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Part 1.

Deck Machinery, Prime Movers,


and Transmissions

Part 11. Principles of Hydraulic Power Transmission


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Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1978


Available by mail from:
Printing and Publishing
Supply and Services Canada
Ottawa, Canada K1A OS9
or through your bookseller
A deposit copy of this publication is also available
for reference in public libraries across Canada
Catalog No. Fs 41-31/37-1
ISBN 0-660-01834-9
ISSN 0701-7650

Canada: $2.00
Other countries: $2.40

Price subject to change without notice


Ottawa

Printed in Canada
by
Friesen Printers
Altona, Manitoba, Canada
Contract No. KF 801-8-0161

Correct citation for this publication:

Published by

Department of Fisheries and the Environment. 1978. Dock .'^


machinery, prime movers, and transmissions, Pt. I;
Principles of hydraulic power transmission, Pt. II, 10 p.
In Hydraulics manual for fishermen. Fish, Mar. Serv.
Misc. Publ. 37 (Booklet 1).
Cover design: Christine Rusk

Publi par

Fisheries and Environment


Canada

Pches et Environnement
Canada

Fisheries and
Marine Service

Service des pches


et de la mer

Scientific Information
Direction de l'information
and Publications Branch
et des publications scientifiques
Ottawa K1A OE6

MISCELLANEOUS SPECIAL PUBLICATION 37


(La version franaise est en prparation)

Hydraulics Manual for Fishermen1


Booklet

Part I. Deck Machinery, Prime Movers, and Transmissions


Part II. Principles of Hydraulic Power Transmission

Department of Fisheries and the Environment


Fisheries and Marine Service
Fishermen's Services Branch
Ottawa, Canada K7A OE6

DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT


FISHERIES AND MARINE SERVICE
Ottawa 1978

le

IThis manual is based on a study prepared by Dowty Equipment of


Canada Limited under contract to Fishermen's Services Branch, Fisheries
and Marine Service, Department of Fisheries and the Environment.

NOTICE

The use of proprietary names does not imply


endorsement of the product or company. No reference
to the Department of Fisheries and the Environment
(DFE), or to this publication, shall be made in any
advertising or sales promotion which would indicate
or imply that DFE approves, recommends, or endorses
any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to
cause directly or indirectly the advertised product to be
used or purchased because of this DFE publication.

CONTENTS
FOREWORD

Part I

Deck Machinery, Prime Movers, and Transmissions

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

MACHINES FOR FISHING BOATS


2.1 Winches
1

1
1

2.1.1 Winch power requirements


2.2 Auxiliary Machinery
1
3.

PRIME MOVERS

4.

TRANSMISSIONS

4.1 Need for Efficient Transmission


1
4.2 Power Transmission Methods
3
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
Part II

Mechanical power transmission


3
Electrical power transmission
3
Pneumatic power transmission
3
Ideal power transmission method
3
Hydraulic power transmission
4

Principles of Hydraulic Power Transmission

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

PROPERTIES OF A LIQUID

3.

How POWER IS TRANSMITTED BY HYDRAULICS

4
4

4.

MEANING OF PRESSURE

5.

TRANSMISSION OF PRESSURE

5
5

6.

PRINCIPLE OF HYDRAULIC LEVER

7.

HYDRAULIC JACK

7.1 Hydraulic Lever


7
7.2 Hydraulic Ratchet
7
7.3 Mechanical Lever
7
8.

BASIC HYDRAULIC POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

9.

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

10.

LIQUID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

11.

PRESSURE DROP

REFERENCES

10

FIGURES
1
2

Effects of transmission efficiency on engine load


Disadvantages of mechanical transmissions
2

3
4
5
6
7

Disadvantages of electric drives


3
Similarity between hydraulic and electric transmissions
Meaning of pressure
5
Transmission of pressure
6
Hydraulic and mechanical levers
6

