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Chapter 4: Transmission Line Parameters

The purpose of transmission network is to transfer electrical energy


from generating units to the distribution system which suplies the
load

Resistance: Due to the heating of lines


Inductance: Due to the magnetic field around the conductor
Capacitance: Due to the electric field around the conductor
Conductance: Due to the leakage current flowing across insulators and ionized pathways in the air.
It is mostly negligible.
Ref:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Electricity_grid_simple-_North_America.svg

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Communication (optional)
Ground-wire(s)
Or
Shield wires

insulator
Phase conductor

Steel tower
Or
Wood, or
Reinforced concrete
Single-circuit

Double-circuit
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Conductor Types

Copper
Cons
Cost
Weight

Aluminium
Pros
Lower cost
Lower weight
strong
Less tendency to ionize air which
produces undesirable effect corona

Some Al. Conductors


AAC: all-aluminium conductors
AAAC: all-aluminium-alloy-conductor
ACSR: aluminium conductor steel reinforced
ACAR: aluminium conductor alloy reinforced

ACSR

Steel

Aluminium

Lower

Cross-sectional of a steel reinforced conductor with


7 steel strands and 24 Al. strands

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Sample cross-section of high tension power (pylon)


line, showing 7 strands of steel surrounded by 4
layers of aluminum

Photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium-conductor_steel-reinforced_cable 7

Line Resistance:
Line resistance is the most important cause of power loss in transmission lines

Effective resistance is

Powerloss

DC resistance

Effective resistance = DC resistance


Watts
RMS-current

Resistivity (m)

R0

l
A

= 1.77 x 10-8 m for Copper at 20 C

= 2.83 x 10-8 m for Al at 20 C

Length (m)

Cross-sectional area (m2)

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DC resistance of stranded conductors is greater than the value computed by the equation of R.
Because spiraling of the strands makes them longer than the conductor itself.
AC resistance and DC resistance are not equal because of skin effect.
The AC resistance is about 2 % greater than the DC resistance at 60 Hz.
Practically temperature versus resistance shows linear characteristics
Because of this situations the AC and DC resistance of the conductor are best determinedfrom
the manufacturers data.
temperature

t2

R2 T t2

R1 T t1

t1
AC resistance

R1 R2

T: constant for the conductor


For example T=228 for Al

Examples for Manufacturers Data:

http://www.nehringwire.com/aluminum/bare-aluminum-and-acsr/acsr-aluminum-conductor-steel-reinforced

http://www.midalcable.com/sites/default/files/ACSR-metric.PDF

http://www.sural.com/products/catalog/bare/Bare_ACSR.pdf

http://4sproducts.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/AAC_aluminum_conductors.3.pdf

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Conductor code
(Bird Names)

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Ref: http://4sproducts.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/AAC_aluminum_conductors.3.pdf

Inductance of Single-Phase Two-Wire Line

r1 ' r1e 0.25

L1 2 x107 ln

r2 ' r2 e 0.25

D
H/m
r1 '

L2 2 x107 ln

Inductance of circuit
due to current I1

D
H/m
r2 '

Inductance of circuit
due to current I2

L L1 L2 4 x107 ln

D
H/m
r1 ' r2 '

Total inductance of the circuit


in Henry (H)
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Inductance of Composite Conductor Lines in Single-phase Systems


Composite: Stranded conductors come under the general classification
of two or more elements or strands electrically in parallel

Consider the two groups of conductors shown in the figure. Of these two
groups conductor x contains n identical strands of radius rx while
conductor y contains m identical strands of radius ry . Conductor x carries a
current I the return path of which is through conductor y. Therefore the current
through conductor y is - I .
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Lx 2 x107 ln

Dm
H/m
Ds

Inductance of conductor x (due to current in conductor x only)

Dm: Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) X Y


Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) X X

L y 2 x107 ln

Dm
Ds

H/m

Inductance of conductor y (due to current in conductor y only)

