You are on page 1of 8

http://www.chromalox.

com

PDS QUALITY
On first impression, various manufacturers of screw plug immersion
heaters appear to be all alike; but when you take a closer look at screw plug
immersion heaters, it becomes evident that considerable differences exist.
The following information will help to explain the differences in construction
of Chromalox screw plug immersion heaters compared to other manufacturers.
It will also describe Chromaloxs third party listing program, quality testing,
and delivery capabilities.
Before buying a screw plug heater, you should ask the manufacturer
questions to insure you are getting a quality heater that will last in your
application. Below, you will find a list of some of these important questions.

1 How is your resistance

wire sized?
2 What grade of

9 Are screw plug hex and

threads to industry
standards?
10 Do you provide a standard

magnesium oxide is
being used?

thermowell?
11 Is the terminal housing

3 How is your cold pin

rotatable?

attached to your
resistance wire?

12 Do you have a standard

4 What is your standard

element diameter?

grounding lug?
13 Are your heaters UL listed

5 Do you passivate

and CSA certified?

stainless steel heaters?


6 Do you repress U-bends

when required?

14 What quality assurance

testing is done on your


finished products?
15 Can you ship out of

7 Do you use terminal

sealant as a standard?
8 How are your elements

fixed to the screw plug?

stock in 24 hours and


provide assembly stock
products in 5 days?
16 Can you provide me expert

technical assistance when


needed?
www.chromalox.com

1998 Wiegand Industrial Division

http://www.chromalox.com

Quality - Differences Among Screw Plug Immersion Heaters

Basic Construction
Rotatable Terminal
Housing
Hex
Hex Threads

The basic construction of an immersion heater includes the terminal housing,


standard NPT screw plug, thermowell and heating elements. If you take a
closer look at the construction of a heating element, you will find the heart of
the heater is the resistance wire. Chromaloxs resistance wire is computer
designed in order to select the correct gauge wire for the required heating
element wattage and voltage. Many manufacturers use limited sizes of wire,
and may not choose the optimal wire for the application. Ask the heater
manufacturer how they determine resistance wire dimensions.

Thermowell
Elements

Elements Internal
Construction
Metallic
Sheath

Resistance Wire
-Computer Designed for
correct gauge wire

Compacted
Solid Cold
Magnesium Oxide Pin Junction
Insulation

Element Diameter
Chromalox standard 0.475 Diameter


,


,


0.475

10% more surface area than


0.430 diameter typical of competitors

Chromalox connects the resistance wire to the cold pin with a weld. This provides a
solid electrical connection that better withstands thermal cycling. Some manufacturers press or braze the cold pin onto the resistance wire, making failure due to
thermal cycling more common. Ask the heater manufacturer how they make
their cold pin connections. Chromalox uses only high purity magnesium oxide
insulation to insure good dielectric resistance between the resistance wire and the
metal sheath. In addition, Chromalox uses a rolling method to reduce the diameter
and compact the MgO refractory. Other manufacturers often use lower grades of
MgO, and swage versus rolling down the element diameters, causing inferior
dielectric properties which can lead to a less reliable heater. By utilizing high
grade materials and having controlled manufacturing processes, good thermal
conductivity is achieved and a longer life heating element is produced. Ask the
heater manufacturer how they compact element refractory.
Although Chromalox makes elements that range from 0.315 to 0.475 in
diameter, our standard 2 and 2-1/2 NPT screw plug immersion heater
elements are 0.475 in diameter. Other manufacturers have standardized on
0.430 diameter elements to reduce costs. For an equivalent immersion length,
the 0.475 diameter heating element provides 10% more surface area versus a
0.430 diameter element. The greater the surface area, the lower the heater
watt density and lower its operating temperature. Lower operating temperatures result in longer heater life. Ask the heater manufacturer what
diameter elements they supply as standard.

