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LESSON PACKAGE

2004 Edition

Jugend
Dritte
Welt

Professional Training for Marginalized Youth in Southern Philippines - Project No. 410-900/158 EG 176

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY
LEVEL 1

SECTIONING
TITLE

Salesians of St. Don Bosco (FIS)


Don Bosco Polytechnic Project
College Building, Don Bosco Technology Center
Pleasant Homes Subdivision, Punta Princesa
6000 Cebu City, Philippines, P.O. Box 271
Tel. No. (00 63 32) 2731127, 2731128 loc 125
Fax No. (00 63 32) 273-1978
Email: polytechnic@cvis.net.ph
A project funded by the
Katholische Zentralstelle fr Entwicklungshilfe e.V. (through EU grant)
Bischfliches Hilfswerk Misereor e.V.
Jugend Dritte Welt e.V.

Lesson Package 1

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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ISOMETRIC DRAWING

Rev. No/Date: 16-Oct-04

I. INSTRUCTORS GUIDE
A. PERFORMANCE STANDARD:
The students will learn to visualize the objects that are frequently confronted
with more or less complicated interiors by means of sectional-view drawings.
This knowledge includes the drawing of objects in full-section, half-section, and
other types of sectioning. The student also learns the use of conventional
breaks and partial views.

B. DEMANDS:
After completing this lesson package the student will be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Define what is a section.


Explain what is sectioning.
Determine the purpose of sectioning.
Differentiate the types of sectioning.
Determine the typical plane lines used in sectioning.
Identify the different types of sectioning symbols used in sectional
drawing.
7. Select the proper type of sectioning symbol used in section lining.
8. Determine the technique of section lining.
9. Determine the proper direction of section line in a sectional drawing.
10. Identify the proper position of cutting plane in sectioning an object.
11. Determine the correct relation between cutting-plane lines and its
corresponding sectional views.
12. Visualize a section.
13. Identify the full section.
14. Describe the method of constructing a full section.
15. Draw the full section of particular objects.
16. Identify the half section.
17. Describe the method of constructing a half section.
18. Draw the half section of particular objects.
19. Determine the broken-out section.
20. Explain the significance of constructing a broken-out section.
21. Draw the broken-out section of particular objects.
22. Identify the different types of conventional breaks.
23. Explain the use of conventional breaks.
24. Draw objects with conventional breaks.
25. Identify and describe the phantom (ghost) section.
26. Explain the use of phantom (ghost) sectioning.
27. Draw the phantom (ghost) section of particular objects.

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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ISOMETRIC DRAWING

Rev. No/Date: 16-Oct-04

28. Identify and describe the revolved section.


29. Determine the use of the revolved sectioning.
30. Draw the revolved section of particular objects.
31. Identify and explain the removed sectioning.
32. Draw the removed section of particular objects.
33. Identify and describe an offset section.
34. Explain the use of an offset sectioning.
35. Draw an offset section of particular objects.
36. Identify and describe an aligned section.
37. Explain and demonstrate the method of drawing an aligned section.
38. Draw the aligned section of particular objects.
39. Explain the method of sectioning of ribs and webs.
40. Draw the sections of particular ribs and webs.
41. Explain the use of partial views in sectioning.
42. Draw examples of partial views of particular objects.
43. Explain the method of drawing a section of intersecting objects.
44. Draw the section of intersecting objects.
45. Identify the parts of objects that are not to be drawn in section.
46. Explain why the standard parts are not to be drawn in section.
47. Explain the method of sectioning assemblies.
48. Draw examples of sectioned assemblies.

C. ACTIVITIES:
STEPS

STUDENTS ACTIVITY

TEACHERS
SUPPORTING
ACTIVITY

Read thoroughly the


information provided
in this lesson
package. Asking for
further questions and
clarifications.

Assist the students as


they go over the
information provided.
Explain important points
if necessary.

Perform the activity


according to the
teachers instruction.

Demonstrate the
procedures / methods of
full section, half section,
broken-out section,
conventional breaks,
phantom section,
revolved section,
As the project
removed section, offset
requires
section, aligned section,
sectioning of webs and
ribs, partial views,
sectioning of intersecting
objects and sectioning of
assemblies.

TIME ALOTTED

According to
students level of
understanding.

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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ISOMETRIC DRAWING

Rev. No/Date: 16-Oct-04

Perform the exercises


given

Give exercises on all


sectioning topics.