8
9
10

The hydraulic jack, a basic hydraulic system


Laminar and turbulent flow patterns
8
Useful and wasteful pressure drop
9

lll

FOREWORD

If the fisherman is to achieve a good standard of living he must obtain a good


profit from his catch. He has little control over the number of fish available or
the demand for his product; his expertise is catching fish. To do this efficiently
it is necessary to have good but not necessarily the most expensive equipment.
However, the equipment must be safe, efficient, reliable, durable, and economical.
Deck machinery helps men handle nets and process fish and this machinery needs
a source of power. Because the power must be transmitted, the prime mover and
transmission have to be as reliable as the machinery. It is a common opinion that
machines and prime movers are reliable but that the weak link is the transmission,
particularly when it is hydraulic. There is some justification for this opinion
because in the past many mistakes have been made in the design and installation
of hydraulic transmissions. However, transmission of power by hydraulics is
especially suited to the needs of deck machinery. Properly designed and installed
it is safe and dependable, and is good enough for use in large aircraft. But to be
successful, a hydraulic transmission must be designed, installed, and maintained
by knowledgeable people.
This Manual consists of six separate Booklets. They outline the ideas,
materials, and methods used to create a safe, efficient, and reliable hydraulic power
transmission. Generally, the discussion of each topic is brief and, no doubt, some
points are missed; however, the intention is to help the practical worker understand
hydraulics. Although written mainly for mechanics, the Manual should also be
of value to system designers and draftsmen because it emphasizes practical requirements. The mechanic must have some knowledge of the principles behind the
design of hydraulic power transmissions, appreciate the great need for cleanliness
inside the system, and the necessity to keep the operating temperature at a reasonable level. He should understand how the various components work, and how to
carry out necessary troubleshooting and repair procedures. Special knowledge and
skill are needed by the hydraulic systems mechanic and this Manual will supply
some of that knowledge. Skill will be obtained when he applies this knowledge
to his work.
Fishermen's Services Branch
Fisheries and Marine Service
Department of Fisheries and the Environment

Part I.

Deck Machinery, Prime Movers, and Transmissions

1. INTRODUCTION
The fisherman needs machines to help lighten his
work and improve productivity. When buying a machine he must be concerned about the type, power
available to drive it, and how this power is transmitted
to the machine. Part I of this Booklet discusses fishing
machinery and related equipment, the type of power
generators available, and the alternative ways power
can be transmitted to the machines.

requires assistance to open and close heavy doors and


move booms. The winch is often adapted to these
tasks, but an actuator with a push-pull motion of its
shaft could be more suitable. When it can be used,
this type of actuator is lighter, more compact, and less
expensive than a winch. Sometimes a powered conveyor is needed to move the fish in and out of storage,
and most vessels require power-assisted steering systems. These and other machines are useful to the
fisherman only if they are dependable and help him
make the maximum profit from his operation.

2. MACHINES FOR FISHING BOATS


2.1 Winches
The most valuable machines to fishermen are rope
handling machines. The most common is the winch
and every commercial fishing boat is fitted with one
or more, with the possible exception of small inshore
vessels. Different fishing methods require different winch
designs, but basically a winch is a drum or reel onto
which the rope is wound. The drum is supported by
bearings that allow it to rotate. Drum size depends
on the rope's diameter and length. It is a simple and
practical device but becomes more complex when
brakes, clutches, smooth-winds, or other auxiliary
components are added.
The winch is driven by a motor, and the motor
size depends on the power required. The higher the
power required, the larger the motor, and a large
motor takes up valuable deck space. Most fishing boats
have no space to spare on the working deck where the
winch is usually mounted, so it is important that both
the winch and motor be as compact as possible. Finally, winches are generally exposed to the weather and
must be suitable for wet and cold conditions.
2.1.1 Winch Power Requirements Power needed to
drive the winch depends on rope pull and the speed
it is hauled. In operation, a winch is required to exert
large tension forces on the rope, but also to move it
at low speeds. The combination of high forces at low
speeds requires large amounts of power. On the largest
Canadian trawlers there are winches with power requirements up to 400 horsepower (HP), 200 HP
winches are more common, and winches with capacities
between 15 and 50 HP are used extensively. Winches
haul and store rope and require power continuously
for the time it takes to wind the rope onto the drum.
On large trawl winches this may take 10 minutes (min)
or more; smaller auxiliary winches may only need
continuous power for periods of a minute or so.
2.2 Auxiliary Machinery
In addition to handling ropes, the crew often

3. PRIME MOVERS
A device that generates power is called a prime
mover. On a fishing boat, the most common prime
mover is the diesel engine. All prime movers supply
mechanical power by means of a rotating output shaft.
The power generated is affected by shaft speed. Prime
movers run most efficiently at fixed speeds, and can
best develop their "rated" power and provide a reasonable service life at fixed speeds.

