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You are on page 1of 14

from generating units to the distribution system which suplies the

load

Inductance: Due to the magnetic field around the conductor

Capacitance: Due to the electric field around the conductor

Conductance: Due to the leakage current flowing across insulators and ionized pathways in the air.

It is mostly negligible.

Ref:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Electricity_grid_simple-_North_America.svg

2/26/2014

Communication (optional)

Ground-wire(s)

Or

Shield wires

insulator

Phase conductor

Steel tower

Or

Wood, or

Reinforced concrete

Single-circuit

Double-circuit

3

2/26/2014

Conductor Types

Copper

Cons

Cost

Weight

Aluminium

Pros

Lower cost

Lower weight

strong

Less tendency to ionize air which

produces undesirable effect corona

AAC: all-aluminium conductors

AAAC: all-aluminium-alloy-conductor

ACSR: aluminium conductor steel reinforced

ACAR: aluminium conductor alloy reinforced

ACSR

Steel

Aluminium

Lower

7 steel strands and 24 Al. strands

2/26/2014

line, showing 7 strands of steel surrounded by 4

layers of aluminum

Photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium-conductor_steel-reinforced_cable 7

Line Resistance:

Line resistance is the most important cause of power loss in transmission lines

Effective resistance is

Powerloss

DC resistance

Watts

RMS-current

Resistivity (m)

R0

l

A

Length (m)

2/26/2014

DC resistance of stranded conductors is greater than the value computed by the equation of R.

Because spiraling of the strands makes them longer than the conductor itself.

AC resistance and DC resistance are not equal because of skin effect.

The AC resistance is about 2 % greater than the DC resistance at 60 Hz.

Practically temperature versus resistance shows linear characteristics

Because of this situations the AC and DC resistance of the conductor are best determinedfrom

the manufacturers data.

temperature

t2

R2 T t2

R1 T t1

t1

AC resistance

R1 R2

For example T=228 for Al

http://www.nehringwire.com/aluminum/bare-aluminum-and-acsr/acsr-aluminum-conductor-steel-reinforced

http://www.midalcable.com/sites/default/files/ACSR-metric.PDF

http://www.sural.com/products/catalog/bare/Bare_ACSR.pdf

http://4sproducts.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/AAC_aluminum_conductors.3.pdf

10

2/26/2014

Conductor code

(Bird Names)

11

Ref: http://4sproducts.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/AAC_aluminum_conductors.3.pdf

L1 2 x107 ln

r2 ' r2 e 0.25

D

H/m

r1 '

L2 2 x107 ln

Inductance of circuit

due to current I1

D

H/m

r2 '

Inductance of circuit

due to current I2

L L1 L2 4 x107 ln

D

H/m

r1 ' r2 '

in Henry (H)

12

2/26/2014

Composite: Stranded conductors come under the general classification

of two or more elements or strands electrically in parallel

Consider the two groups of conductors shown in the figure. Of these two

groups conductor x contains n identical strands of radius rx while

conductor y contains m identical strands of radius ry . Conductor x carries a

current I the return path of which is through conductor y. Therefore the current

through conductor y is - I .

13

Lx 2 x107 ln

Dm

H/m

Ds

Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) X X

L y 2 x107 ln

Dm

Ds

H/m

Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) Y Y

L L1 L2

H/m

14

2/26/2014

Dm 20 Daa ' Dab' Dac ' Dam Dba' Dbb' Dbc ' Dbm Dca' Dcb' Dcc' Dcm Dda' Ddb' Ddc' Ddm Dna' Dnb' Dnc' Dnm

Dm 20 Da'a Da'b Da 'c Da'd Da 'n Db'a Db'b Db'c Db'd Db'n Dc'a Dc'b Dc'c Dc'd Dc'n Dma Dmb Dmc Dmd Dmn

Where Dpq is the distance between the center of wire p to that of wire q

15

Dm 25 Daa Dab Dac Dad Dan Dba Dbb Dbc Dbd Dbn Dca Dcb Dcc Dcd Dcn ...

...Dda Ddb Ddc Ddd Ddn Dna Dnb Dnc Dnd Dnn

Calculation of Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) Y Y

Dm 16 Da'a' Da'b' Da 'c' Da'm Db'a' Db'b' Db'c' Db'm Dc'a' Dc'b' Dc'c ' Dc'm Dma' Dmb' Dmc' Dmm

Where Dpq is the distance between the center of wire p to that of wire q

16

2/26/2014

La Lb Lc 2 x107 ln

D

H/m

Ds

Because of symmetry

inductance of each phase is equal to each other

Ds is GMR of the each phase

17

La 2 x10 7 ln

Deq

Ds

H/m

Because of symmetry

inductance of each phase is equal to each other

Dab

Dbc

Dac

3

18

2/26/2014

Transmission line conductors exhibit capacitance wrt each

other due to the potential difference between them.

The amount of capacitance between conductors is a

function of conductor size, spacing, and height above the

ground.

For transmission lines with length < 80 km, capacitance

can be neglected.

A

C Rk

d

k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m

eR is the relative permittivity of the dielectric material

d is the distance between parallel plates (m)

Figure: http://www.calctool.org/CALC/eng/electronics/parallel_plate.png

19

rb

ra

D

Cab

2k

D2

ln

ra rb

k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m

D is the distance between the centers of the conductors (m)

rx is the radius of conductor x (m)

20

10

2/26/2014

rb

ra

D

Can Cn

2k

D

ln

ra

Cbn Cn

k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m

D is the distance between the centers of the conductors (m)

rx is the radius of conductor x (m)

2k

D

ln

rb

21

Cn

2k

D

ln

r

with equilateral spacing

k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m

D is the distance between the centers of the conductors (m)

rx is the radius of conductor x (m)

22

11

2/26/2014

Cn

Dab

Dbc

2k

D

ln eq

r

Dac

k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m

Deq is the equivalent distance (m)

r is the radius of the conductor (m)

23

A

d

2r

Two-strand bundle

Cn

2k

D

ln eq

rd

k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m

Deq is the equivalent distance (m)

r is the radius of the conductor (m)

d is the bundle distance (m)

24

12

2/26/2014

25

26

13

2/26/2014

End of Chapter 4

27

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