Submission of
exercises for checking

Recheck student output

Perform other
necessary exercises.
Redo project /
exercise if needed.

Direct students to
another exercise.

As the project
requires

Taking down
necessary notes while
doing the activities.

Giving of further inputs


while the students do
their activities / while the
other students ask for
further clarifications.

According to
students
performance

45 minutes per
exercise
Depending on
students output /
performance

D. MATERIALS/TOOLS NEEDED:

Mechanical pencil
45 x 45 triangle
30 x 60 triangle
Eraser
Masking tape
Short bond papers
Erasing shield
Compass
Ellipse template
Orthographic drawings (exercises)

E. REMARKS:
Before taking up the topic, the student must have an idea of a multiview
projection. He must be able to understand the method of projecting objects from
isometric point of view into three-dimensional drawings (orthographic
projection).

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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SECTIONING

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

II. STUDENTS GUIDE


A. PERFORMANCE STANDARD:
The students will learn to visualize the objects that are frequently confronted
with more or less complicated interiors by means of sectional-view drawings.
This knowledge includes the drawing of objects in full-section, half-section, and
other types of sectioning. The student also learns the use of conventional
breaks and partial views.

B. INFORMATION:
The standard orthographic view that show all hidden lines may not
effectively reveal the true details of an object. Using a technique of cutting
away part of the object and looking at the cross-sectional view can often
improve this shortcoming. Such a cutaway view is called a section.
A section is shown pictorially in figure 1, where an imaginary cutting plane is
passed through the object in order to show its internal features. The front view
has been converted to a full section, at C, and the cut portion is crosshatched
or section-lined. Hidden lines had been omitted since they are not needed. The
cutting plane is drawn in the top view as a heavy line with short dashes at
intervals; this can be thought of as a knife-edge cutting through the object.
By referring to the top view and the front sectional view, you have no hidden
lines to interpret, and you can understand the cross-sectional view of the object
more easily.
Two types of cutting planes are shown in figure 2. Either is acceptable,
although the upper example is more commonly used. The spacing of the
dashes depends upon the size of the drawing. The weight of the cutting plane
is the same as that of the visible object line. Letters can be placed at each end
of the cutting plane to label the sectional view, such as Section B-B, wherever it
is drawn.
The three basic views that may appear as sections are shown in figure 3
with their respective cutting planes. Each cutting plane has perpendicular
arrows with the ends pointing in the direction of the line of sight of the section.
For example, the cutting plane at A passes through the top view, the top of the
front view is removed, and the line of sight is toward the remaining portion of
the top view. The top view will appear as a section when the cutting plane
passes through the front view and the line of sight is downward (B). When the
cutting plane passes through the front view (C), the right-side view will be a
section.

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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SECTIONING

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 1. A comparison of a regular orthographic view with a full-section view


of the same object, showing the internal features as well as the external
features.

Figure 2. Typical plane lines used to represent sections. The cutting planes
marked B-B will produce a section that will be labeled Section B-B.

Figure 3. The three standard positions of cutting planes that pass through
given views in the front, top, and side views. The arrow point in the direction
of the line of sight for each section.

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LINES IN SECTIONING
A correct front view and sectional view are shown in figure 4 (a) and (b). In
general, all visible edges and contours behind the cutting plane should be
shown; otherwise a section will appear to be made up of disconnected and
unrelated parts, as shown in (c). Occasionally, however, visible lines behind the
cutting plane are not necessary for clearness and should be omitted.
Sections are used primarily to replace hidden-line representation; hence, as
a rule, hidden lines should be omitted in sectional views. As shown in figure
4(d), the hidden lines do not clarify the drawing, they tend to confuse, and they
take unnecessary time to draw. Sometimes, hidden lines are necessary for
clearness and should be used in such cases, especially if their use will make it
possible to omit a view, figure 5.
A section-lined area is always completely bounded by visible outline never
by a hidden line as in figure 4(e), since in every case the cut surfaces and their
boundary lines will be visible. Also, a visible line can never cut across a
section-lined area.
In a sectional view of a part, alone or in assembly, the section lines in all
sectioned areas must be parallel, not as shown in figure 4(f). The use of
section lining in opposite directions is an indication of different parts, as when
two or more parts are adjacent in an assembly drawing, figure 6.