Results in longer life and lower


operating temperature

Stainless Steel Heating


Element Surface Finish

Pickling & Passivation

Removes most carbon particles

Corrosion is often accelerated by a poor surface finish. Proper surface finish of


stainless steel heating elements is very important to prevent corrosion. During
typical heater manufacturing processes, steel dies and rollers come into
contact with the element sheath, and as a result, carbon steel particles are
embedded into the surface of the element. If not removed, pitting and corrosion will occur, eventually leading to premature heater failure. As standard
practice, Chromalox pickles and passivates stainless steel heaters by soaking
the elements in an acid bath. This process removes the carbon steel particles
from the surface of the heating element and prolongs heater life. Other
manufacturers will only passivate for an extra charge. Ask the heater
manufacturer if passivation is a standard practice.

Chromalox

www.chromalox.com

http://www.chromalox.com

Quality - Differences Among Screw Plug Immersion Heaters

Elements U-Bends
Air gaps
in Mgo
Electrical
short
to sheath

Most screw plug immersion heater elements are bent in a U-bend configuration. When bending a heating element on a tight radius, air gaps can occur in
the magnesium oxide insulation within the element bend. Air gaps can permit a
dielectric (insulation) breakdown to occur, and cause an electrical short to the
metal sheath of the heater.
Chromalox represses U-bends to recompact the MgO and remove any air gaps,
which ensures dielectric integrity. Many manufacturers do not repress bends to
save time and money. Ask the heater manufacturer if they repress
U-bends when necessary.

Elements U-Bends Repressed


Recompacts
Mgo
Removes
any
air gaps

Terminal Seal Types


Silicone - Fluid, Resin, RTV
200F to 300F continuous exposure
Moderate moisture barrier

Epoxy
200F continuous exposure
Good moisture barrier

Heating element refractory can absorb moisture from the air, and if enough
moisture is absorbed, high leakage current could occur during start-up.
Chromalox screw plug immersion heaters contain heating element terminal
sealant as a standard feature. A terminal sealant inhibits moisture from being
absorbed by the heating element refractory.
There are several optional types of terminal sealants to suit the particular
application. Ask the heater manufacturer about terminal sealants before
making a purchase decision.

Hermetic
Up to1000F sheath temperature
The only true seal

Welded Stainless/
Steel Elements
Minimizes corrosion
at element attachment

Chromalox stainless steel, INCOLOY and carbon steel elements are welded to
stainless and carbon steel screw plugs. A welded element provides superior
corrosion protection and element attachment. Some manufacturers braze
elements to the screw plug without concern for the heaters intended application. In heating a corrosive fluid, braze material is susceptible to being chemically attacked by the fluid. A welded-in element prevents corrosive fluid
leakage into the terminal housing which can lead to heater failure. Ask the
heater manufacturer how they secure their elements to the screw plug.

Solder not a good


corrosion resistant material
Prevents leakage
into terminal enclosure

Chromalox

www.chromalox.com

http://www.chromalox.com

Differences Among Screw Plug Immersion Heaters - Quality

Hex and Threads


Wide hex fits
standard tools
Long threads
for
tighter fit
Easy to install

Chromalox heater design provides a screw plug hex and threads that are user
friendly. Wide hex and generous threaded lengths allow standard tools to be
used and allows a secure fit.
Other manufacturers often provide a narrow hex, making the hex difficult to
grip, potentially damaging the screw plug threads, or short thread lengths that
may not provide a tight seal. Chromalox screw plug immersion heaters are easy
to install no special tools are required. Ask the heater manufacturer if
their Hex and Threads meet industry standards.
Chromalox stainless steel and steel screw plugs come with a standard solid hex
and threads. Others use stamped, cast or hollow plugs and threads that can fail
under higher pressures.

Hex and Threads Other Supplier Alternatives


Short hex requires
special tools
Short threads
susceptible to
damage
Short threads
cause loose fit
into tank
Difficult to install

Thermowells

Standard to accept
sensing bulbs

Chromalox screw plug immersion heaters can be provided with or without an


integral thermostat. Regardless, a thermowell is standard on most heaters to
accept the sensing bulb of a thermostat. This allows an easy retrofit if later you
learn that a thermostat is necessary. Most manufacturers charge extra for
thermowells. Ask the heater manufacturer if a thermowell is standard.

