes because N has no x dependence. Now compute

Z

[N, H0 ] =

d x [N, a Aa] =

(6.11)

d3 x a A(a) + a Aa = 0

=

=

(6.13)

To compute the remaining term, we use a trick. Make the following rearrangement using commutation relations

a (x)a (y)a(y)a(x) = a (x)a (y)a(x)a(y)

(6.14)

(6.15)

(6.16)

(6.17)

n(x) a (x)a(x)

observe N =

(6.18)

d x n(x) and

Z

[N, n(x)] =

d3 y [n(y), n(x)] = 0

(6.19)

together with equations above yields

Z

H1 =

(6.20)

Z

Z

= d3 x V (0)a (x)a(x) + d3 xd3 ya (x)a(x)a (y)a(y))

Z

Z

= d3 xV (0)n(x) + d3 xd3 y n(x)n(y)

Z

= V (0)N + d3 xd3 y n(x)n(y)

(6.21)

(6.22)

(6.23)

(6.24)

Finally

Z

[N, H1 ] = V (0)[N, N ] +

(6.25)

Hence

[N, H] = [N, H0 + H1 ] = [N, H0 ] + [N, H1 ] = 0

10

(6.26)

- Rotating optical cavity experiment testing Lorentz invariance at the 10e−17 levelUploaded byCamphibian Gillsworthy Devoniant
- From Relativity to Dirac EquationUploaded byahsbon
- CU CBCS Physics SyllabusUploaded bySuman Chowdhury
- A Course In Robust Control Theory.pdfUploaded byDenis Hinojosa Zeballos
- ALG FriedbergUploaded byrajinder43
- matlab lab2Uploaded bymadonnite3781
- Mathematic 113 Full Book.pdfUploaded byMudassir Hussain
- Sociological Methods & Research 2011 O Brien 419 52Uploaded byJake Daedalus
- Math 1 08Uploaded byDaniel Fancis Amabran Barrientos
- Bits Admission ProcedureUploaded byankursrivastava006
- Subgroup Local Lorentz transformations in F(T) gravityUploaded byMaría José Guzmán Monsalve
- A Hundred Years of Larmor FormulaUploaded byMilan Dragojlovic
- tensores.pdfUploaded byJoão Gabriel Franco
- tifr06.pdfUploaded byalin444444
- Assignment_5.pdfUploaded byZoravur Singh
- Notes Chapter 9Uploaded byjim_crane10
- Matlab Tecnica MUploaded byJorge Zerosh Martinez
- Lab 1Uploaded byKal Sommy
- Week 10.pdfUploaded byPatriceSingson
- Est AUploaded byosc824
- Daniel Krasner- Equivariant sl(n)-link homologyUploaded byDuncan_Vim
- Gp 2613231328Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- LecturesUploaded byPrajwal Prakash
- On Convolutional Codes and BehaviorsUploaded byMauro Luiz Brandao Junior
- Dot ProductUploaded byLim Jing Zhan
- Catren, Gabriel - Geometric Foundations of Classical Yang-Mills Theory - CatrenUploaded byrohrhuber8366
- 380sol1.pdfUploaded byjulianli0220
- Matlab CheatsheetUploaded bythehendrix
- International Future of Mathematics ConferenceUploaded bythinx
- 019Uploaded byരാകേഷ് നായർ

- Mathematics for high schoolUploaded bypablo
- FunkyMathPhysics.pdfUploaded byVaibhav Hatode
- classnote-50ca22ef04818Uploaded byPuneet Gupta
- An Analysis of the EllipseUploaded byAravind Narayan
- CSAT Maths & DI_ Studyplan Without Coaching, High Priority TopicsUploaded byRajneesh Singh
- COMSOL_V4.4_pdeUploaded byabdulbabul
- Generalized Smarandache Palindromes, by C. Ashbacher, L. NeirynckUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- algebra 1aUploaded byapi-310256368
- Evaluating the Normal DistributionUploaded byutomopratama
- 2.2 Lesson Notes FA12[1]Uploaded byJAP
- Vanishing Polynomial SumsUploaded byapi-26401608
- Real NumbersUploaded bySaurabh Raje
- Maths 4U 1968 HSC.pdfUploaded byKingom 885
- 00 IntroductionUploaded bystephen_562001
- nnotesUploaded byHelbert Agluba Paat
- Homogenouse 2nd order DEUploaded bySalman Razeen
- Fem Objective QuestionsUploaded bySree Murthy
- 4 Bazier CurvesUploaded byVickyVenkataraman
- Chapter 3 Coordinate GeometryUploaded byJojobaby51714
- Notes on Time Series AnalysisUploaded byAlzarani
- PDEs - Problems (1)Uploaded byscribd6289
- test paper for iit jeeUploaded byGaurav Yadav
- reteaching 2-7Uploaded byapi-296726470
- Chapter 0 Solutions Manual ChaparroUploaded bysnowsummit
- WLCalcUploaded byjuanjosecabrera
- Example the Surface IntegralUploaded bysondhani
- Practice Problem No. 1Uploaded byAaRichard Manalo
- Determinants, And Linear Independence - SpringerUploaded bylgpacheco
- MplotUploaded bysashankchappidigmail
- IB Physics Practice ProblemsUploaded byJustin Chong