Figure 4. Lines in sectioning

Figure 5. Hidden Lines in Sections

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SECTIONING

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 6. Section Lining (Full Size)

SECTIONING SYMBOLS
Symbolic section-lining symbols, figure 7, have been used to indicate the
material to be used in producing the object. These symbols represented the
general types only, such as cast-iron, brass and steel. Now, however, there are
so many different materials, and each general type has so many subtypes, that
a general name or symbol is not enough. For example, there are hundreds of
different kinds of steel alone. Since detailed specifications of material must be
lettered in a form of a note or in the title strip, the general-purpose (cast-iron)
section lining is used for all materials on detailed drawings (single parts).
Symbolic section lining may be used in assembly drawings in cases where it
is desirable to distinguish the different materials; otherwise, the generalpurpose symbol is used for all parts.
The correct method of drawing section lines is shown in figure 8. Draw the
section line with a sharp medium-grade pencil (H or 2H) with a conical point.
Always draw the lines at 45 with horizontal as shown unless there is some
advantage in using a different angle. Space the section lines as uniformly as
possible by eye from about approximately 1.5 mm (1/16) to 3 mm (1/8) or
more apart, depending on the size of the drawing or of the sectioned area. For
average drawings, space the lines about 2.5 mm (3/32) or more apart. As a
rule, space the lines as generously as possible and yet close enough to
distinguish clearly the sectioned areas.
After the first few lines have been drawn, look back repeatedly at the original
spacing to avoid gradually increasing or decreasing of intervals, figure 8(b).
Beginners almost invariably draw section lines too close together, (c). This is
very tedious because with small spacing the least in accuracy in spacing is
conspicuous.
Section lines should be uniformly thin, never varying in thickness, as in (d).
There should be a marked contrast in thickness of visible outlines and the
section lines. Section lines should not be too thick, as in (e). Also avoid running
section lines beyond the visible outlines or stopping the liners too short, as in
(f).

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

If section lines drawn at 45 at horizontal would be parallel or perpendicular


(or nearly so) to a prominent visible outline, the angle should be changed to
30, 60, or some other angle, figure 9.
Dimensions should be kept off sectioned areas, but when this is
unavoidable, the section lines should be omitted where dimensioning figure is
placed. See figure 10.

Figure 7. Symbols for Section Lining

Figure 8. Section-Lining Technique

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 9. Direction of Section Lines

Figure 10. Dimensions and Section Lines. Metric.

THE CUTTING PLANE


The cutting plane is indicated in a view adjacent to the sectional view, figure
11. In this view, the cutting plane appears edgewise, as a line called the
cutting-plane line. Alternate styles of cutting plane lines are shown in figure 2.
The first form, (a), composed of equal dashes each about 6 mm (1/4) or more
long plus the arrow heads, is the standard in the automotive industry. This form
without the dashes between the ends is especially desirable on complicated
drawing. The form shown in (b), composed of long alternate dashes and pairs
of short dashes plus the arrowheads, has been in general use for a long time.
Both lines are drawn the same thickness as visible lines. Arrowheads indicate
the direction in which the cutaway object is viewed.
Capital letters are used at the ends of the cutting plane line when necessary
to identify the cutting-plane line with the indicated section. This most often
occurs in the case of multiple sections, figure 34, or removed sections, figure
30.

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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SECTIONING

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 11. Cutting Planes and Sections

As shown in figure 11, sectional views occupy normal projected positions in


the standard arrangement of views. At (a) the cutting plane is a frontal plane
and appears as a line in the top view. The front half of the object (lower half in
the top view) is imagined removed. The arrow at the ends of the cutting-plane
line point in the direction of sight for a front view, that is, away from the front
view or section. Note that the arrows do not point in the direction of withdrawal
of the removed portion. The resulting full section may be referred to as front
view in section, since it occupies the front view position.
In figure 11(b), the cutting plane is a horizontal plane and appears as a line
in the front view. The upper half of the object is imagined removed. The arrows
point toward the lower half in the same direction of sight as for a top view, and
the resulting full section is a top view in section.
In figure 11(c), two cutting planes are shown, one a frontal plane and the
other a profile plane, both of which appear edgewise in the top view. Each
section is completely independent of the other and drawn as if the other were
not present. For section A-A, the front half of the object is imagined removed.
The back half is then viewed in the direction of arrows for a front view, and the
resulting section is a front view in section. For section B-B, the right half of the
object is imagined removed. The left half is then viewed in the direction of the
arrows for a right-side view, and the resulting section is right-side view in
section. The cutting-plane lines are preferably drawn through an exterior view,
in this case the top view, as shown, instead of a sectional view.
The cutting-plane lines in figure 11 are shown for purposes of illustration
only. They are generally omitted in cases such as these, in which the location
of the cutting plane is obvious. When a cutting-plane line coincides with a
center line, the cutting-plane line precedence.