4. TRANSMISSIONS
Generally speaking, the shorter the distance power
is transmitted the more efficient the operation, so it is
desirable to locate the prime mover as close as possible
to the machine. On a fishing boat, however, there are
several reasons why a prime mover may not be mounted
next to the machines it powers. Diesel engines are large
and need protection from the weather. They are unsuitable for mounting on the working deck and other
places where space is limited. Therefore, power often
has to be transmitted some distance to the machinery.
The constant speed of the prime-mover shaft is rarely
what is needed by the machines. The machinery has its
own range of operating speeds and is started and
stopped independently of the prime mover. To accomplish this a transmission is installed between the prime
mover and machine. A transmission may be a simple
clutch that allows the machine to be disconnected from
the prime mover, but normally it is a complex assembly
of components whose purpose is to give the operator
accurate control of the machine's speed.
4.1 Need for Efficient Tranmission
One law of nature is that no device which transmits power is 100% efficient. In other words, when
power from a prime mover is transmitted to a machine,
some power is used to overcome friction within the
transmission and is lost before it reaches the machine.
This lost power is undesirable because: (1) it can cause

LOW HEAT (LOW POWER LOSS)

AN EFFICIENT TRANSMISSION

LOW FRICTION

HIGH HEAT (HIGH POWER LOSS)

op

AN INEFFICIENT TRANSMISSION
ENGINE

TRANSMISSION

MACHINE

3 _1

HIGH FRICTION
FIG.

Effects of transmission efficiency on engine load

1.

DRIVE SHAFT, SPROCKETS, & CHAINS


USE UP VALUABLE SPACE

lt

rt

EXCESSIVE MAINTENANCE REQUIRED

SPEED OF MACHINE CAN ONLY


BE VARIED BY CHANGING ENGINE
SPEED WHICH CAUSES WASTE
OF FUEL

OPEN MECHANICAL DRIVES


ARE A HAZARD TO CREW

FIG.

2.

Disadvantages of mechanical transmissions

the transmission to overheat, and (2) power used to


overcome friction is not available to drive the machine
and is wasted. The prime mover must, therefore,
develop enough power to drive the machine and to
overcome friction within the transmission (Fig. 1).
If transmission losses are low, efficiency is high and
little heat is generated. The prime mover supplies the
power demanded by the machine, plus the power
represented by the losses. If transmission losses are
high, efficiency is low and much heat is generated.
The extra load placed on the prime mover by an
inefficient transmission increases fuel consumption,
causes increased wear to both the prime mover and
transmission, and decreases their useful life.
4.2 Power Transmission Methods
The mechanical power generated by a diesel
engine is unsuitable for many ship's needs and other
forms of power are obtained by converting the mechanical power of the rotating shaft into electric,
pneumatic, and hydraulic power as required. With
these alternative forms of power available, the most
suitable for transmitting power to the deck machinery
may be chosen.
4.2.1 Mechanical Power Transmission A machine
can only use mechanical power and a prime mover
generates mechanical power. If the machine requires
a fixed-speed drive from the prime mover and is positioned near it, mechanical means of transmitting power
to the machine would be the most effective method. If
the prime mover is located some distance from the machine, or if variable machine speed is required, then
the mechanical power transmission becomes a less
suitable method. Belts, chains, and shafts that transmit
power over long distances occupy a great deal of space,
and open drives must be provided with proper guards.
If guards are neglected the driveline becomes a hazard
to ship's personnel. Also, open-type drives usually
require more maintenance. Because of these disadvantages (Fig. 2), alternative methods of power transmission must be considered.
Alternating
4.2.2 Electrical Power Transmission
current (AC) electric power is available on ships for
lighting and for navigation and other equipment. The
advantages of AC electric power are that it can be
conveniently transmitted efficiently and economically
over long distances, and it drives simple and inexpensive, constant speed electric motors, which are used for
many purposes throughout a ship. However, there are
some disadvantages with electric power transmission.
The electric motor must have a special enclosure if
it is to be fitted on deck or in the weather. This
increases its size and sharply increases its price. If
variable speed is required, direct current (DC) power
is needed and this usually necessitates further power

ELECTRIC MOTOR IS
BULKY & NEEDS SPECIAL
PROTECTION

HYDRAULIC MOTOR ALLOWS


MORE WORKING SPACE AND
NEEDS NO SPECIAL PROTECTION

FIG. 3.