Dm: Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) Y X


Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) Y Y

L L1 L2

H/m

Inductance of the composite single-phase line


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Calculation of Dm: Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) X Y

Dm 20 Daa ' Dab' Dac ' Dam Dba' Dbb' Dbc ' Dbm Dca' Dcb' Dcc' Dcm Dda' Ddb' Ddc' Ddm Dna' Dnb' Dnc' Dnm

Calculation of Dm: Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) Y X

Dm 20 Da'a Da'b Da 'c Da'd Da 'n Db'a Db'b Db'c Db'd Db'n Dc'a Dc'b Dc'c Dc'd Dc'n Dma Dmb Dmc Dmd Dmn
Where Dpq is the distance between the center of wire p to that of wire q
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Calculation of Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) X X

Dm 25 Daa Dab Dac Dad Dan Dba Dbb Dbc Dbd Dbn Dca Dcb Dcc Dcd Dcn ...
...Dda Ddb Ddc Ddd Ddn Dna Dnb Dnc Dnd Dnn
Calculation of Ds: Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) Y Y

Dm 16 Da'a' Da'b' Da 'c' Da'm Db'a' Db'b' Db'c' Db'm Dc'a' Dc'b' Dc'c ' Dc'm Dma' Dmb' Dmc' Dmm
Where Dpq is the distance between the center of wire p to that of wire q
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Inductance of Three-Phase Line with Symmetrical Spacing


La Lb Lc 2 x107 ln

D
H/m
Ds

Because of symmetry
inductance of each phase is equal to each other

D is distance between phases


Ds is GMR of the each phase

Ds 9 Daa Dab Dac Dba Dbb Dbc Dca Dcb Dcc

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Inductance of Three-Phase Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing


La 2 x10 7 ln

Deq
Ds

H/m

Because of symmetry
inductance of each phase is equal to each other

Deq is the GMD of the line

Dab

Dbc

Dac

Deq D12 D23 D31


3

Ds is GMR of the each phase

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Capacitance of Transmission Lines


Transmission line conductors exhibit capacitance wrt each
other due to the potential difference between them.
The amount of capacitance between conductors is a
function of conductor size, spacing, and height above the
ground.
For transmission lines with length < 80 km, capacitance
can be neglected.

A
C Rk
d

C is the capacitance of the parallel plates (F)


k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m
eR is the relative permittivity of the dielectric material
d is the distance between parallel plates (m)

Figure: http://www.calctool.org/CALC/eng/electronics/parallel_plate.png

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Capacitance of a Single-Phase Two-Wire Line


rb

ra
D

Cab

2k
D2

ln
ra rb

Cab is the capacitance between conductors (F/m)


k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m
D is the distance between the centers of the conductors (m)
rx is the radius of conductor x (m)

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rb

ra
D

Can Cn

2k
D
ln
ra

Cbn Cn

Cn is the capacitance to ground (neutral) (F/m)


k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m
D is the distance between the centers of the conductors (m)
rx is the radius of conductor x (m)

2k
D
ln
rb
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Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line with Symmetrical Spacing

Cn

2k
D
ln
r

Cross-sectional view of a three-phase line


with equilateral spacing

Cn is the capacitance to ground (neutral) (F/m)


k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m
D is the distance between the centers of the conductors (m)
rx is the radius of conductor x (m)
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Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line with Unsymmetrical Spacing

Cn
Dab

Dbc

2k
D
ln eq
r

Deq 3 Dab Dbc Dac


Dac

Cn is the capacitance to ground (neutral) (F/m)


k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m
Deq is the equivalent distance (m)
r is the radius of the conductor (m)
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Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line with Bundled Conductors

A
d

2r

Two-strand bundle

Cross-sectional view of a bundled conductor three-phase line

Cn

2k
D
ln eq
rd

Deq 3 DAB DBC DAC

Cn is the capacitance to ground (neutral) (F/m)


k is permittivity of free space = 8.854x10-12 F/m
Deq is the equivalent distance (m)
r is the radius of the conductor (m)
d is the bundle distance (m)
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End of Chapter 4

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