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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SECTIONING

Correct and incorrect relations between cutting-plane


corresponding sectional views are shown in figure 12.

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

lines

and

Figure 12. Cutting Planes and Sections

VISUALIZING A SECTION
Two views of an object to be sectioned, having a drilled and counterbored
hole, are shown in figure 13. The cutting plane is assumed along the horizontal
center line in the top view, and the front half of the object (lower half of the top
view) is imagined removed. A pictorial drawing of the remaining back half is
shown at (b). The two cut surfaces produced by the cutting plane are 1-2-5-610-9 and 3-4-12-11-7-8. However, the corresponding section at (c) is
incomplete because certain visible lines are missing.
If the section is viewed in the direction of sight, as shown at (b), arcs A, B, C,
and D will be visible. As shown at (d), these arcs will appear as straight lines 23, 6-7, 5-8, and 10-11. These lines may also be accounted for in other ways.
The top and bottom surfaces of the object appear in the section in line 5-8.
Also, the semi-cylindrical for the back half of the counterbore and of the drilled
hole will appear as rectangles in the section at 2-3-8-5 and 6-7-11-10.

Figure 13. Visualizing a Section

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 1

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

The front and top views of a Collar are shown in figure 14(a), and a
right-side view in full section is required. The cutting plane is understood to
pass along the center lines AD and EL. If the cutting plane were drawn, the
arrows would point to the left in conformity with the direction of sight (see
arrow) for the right-side view. The right side of the object is imagined removed,
and the left half will be viewed in the direction of the arrow, as shown pictorially
at (d). The cut surfaces will appear edgewise in the top and front views along
AD and EL; and since the direction of sight for the section is at right angles to
them, they will appear in true size and shape in the sectional view. Each
sectioned area will be completely enclosed by a boundary of visible lines. The
sectional view will show, in addition to the cut surfaces, all visible parts behind
the cutting plane. Ho hidden lines will be shown.
Whenever a surface of the object (plane of cylindrical) appears as a line
and is intersected by a cutting plane that also appears as a line, a new edge
(line of intersection) is created that will appear as a point in that view. Thus, in
the front view, the cutting plane creates new edges appearing as points at E, F,
G, H, J, K, and L. in the sectional view, (b), these are horizontal lines 31-32,
33-34, 35-36, 37-38, 39-40, 41-42, and 43-44.
Whenever a surface of the object appears as a surface (that is, not as a
line) and is cut by a cutting plane that appears as a line, a new edge is created
that will appear as a line in the view, coinciding with the cutting-plane line, and
as a line in the section.
In the top view, D is the point view of a vertical line KL in the front view
and 41-43 in the section at (b). Point C is the point view of the vertical line HJ
in the front view and 37-39 in the section. Point B is the point view of two
vertical lines EF and GH in the front view, and 31-33 and 35-38 in the section.
Point A is the point view of three vertical lines EF, GJ, and KL in the front view,
and 32-34, 36-40, and 42-44 in the section. This completes the boundaries of
three sectioned areas 31-332-34-33, 35-36-40-39-37-38, and 41-42-44-43. It is
only necessary now to add the visible lines beyond the cutting plane.
The semi-cylindrical left half F-21-G of the small hole (front view) will be
visible as a rectangle in the sections at 33-34-36-35, as shown at (c). The two
semi-circular arcs will appear as straight lines in the section at 33-35 and 3436.
Surface 24-27, appearing as a line in the front view, appears as line 1116 in the top view and as surface 45-37-47-46, true size, in the section at (c).
Cylindrical surface J-29-K, appearing as an arc in the front view,
appears in the top view as 2-A-C-11-16-15, and in the section as 46-47-39-4042-41. Thus, arc 27-29-K (front view) appears in the section, (c), as straight
lines 46-41; and arc J-29-K appears as straight line 40-42.
All cut surfaces here are part of the same object; hence, the section lines must
all run in the same direction, as shown.