Disadvantages of electric drives

conversion with expensive and bulky control equipment. Electrical power transmission, therefore, is not
completely suitable for driving deck machinery (Fig. 3).
4.2.3 Pneumatic Power Transmission
Compressed
air is commonly used on ships. Its big advantage is
that it is not messy and will not contaminate the surroundings. Power can be conveniently transmitted over
reasonably long distances through piping, and actuators
driven by compressed air can be used in hazardous or
wet environments without special protection. The main
disadvantage with compressed air as a power transmission medium is its compressibility. Because of this,
the speed of an air motor or an air cylinder changes
with the load being moved and consequently is very
difficult to control.
4.2.4 Ideal Power Transmission Method From the
foregoing discussion, the method ideally suited to the
transmission of power from prime mover to machine
has the following qualities:
1) It is capable of transmitting power efficiently and
safely over distances comparable with the size of the
vessel.
2) Actuators that convert the transmitted power
back to mechanical power are capable of operating on
deck and in the weather without special protection.
3) Components in the transmission, particularly the
actuators that drive the machines, are small compared
to the amount of power they transmit; i.e. they have
a high power-to-weight ratio.
4) The power transmission system is easily controlled and suitable for variable speed applications.
5) The power transmitting medium is safe to use
and does not contaminate its surroundings.
6) The price is competitive with that of other
methods of power transmission.

Hydraulic Power Transmission The transmission of power by hydraulics is capable of meeting all
the foregoing requirements. When a hydraulic system
is properly designed and installed, power can be piped
to any part of the ship. It can be taken around corners
easily and safely. Standard hydraulic motors, rotary
actuators, and cylinders are suitable for outdoor and
wet operations without special protection. A hydraulic
motor can work at high pressure and may take up as
little as one-sixth the space of an equivalent electric
motor or one-tenth that of an air motor. Hydraulic
cylinders can supply compact, pushpull movement,
and rotary actuators give an oscillating shaft motion.

4.2.5

Part II.

Principles of Hydraulic Power Transmission

1. INTRODUCTION

Transmission of power from a prime mover to


machinery by means of hydraulics can be efficient, safe,
and economical. But what is hydraulics and how does
it work? It means that a liquid transmits power. The
mechanical link between the prime mover and machine
is converted to a hydraulic link, which makes the
transmission of power safer and more controllable.
In effect, liquid replaces the belts, chains, and shafting
that transmit the power mechanically, but to achieve
this the liquid must be handled in certain ways. When
working with hydraulics it is necessary to know something about the special characteristics of a liquid and
the principles that allow practical application.
2. PROPERTIES OF A LIQUID

Liquid is the lifeblood of a hydraulic system and


its special characteristics (properties) make it possible
for a liquid to transmit power hydraulically.
The most obvious property of a liquid is that it is
a fluid and flows easily. This is because the molecules
are not bound together as tightly as in a solid and
slide past each other with little effort. This same
property prevents a liquid from having a shape of its
own and allows it to readily take the shape of a container. A liquid is weak in tension, that is, it cannot be
pulled, so to be of use it has to be pushed and must,
therefore, be completely contained. Laziness is another
important property of a liquid, and it always follows
the path of least resistance. If the liquid is contained
and can be pushed, it is in a suitable condition to
transmit power. It is almost impossible to reduce the
volume of liquid, even when high pressure is applied.
This important property makes hydraulic transmissions
easy to control. Ability to resist a reduction in volume
is called "incompressibility" and although very small
4

Comparable electrical actuators are not practical and


pneumatic actuators are much larger. Hydraulic power
transmissions can be controlled easily and accurately
in a number of ways, either at the transmission or
from a remote location. Variable speed of the actuator
shaft is simple to achieve and control. The powertransmitting medium in a hydraulic system is a liquid
which is harmless provided it is kept inside the system,
and this can be achieved by good engineering design,
and competent installation and maintenance. Finally,
a hydraulic power transmission system is usually smaller and less expensive to purchase and install than its
competitors.