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 14. Drawing a Full Section

FULL SECTION
A full section is a sectional view formed by passing a cutting plane
completely through an object and removing half of it to give a view of its
internal features.
The sectional view obtained by passing the cutting plane fully through the
object is called a full section, figure 15. A comparison of this a sectional view
with the left-side view, (a), emphasizes the advantage in clearness of the
former. The left-side view would naturally be omitted. In the front view, the
cutting plane appears as a line, called a cutting-plane line. The arrows at the
ends of the cutting-plane line indicate the direction of sight for the sectional
view.
Note that in order to obtain the sectional view, the right half is only imagined
to be removed and not actually shown removed anywhere except in the
sectional view itself. In the sectional view, the section-lined areas are those
portions that have been in actual contact with the cutting plane. Those areas
are crosshatched with thin parallel section lines spaced carefully by eye. In
addition, the visible parts behind the cutting plane are shown but not
crosshatched.

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

As a rule, the location of the cutting plane is obvious from the section itself,
and, therefore, the cutting-plane line is omitted.

Figure 15. Full Section

HALF SECTION
A half section is a view that results from passing a cutting plane halfway
through an object, removing a quarter of it.
If the cutting plane passes halfway through the object, the result is a half
section, figure 16. A half section has the advantage of exposing the interior of
one half of the object and retaining the exterior of the other half. Its usefulness
is, therefore, largely limited to symmetrical objects. It is not widely used in
detailed drawings (single parts) because of its limitation of symmetry and also
because of difficulties in dimensioning internal shapes that are shown in part
only in the sectioned half, figure16 (b).
In general, hidden lines should be omitted from both halves of a half section.
However, they may be used in the un-sectioned half if necessary for
dimensioning.
The greatest usefulness of the half section is in assembly drawing, figure 45,
in which it is necessary to show both of the internal and external construction
on the same view, but without the necessity of dimensioning.
As shown in figure 16(b), a center line is used to separate the halves of the
half section. The American National Standards Institute recommends a center
line for the division line between the sectioned half and the un-sectioned half of
a half-sectional view, although in some cases the same overlap of the exterior
portion, as in broken-out section, is preferred. See figure 44(b). Either form is
acceptable.

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 16. Half Section

BROKEN-OUT SECTIONS
A broken-out section is a convenient method used to show interior features
without drawing a separate view as a section.
It often happens that only a partial section of a view is needed to expose
interior shapes. Such a section, limited by break line is called a broken-out
section. In figure 17, a full or half section is not necessary; a small broken-out
section is being sufficient to explain the construction.
A portion of part in figure 18 is broken-out to reveal the details of the wall
thickness to better explain the drawing. This reduces the need for hidden lines,
which may then be omitted if desired.
Figure 19 is similar example of a broken-out section where hidden lines are
given. The irregular lines that are used to represent the break are called
conventional breaks.

Figure 17. Broken-Out Sections

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 18. A broken-out section is used to show an internal feature by using


a conventional break.

Figure 19. A broken-out section that shows a section through the boss at the
top of a collar

CONVENTIONAL BREAKS
Some of the previous examples have used conventional breaks to indicate
that parts of an object have been removed. Examples of conventional breaks
are illustrated in figure 20.
One use of conventional breaks is to shorten a long piece of elongated
objects that has a uniform cross-section. For example, the two views of a
garden rake are shown in figure 21(a), drawn to a small scale to get it into
paper. At (b) the handle was broken, a long central portion is removed, and
the rake then drawn to a larger scale, producing a much clearer delineation.
Parts thus broken must have the same section throughout, or if tapered they
must have uniform taper. Note at (b) the full-length dimension is given, just as if
the entire rake were shown.

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

The breaks used in cylindrical shaft or tubes are often referred to as Sbreaks and in the industrial drafting room are usually drawn entirely freehand
or partly freehand and partly with the irregular curve or the compass. By these
methods, the result is often very crude, especially when attempted by
beginners. Simple methods of construction for use by the student or the
industrial drafter are shown in figures 22 and 23 and will always produce a
professional result. Excellent S-breaks are also obtained with an S-break
template.
Breaks for rectangular metal and wood sections are always drawn freehand,
as shown in figure 20. See also figure 24, which illustrates the use of breaks in
connection with the revolved sections.

Figure 20. Conventional Breaks

Figure 21. Use of Conventional Breaks

Figure 22. Steps in Drawing S-Break for Solid Shaft

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Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 23. Steps in Drawing S-Breaks for Tubing

Figure 24. Conventional Breaks Used with Revolved Sections

PHANTOM (GHOST) SECTIONS


A phantom section or ghost section is used occasionally to depict parts as
if they were viewed by an x-ray.
An example of a phantom section is shown in figure 25. The cutting plane is
drawn in the usual manner, but the section lines are drawn as dashed lines.
You can see if the object had been shown as regular full section, the circular
hole through the front surface could not have been shown in the same view.

Figure 25. Phantom sections give an x-ray view of an object. The section
lines are shown as dashed lines, making it possible to show the section
without removing the hole in the front of the part.

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REVOLVED SECTIONS
A revolved section is used to describe a cross-section of a part, to
eliminate the need for drawing an entirely separate view.
The shape of the cross section of a bar, arm, spoke, or other elongated
object may be shown in the longitudinal view by means of a revolved section,
figure 26. Such sections are made by assuming a plane perpendicular to the
center line or axis of the bar or other object, as shown at figure 27(a), then
revolving the plane through 90 about a center line at right angles to the axis,
as at (b) and (c).
The visible lines adjacent to a revolved section may be broken out if desired
as shown in figure 26(k) and figure 24.
The superimposition of the revolved section requires the removal of all
original lines covered by it, figure 28. The true shape of a revolved section
should be retained after the revolution of the cutting plane, regardless of the
direction of the lines in the view, figure 29.

Figure 26. Revolved Sections

Figure 27. Use of the Cutting Plane in Revolved Sections

Lesson Package 2

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Figure 28. A Common Error in


Drawing Revolved Sections

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Figure 29. A Common Error in


Drawing Revolved Sections

REMOVED SECTIONS
A removed section is a revolved section that has been removed from the
view where it was revolved.
A removed section is one that is not in direct projection from the view
containing the cutting plane that is, it is not positioned in agreement with the
standard arrangement of views. This displacement from the normal position
should be made without turning the section from its normal orientation.
Removed sections, figure 30, should be labeled, such as SECTION A-A and
SECTION B-B, corresponding to the letters at the ends of the cutting-plane line.
They should be arranged in alphabetical order from left to right on the sheet.
Section letters should be used in alphabetical order, but letters O, Q, and I
should not be used because they easily confused with the numeral 1 or the
zero.
A removed section is often a partial section. Such a removed section, figure
31, is frequently drawn to an enlarged scale, as shown. This is often desirable
in order to show clear delineation to some small detail and to provide sufficient
space for dimensioning. In such a case the enlarged scale should be indicated
beneath the section title.
A removed section should be placed so that it no longer lines up in
projection with any other view. It should be separated clearly from the standard
arrangement of views.
Whenever possible, removed sections should be on the same sheet with the
regular views. If a section must be placed on a different sheet, crossreferences should be given on the related sheets. A note should be given
below the section title, such as
SECTION

B-B ON SHEET 4, ZONE A3

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A similar note should be placed on the sheet on which the cutting-plane line
is shown, with a leader pointing to the cutting-plane line and referring to the
sheet on which the section will be found.
Sometimes it is convenient to place removed sections on center lines
extended from the section cuts, figure 32.

Figure 30. Removed Sections

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Figure 31

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Figure 32

OFFSET SECTIONS
An offset section is a type of full section in which the cutting plane is offset
to pass through important features that would be missed by the usual full
section formed by a flat plane.
In sectioning through irregular objects, it is often desirable to show several
features that do not lie on a straight line, by offsetting or bending the cutting
plane. Such a section is called an offset section. In figure 33(a) the cutting
plane is offset several places in order to include the hole at the left end, one of
the parallel slots, the rectangular recess, and one of the holes at the right end.
The front portion of the object is then imagined to be removed, (b). The path of
the cutting plane is shown by the cutting plane line in the top view at (c), and
the resulting offset section is shown in the front view. The offsets or bends in
the cutting plane are all 90 and are never shown in the sectional view.
Figure 33 also illustrates how hidden lines in section eliminate the need for
an additional view. In this case, an extra view would be needed to show the
small boss on the back if hidden lines were not shown.
An example of multiple offset sections is shown in figure 34. Notice that the
visible background shapes without hidden lines appear in each sectional view.