changes in volume do occur, for practical purposes


these can be neglected.
3. HOW POWER IS TRANSMITTED BY
HYDRAULICS

Because liquid is easy to move and difficult to


compress it is useful for transmitting power. Liquid
conforms to the shape of its container and can be
held inside pipes that carry it by the most convenient
route from prime mover to machine. Because its
volume cannot be reduced, liquid pushed into a pipe
at one end will displace the same amount from the
other end. What happens at the prime-mover end is
repeated at the machine end as if they were connected
mechanically. The advantage of the hydraulic linkage
is that it takes little space and does not move. Liquid
flows inside pipes that can be clamped out of the way,
against a ship's structure.
The rotating shaft of a prime mover is not suitable
for pushing liquid into a pipe, and it must be coupled
to a pump, which can be driven by the prime mover
but is specially designed to move liquids. Unlike the
centrifugal pump widely used for low-pressure liquid
circulating systems, the pump used for hydraulic power
transmission is a positive displacement pump. It will
push out a definite or fixed quantity of liquid for each
revolution of the drive shaft.
If the liquid flowing inside the pipe is to do useful
work it must cause some device to move something
that can be driven by the liquid and has an output
shaft to drive the machine. Like the pump, it is a
positive displacement device and is called the actuator.
It can be a cylinder, a motor, or a rotary actuator.
The transmission of power by a liquid consists of
three steps. First, the motion of the prime-mover shaft
is changed to a flowing liquid by a positive displacement pump. Then the liquid is transported through pipes

HYDRAULIC PIPING

PRIME

MACHINE

MOVER

'

1 TANK

LIQUID POWER TRANSMISSION

CONTROL

ELECTRICAL WIRING

PRIME
GENERATOR

MACHINE

MOVER

PISTON AREA 10 in.2


^GROUND

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION

FIG. 4. Similarity between hydraulic


and electric transmissions

FIG. 5.
to the actuator. Finally, the actuator converts the
motion of liquid into a mechanical movement of an
output shaft, which is capable of driving a machine.
The process can be compared to an electric drive
where the pump is equivalent to the generator, the
pipes are equivalent to the electric wiring, and the
actuator does the same thing as an electric motor
(Fig. 4).

4. MEANING OF PRESSURE
The only way to move a liquid is to push on it.
If there is resistance, the liquid is compressed but the
volume will not be reduced. In this condition the liquid
is said to be pressurized. The "pressure" on any fluid
(liquid or gas) always means the compressing force.
Often it is simply given as pounds (lb) but really means
the pounds force on each square inch of area supporting the load and should be given in pounds force
per square inch (psi). In more general terms, pressure
is defined as "the force applied to a unit area."
Imagine a tank containing a liquid and fitted with
a plunger that slides freely inside the walls, but is
sealed to prevent leaking. Such an arrangement is simply a cylinder containing a close-fitting piston. Suppose
the cross-sectional area of the piston is 10 square
inches (10 in.2) and it supports 500 lb. The liquid is
restrained by the walls of the cylinder and cannot
escape past the piston so the liquid must carry the
weight. It will not shrink and supports the weight the
same as a solid. The 500-lb weight is supported on
10 in.2 of oil under the piston. Each square inch will
support 50 lb and pressure in the oil is, therefore,
50 psi. It is important to remember that the pressure
generated in the liquid depends only on the load it has
to support and the area of the piston that supports it
(Fig. 5).

Meaning of pressure

Pressure = load = area of piston


psi = pounds = square inches

5. TRANSMISSION OF PRESSURE
In Fig. 6 a pressure gauge connected into the top
of the piston (point A) indicates 50 psi. What pressure
is indicated at points B and C? They register the same
pressure as gauge A. This is because of another principle of hydraulics: "when a liquid is pressurized, it
exerts the same pressure at all points and in all directions throughout the liquid." This is probably the most
important principle of hydraulics, because it shows
that a contained liquid has the ability to transmit force
and power around corners. The principle of pressure
transmission can be taken a step further if we place a
large chamber next to the cylinder, connect them with
a pipe, and fill the whole assembly with liquid as shown
in Fig. 6. Because nothing has been done to alter
conditions other than change the shape of the container and, because we know that the pressure has the
same value at all points in the liquid, gauges D and E
also indicate 50 psi. The principle of pressure transmission is not affected by liquid depth. It is well known
that pressure at the bottom of a tank is higher than at
the surface, but this difference can be neglected in a
hydraulic system because it is very small in comparison
with the pressures in the system.

6. PRINCIPLE OF HYDRAULIC LEVER


If the top of the large chamber in Fig. 6 is removed and replaced by a piston, the chamber becomes
another hydraulic cylinder (Fig. 7). Imagine that the
area of this large piston is 100 in.2. Then, because

Transmission of pressure

FIG. 6.

10

MECHANICAL
LEVER

5000

500 lb

lb

LS.
PIVOT
50

50

psi

psi

5000

500 lb

lb

Ald

HYDRAULIC LEVER

lOin

Flo.

7.