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Figure 33. Offset Section

Figure 34.Three Offset Sections

ALIGNED SECTIONS
In order to include in a section certain angled elements, the cutting plane
may be sent so as to pass through those features. The plane and feature are
then imagined to be revolved into original plane. For example, in figure 35, the
cutting plane was bent to pass through the angled arm and then revolved to a
vertical position (aligned), from where it was projected across to the sectional
view.

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Figure 35

In figure 36 the cutting plane is bent so as to include one of the drilled and
counterbored holes in the sectional view. The correct section view at (b) and
gives a clearer and more complete description than does the section at (c),
which was taken along the center line of the front view that is, without any
bend in the cutting plane.
In such cases, the angle of revolution should always be less than 90.

Figure 36

The student is cautioned not to revolved features when clearness is not


gained. In some cases the revolving features will result in the loss of clarity.
Examples in which revolution should not be used are figures 37 and 38.

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Figure 37

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Figure 38

In figure 39(a) is an example in which the projecting lugs were not sectioned
on the same basis that ribs are not sectioned. At (b) the projecting lugs are
located so that the cutting plane would pass through them crosswise, hence,
they are sectioned.
Another example involving rib sectioning and also aligned sectioning is
shown in figure 40. In the circular view, the cutting plane is offset in circular-arc
bends to include the upper hole and upper rib, the keyway and center hole, the
lower rib, and one of the lower holes. These features are imagined to be
revolved until they line up vertically and are then projected from that position to
obtain the section at (b). Note that the ribs are not sectioned. If a regular full
section of the object were drawn, without the use of conventions discussed
here, the resulting section, (c), would be both incomplete and confusing and, in
addition, would take more time to draw.
In sectioning a pulley or any spoked wheel, it is standard practice to revolve
the spokes if necessary (if there is an odd number) and not to section-line the
spokes, figure 41(b). If the spoke is sectioned, as shown at (c), the section
gives a false impression of continuous metal. If the lower spoke is not revolved,
it will be foreshortened in the sectional view in which it presents an amputated
and wholly misleading appearance. Fig09.32p301-EG also illustrates correct
practice in omitting visible lines in a sectional view. Notice that spoke B is
omitted at (b). if it were included, (c), the spoke would be foreshortened,
difficult and time consuming to draw, and confusing to the reader of the
drawing.

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Figure 39. Aligned Sections

Figure 40. Symmetry of Ribs

Figure 41. Spokes in Section

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

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RIBS IN SECTION
To avoid a false impression of thickness and solidity, ribs, webs, gear teeth,
and other similar flat features are not sectioned even though the cutting plane
passes along the center plane of the feature. For example, in figure 42, the
cutting plane A-A passes flatwise through the vertical web, or rib, and the web
is not section-lined, (a). Such thin features should not be section-lined, even
though the cutting plane passes through them. The incorrect section is shown
at (b). Note the false impression of thickness or solidity resulting from section
lining the rib.
If the cutting plane passes crosswise through a rib or any thin member, as
does the plane B-B in figure 42, the member should be section-lined in the
usual manner, as shown in the top view at (c).
In some cases, if a rib is not section-lined when the cutting plane passes
through it flatwise, it is difficult to tell whether the rib is actually present, as, for
example, ribs A in figure 43 (a) and (b). It is difficult to distinguish spaces B as
ribs. In such cases, double-spaced section lining of the ribs should be used,
(c). This consists simply in continuing alternate section lines through the ribbed
areas, as shown.

Figure 42. Webs in Section

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Figure 43. Alternate Section Lining

PARTIAL VIEWS
If space is limited on the paper or if it is necessary to save drafting time,
partial views may be used in connection with sectioning, figure 44. Half views
are shown at (a) and (b) in connection with a full section and a half section,
respectively. Note that in each case the back half of the object in circular view
is shown, in conformity with the idea of removing the front portion of the object
in order to expose the back portion for viewing in section.
Another method of drawing a partial view is to break out much of the circular
view retaining only those features that are needed for minimum representation,
figure 44(c).

Figure 44. Partial Views

INTERSECTIONS IN SECTIONING
Where an intersection is small or unimportant in a section, it is standard
practice to disregard the true projection of the figure of intersection, as shown
in figure 45 (a) and (c). Larger figures of intersection may be projected as
shown at (b), or approximated by circular arcs, as shown for the smaller hole at
(d). Note that the larger hole K is the same diameter as the vertical hole. In
such cases the curves of intersection (ellipses) appear as straight lines, as
shown.