Hydraulic and mechanical levers

500

AIR VENT ESSENTIAL

lb
50 lb

OIL RESERVOIR
1
10 in. STROKE
I

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

5000 lb

10:1

PUMP
CYLINDER
1 In. STROKE

JACK CYLINDER

FIG.

8.

The hydraulic jack, a basic hydraulic system

pressure everywhere in the system is 50 psi the total


weight the piston can support, or the force it can exert,
will be 50 psi multiplied by 100 in.2 or 5000 lb. This is
10 times as much as the effort applied to the small
piston. We have created a hydraulic lever with a ratio
of 10 to 1 to show that a 500-lb force can support
5000 lb. The ratio of a hydraulic lever depends only
on the area of the large piston compared to the small
one and, unlike a mechanical lever, does not depend
on lengths. The shape and length of the pipe connecting
the two cylinders has no effect on the performance of
the hydraulic lever. To obtain a force magnification
of 10:1 the movement of the small piston must be 10
times the corresponding movement of the large piston.
In Fig. 7, if the large piston has a 1-in. stroke, then the
small piston has a 10-in. stroke, and force has been
exchanged for length of travel to make the job easier.
The big advantage of the hydraulic lever is that large
forces can be developed in a small space with little
effort.

7. HYDRAULIC JACK
This tool is widely used for lifting heavy loads.
It is a good example of the application of mechanical
and hydraulic levers, and a hydraulic ratchet. It is
also a complete hydraulic system because it contains
all necessary ingredients to do a job hydraulically, but
the system's prime mover is a man rather than an
engine (Fig. 8).
7.1 Hydraulic Lever
The hydraulic jack is basically a hydraulic lever
and consists of two cylinders filled with a liquid and
connected by a pipe. The large "jack" cylinder is fitted
with a piston that supports the load, and the small
"pump" cylinder has a piston that is moved up and
down by the operator. When a heavy load is applied to
the large piston, it generates a pressure in the liquid
and a smaller force (usually called the effort) has to be
applied to the pump piston to prevent it from being
pushed out of the cylinder. Under these conditions the
effort balances the load and no movement takes place.
To move the load, liquid must be pushed from the
pump cylinder into the jack cylinder. In the example
of a hydraulic lever (Fig. 7) imagine a ratio of 10:1,
then the pump piston has to travel 10 times as far as
the jack piston. If the ratio is 100:1 then the pump
piston has to travel 100 times that of the load. This
creates problems of size and operating convenience
that limit the advantages of the hydraulic lever. To
overcome these problems, the stroke of the pump
piston is kept very short, usually about. 1 in., and after
each pumping stroke the piston is retracted. This
creates a vacuum in the pumping chamber which pulls

in more liquid from an adjacent reservoir and the


pumping stroke is repeated. Now, if a liquid has no
strength in tension, how can it be pulled into the pump?
In this case, "pull" describes the action of the piston,
not the liquid.
When the piston is pulled, a vacuum is created
in the chamber, the liquid pressure inside drops below
atmospheric pressure, and the atmosphere is then able
to push more liquid into the pump. The reservoir
contains enough liquid to allow the jack piston to complete its full extension and, if the reservoir is tightly
capped, a vacuum develops as the liquid level goes
down. Because nothing other than atmospheric pressure pushes liquid into the pump, the action of the
piston becomes less and less effective until the vacuum
in the reservoir is the same as the vacuum in the pump
and the transfer of liquid stops. The reservoir must,
therefore, not be sealed completely. A small hole in
the lid is sufficient to ensure that atmospheric pressure
is maintained inside the reservoir and the maximum
"push" is always available to fill the pump with liquid.
7.2 Hydraulic Ratchet
When the pumping piston of a hydraulic jack
repeatedly pushes liquid out and then retracts, it can
be called a hydraulic ratchet. If the hydraulic ratchet
is to be effective, the liquid must be prevented from
rushing back from the jack cylinder when the piston
is pulled out of the pump cylinder. A nonreturn valve
is placed in the pipe between the cylinders and this
allows the liquid to flow from the pump cylinder to
the jack cylinder but prevents it from flowing back.
Another nonreturn valve is needed to prevent the
pumping piston from pushing the liquid back into the
reservoir rather than into the jack cylinder. A ratchet
permits motion in only one direction, and to allow the
load to be lowered it is necessary to bypass the ratchet
device. This is done by adding a pipe between the jack
cylinder and reservoir, and putting a valve in the pipe.
When this valve is opened, the load pushes the liquid
back to the reservoir, bypassing the pump cylinder
and nonreturn valves.
7.3 Mechanical Lever
The pump piston must move up and down to push
liquid into the'jack cylinder. It is usually inconvenient
to do this directly, so a mechanical lever with a ratio
of about 10:1 is installed to actuate the pump piston.
This not only makes the hydraulic jack easier to
operate, but also increases its overall ratio 10 times.
In our example, the total ratio would be increased to
100:1, that is a 10:1 mechanical lever and a 10:1
hydraulic lever. The mechanical lever transmits the
smaller forces and the hydraulic lever transmits the
larger forces.

8. BASIC HYDRAULIC POWER TRANSMISSION


SYSTEM

The hydraulic jack is a good example of a


hydraulic power transmission system because it contains the six basic components necessary for all systems.
Only one component is liquid, the others are mechanical components needed to handle the liquid and
make the system work.
1) Liquid is the fundamental component of a hydraulic system.
2) The pump in a hydraulic jack consists of a
manually operated pumping piston and two nonreturn
valves. Normally the pump is required to supply a
continuous flow of liquid and is designed to be driven
by the rotating shaft of the prime mover.
3) The actuator is a jack cylinder and piston. It
converts liquid motion back into mechanical movement, the reverse of what is done by the pump.
4) Controls are necessary to regulate the flow of
liquid to and from the actuator if a hydraulic power
transmission is to be effective. Control of actuator
movement in the hydraulic jack is achieved by the
valve which determines whether the jack cylinder will
hold, lift, or lower the load simply by being open or
closed.
5) The reservoir stores sufficient liquid for fullstroke operation of the actuator, plus that required to
fill all components and a reserve supply.
6) Piping connects the pump to the actuator. All
hydraulic power transmissions need piping to carry
the liquid from one component to the next. Piping is
as important to the hydraulic drive as a chain is to a
chain drive, or the wires to an electric transmission.
9. HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

When a hydraulic jack is operated, liquid is taken


from storage in the reservoir and transferred to the
large jack cylinder where it is stored under pressure.
The liquid level in the reservoir decreases and the jack
cylinder volume increases. As the load is lowered,
the jack cylinder returns the liquid to the reservoir.
In most systems, however, power is transmitted continuously and the pump must draw on an unlimited
supply of liquid or it soon runs dry. Therefore, the
liquid cannot be stored at the actuator as is the case
with the hydraulic jack. It must work on the actuator
then immediately return to the reservoir. In doing so,
it completes a circuit through interconnecting pipes,
from reservoir to pump, pump to actuator, and back
to the reservoir to provide the pump with all the
liquid it needs. The hydraulic circuit is the route the
liquid takes when it is drawn from the reservoir, pressurized and given energy by the engine-driven pump,
gives up this pressure energy at the actuator, and
8

returns to the reservoir at low pressure ready to be


reused.
10. LIQUID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

A liquid is not frictionless and it always takes


some work to make it flow, which means that a pressure is required to make it flow. This pressure is small
but must be applied to force the liquid's molecules to
slide past one another.
Inside a container the liquid tends to cling to the
walls and extra force is needed to shear this bond.
This friction causes resistance to flow, and a liquid has
to be forced through any piping system, even if only
to be discharged to the atmosphere. Least resistance
is generated if flow is smooth (laminar). In this type
of flow the body of liquid slides in layers. The layer
attached to the pipe wall is stationary, but the further
the layer is away from the wall the faster it flows.
However, in a hydraulic system the flow is more likely
to be turbulent. The liquid tumbles along the piping
bore and the layers are broken up, causing additional
resistance. Turbulent flow cannot be eliminated, but it
can be reduced by using smooth bore pipe rather than
rough bore pipe, and by allowing the liquid to flow at
low speed (Fig. 9).
11. PRESSURE DROP

The force, or pressure needed to push the liquid


through a circuit depends on the type of flow and
number of obstructions. The pressure at the pump
discharge is always higher than at the outlet and the
pressure is said to drop as the liquid flows toward the
exit.
"Pressure drop" means the difference in pressure
between any two selected points in a circuit. The greater
the pressure drop needed to force the liquid around the
circuit, the greater the power wasted and heat generated; but this loss occurs only if the liquid is flowing.
If it stops flowing the liquid is then held in a closed

TURBULENT FLOW (UNDESIRABLE)

ZERO SPEED AT PIPE WALL

-=

MAX OIL SPEED AT CENTER

OF PIPE

LAMINAR OR STREAMLINED FLOW (DESIRABLE)

FIG. 9.