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Figure 45. Intersections

PARTS NOT SECTION-LINED


Many standard parts are not section-lined even though the cutting-plane
passes through them. Examples of such parts in figure 46 are nuts and bolts,
rivets, shafts, and set screws. These parts have no internal features, and
section through them would be of no value.
Other parts not section-lined are roller bearings, ball bearings, gear teeth,
shafts, dowels, pins, set screws, and washers (figure 47).

Figure 46. These parts are not cross-sectioned even though the cutting plane
passes through them.

Figure 47. These parts are not section-lined even though cutting planes pass
through them.

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SECTIONING ASSEMBLIES
When an assembly of several parts is sectioned to give the relationship of
the parts, section lines should be drawn at varying angles to distinguish the
parts (figure 48). The use of different material symbols, when the assembly is
composed of parts made from different materials, is helpful in distinguishing the
parts one from one another. The same part should be crosshatched at the
same angle and with the same symbol even though the part maybe separated
into different areas, as shown at figure 48B.
An assembly is illustrated in figure 49 with section lines effectively used to
identify the parts of the assembly.

Figure 48. The section lines of the same part should be drawn in the same
direction. Section lines of different parts should be drawn at different angles
to separate the parts.

Figure 49. A typical assembly section with well-defined parts and correctly
drawn section lines.

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C. EXERCISE:
(Note: Each grid square of exercise 1 to 20 is 6 mm.)

Exercise no.1

Exercise no. 2

Exercise no. 3

Exercise no. 4

Exercise no. 5

Exercise no. 6

Exercise no. 7

Exercise no.8

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Exercise no. 9

Exercise no. 11

Exercise no. 13

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

Exercise no. 10

Exercise no. 12

Exercise no. 14

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Exercise no. 15

Exercise no. 16

Exercise no. 17

Exercise no. 18

Exercise no. 19

Exercise no. 20

D. EVALUATION:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is a section?
Cite at least one advantage of sectioning from a regular orthographic view?
What are the different types of sectioning? Define each.
When can we use the conventional breaks in sectioning?
What is an aligned section and when can we apply it?
When can we use the partial views in a drawing?
What are the parts that need not to be sectioned? Why?

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Draw the half section.

Quiz no. 1

Quiz no. 3

Quiz no. 2

Quiz no. 4

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Draw the full section.

Quiz no. 5

Quiz no. 6

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Draw the offset section.

Quiz no. 7

Quiz no. 8

Rev. No: 26-Nov-04

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ANSWER SHEET
1. A section is a cut-away view of an object that reveals effectively its details,
which cannot be clearly viewed on an orthographic drawing.
2. In sectioning, the complicated interiors of parts can clearly be seen.
3. A full section is a sectional view formed by passing a cutting plane
completely through an object and removing half of it to give a view of its
internal features. A half section is a view that results from passing a cutting
plane halfway through an object, removing a quarter of it. A broken-out
section is a convenient method used to show interior features without
drawing a separate view as a section. A phantom section or ghost section is
used occasionally to depict parts as if they were viewed by an x-ray. A
revolved section is used to describe a cross-section of a part, to eliminate
the need for drawing an entirely separate view. A removed section is a
revolved section that has been removed from the view where it was
revolved. An offset section is a type of full section in which the cutting plane
is offset to pass through important features that would be missed by the
usual full section formed by a flat plane.
4. The use of conventional breaks is to shorten a long piece of elongated
objects that has a uniform cross-section.
5. It is a type of sectioning where plane and feature are then imagined to be
revolved into original plane. We apply it to objects where certain angled
elements of parts needs to be sectioned.
6. If space is limited on the paper or if it is necessary to save drafting time,
partial views may be used in connection with sectioning.
7. Many standard parts are not section-lined even though the cutting-plane
passes through them. Examples of such parts are nuts, bolts, rivets, shafts,
and set screws. Other parts not section-lined are roller bearings, ball
bearings, gear teeth, shafts, dowels, pins, set screws, and washers. These
parts have no internal features, and sectioning them would be of no value.
Note: The answers of drawings / plates should be made by instructors in order
to explain it to the students more clearly.