Laminar and turbulent flow patterns

container and the pressure will be the same at all


points. However, the pressure drop from the inlet to
outlet ports of an actuator is not wasteful. It is a
measure of the work done by the liquid in making the
shaft of the actuator work. This pressure drop is
generated by the load on the actuator shaft and exists
whether the liquid supply is stationary or flowing. The
USEFUL PRESSURE DROP

two kinds of pressure drop in a hydraulic power transmission circuit can be called "useful" and "wasteful,"
respectively. If the pressure drop is generated by the
system's load it is useful, but if it is needed just to overcome the circuit's resistance to flow it is wasteful and
should be as small as practical (Fig. 10).

WASTEFUL PRESSURE DROP


PRESSURE DROPS AS LIQUID FLOWS
THROUGH PIPING

ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
IF TANK
VENTED

RESISTANCE TO FLOW
CAUSED BY PIPING
& VALVES

0
FiG. 10.

Useful and wasteful pressure drop

REFERENCES
AEROQUIP CORI'ORATION. 1964. Piping fluid power systems. Bull. 770: 18 p.
1970. Guide for routing and installation of flexible hose assemblies. Bull. 5075:
13 P.
1971. Piping leaks, causes and cures. Bull. 5026A: 12 p.
1972. Trouble-shooting hydraulic systems. Bull. 5215: 3 p.

CATERPILLAR TRACTOR COMPANY. 1970. Reservoir design for mobile equipment hydraulic circuits. SAE Sept. meeting. Milwaukee, Wis. Pap. 700722.

DETROIT COIL COMPANY. Undated. What is a solenoid? Ferndale, Mich. Bull. 6 p.


DOWTY HYDRAULIC UNITS , 1970. Modern high performance gear pumps. Cheltenham,
U.K. 24 p.
ENVIRONMENT CANADA. 1971. Hydraulics for small trawlers.Ind. Dey. Rep. 80 p.
1974. Small trawler hydraulic power system. Ind. Dey. Tech. Rep. 79: 9 p.
INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. 1974/75. Fluid power handbook. Cleveland, Ohio.
500 p.
JAMES ROBERTSON LIMITED. 1974. Hydraulic installations. World Fish. Mag. May. 3 p.
JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL (JIC). 1973. Fluid power symbols and standards. McLean,
Va. STD. No. H-1-1973.

PARKER HANNIFIN CORPORATION. 1972. How to achieve reliability in fluid power lines.
Cleveland, Ohio. Bull. FC-1, FC-2.
1973. Fluid power designers handbook. Cleveland, Ohio. 200 p.
1975. Tube fitters manual. Cleveland, Ohio. Bull. 4306-B2: 44 p.
POLYPAC SEALING SYSTEMS. 1972. Common causes of seal failure. Bull. EE-HB-001-72:
67 P.

SHELL OIL, COMI'ANY. 1963. Mineral oils as hydraulic media. London, U.K. 52 p.
SPERRY VICKERS INCORPORATED.
200 p.
1975.

1970. Industrial hydraulics manual. Publ. 935100A:

Stop leaks. Troy, Mich. Form 75-177: 17 p.


TEXACO OIL COMPANY. 1970. Operation and care of hydraulic machinery. Montreal,
Que. 95 p.
TYRONE HYDRAULICS INCORPORATED. Undated. Diagnosing gear pump failures. Corinth,
Miss. 20 p.
1970. Reservoir design as viewed by a pump manufacturer. Corinth, Miss. SAE
Sept. meeting. Milwaukee, Wis. Pap. 700721.
U.S. BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL. Undated. Fluid power. Navpers, Publ. 16193-A:
200 p.
WOMACK EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS. 1973. Fluid power in plant and field. Dallas, Tex.
176 p.

10

Hydraulics Manual for Fishermen


Booklet 1

Part I:
Part II.

Deck Machinery, Prime'Movers, and Transmissions


Principles of Hydraulic Power Transmission

Booklet 2

Power Transmission Components

Booklet 3

Oil-Conditioning Components

Booklet 4

Part I.

Hydraulic Power Transmission Standards and Symbols

Part II.

System Design

Booklet 5

Installation of Hydraulic Power Transmission Systems

Booklet 6

Hydraulic Power Transmission Maintenance and


Troubleshooting

^, Fist er es and Envtronment


Canada

PecheS et Environnement
Canada