Integral and remote


thermostat options

Rotatable Terminal
Housing

IT DOES
THE
TWIST
Unique with
360 Degree
Rotation Feature

The NEMA 1 terminal enclosure of the Chromalox screw plug heater is fully
rotatable. This patented feature allows 360 rotation of the terminal enclosure
(270 rotation for heaters with thermostat). Thus, you are able to rotate the
enclosure (housing) to face the electrical conduit connection after the heater
has been properly installed.
During installation, it is preferred that the conduit for the wiring be in a down
position. This prevents any moisture that may accumulate on the conduit from
running down into the terminal enclosure of the heater and cause potential
heater failure. No other heater manufacturer offers this feature.

Chromalox

www.chromalox.com

http://www.chromalox.com

Differences Among Screw Plug Immersion Heaters - Quality

Electrical Grounding
National
Electrical Code
Requirement

Proper electrical grounding is extremely important and is required by the


National Electrical Code. Some manufacturers do not provide a standard
grounding lug with their heaters. Grounding lugs are a standard feature with
Chromalox heaters. Ask the heater manufacturer if a grounding lug is
standard.

Chromalox
Standard
Ground lugs
not provided
by all suppliers

Third Party Listing


Most Extensive
in the Industry
Underwriters
Listing (UL)

UL

Chromalox has the most extensive third party listing in the industry. We provide
more heaters with Underwriters Laboratory listing and/or Canadian Standards
Association Certification than all other heater manufacturers combined.
This assures the heater is built to stringent standards and allows you to receive
quick electrical inspector approval. Ask the heater manufacturer about UL
Listing and CSA Certification.

Canadian Standards
Association (CSA)

Quality Testing
100% Hydrostatic
Pressure Test for
Weld Leaks
100% Resistance Check
for Element Wattage
Insulation Resistance
Check for Moisture
20 Megohms or greater
Dielectric Hi-pot Check

Delivery and Service


Stock heaters shipped in 24 Hours
Over 1000 Screw Plug heaters in stock

Chromalox heaters undergo extensive quality inspection prior to shipment. All


screw plug heaters are 100 percent hydrostatically pressure tested to insure a
tight leak-proof fit of the elements to the screw plug. We also perform a 100
percent resistance check on all our heater elements to ensure proper heating
element wattage. A two-step insulation resistance check is also performed.
First, elements must have a test measurement of insulation resistance to insure
minimal moisture content of the element refractory. Then, a dielectric high
potential check insures that no electrical short exists from the resistance wire
to the metal sheath. Many manufacturers do not perform all of this quality
assurance testing. Ask the heater manufacturer about their testing
program.

Chromaloxs stocking program is unequaled in the industry. Our distribution


warehouse can ship stock heaters within 24 hours of receipt of an order.
Chromalox has over 1,000 different screw plug heaters in stock. In addition,
most of our assembly stock products can ship within 5 days. And, we offer 10
day shipment for many of our other thousands of pre-engineered designs. We
also provide a toll free service number for replacement part orders and installation assistance. 1-800-368-2493. Ask the heater manufacturer about
their delivery times and stock offering.

Chromalox

www.chromalox.com

http://www.chromalox.com

Quality - Differences Among Screw Plug Immersion Heaters

In Summary
Over 80 years of experience
Highest quality heater
construction
Extensive UL/CSA
Listings/Certifications
Comprehensive testing
prior to delivery
Fast delivery and
customer service

Chromalox has over 80 years of experience, the highest quality construction,


extensive UL Listings and CSA Certifications, a comprehensive quality program
and the largest stock and pre-engineered designs of any manufacturer.
Chromalox also has the largest and most technically competent field sales
force in the industry. This means you get the best products and application
support when you need it!
To Chromalox, an educated customer is our best customer. We are proud to
build the worlds highest quality and longest lasting screw plug heaters. We
ask you to ask these questions to whomever you buy your screw plug heaters
from. Remember, not all screw plug heaters are created equal.

Feature / Benefit Analysis


Feature

Benefit

High Quality Components

Longer Lasting, More Reliable Heater

Strict Manufacturing Processes

Higher Consistency and Quality

Element Diameter as required

Longer Lasting Heaters

Repressed Bends where necessary

Higher Dielectric Integrity

Standard Terminal Sealant

Insulation Moisture Inhibitor

Welded Elements

Resists Chemical Attack

Standard Hex Width and Thread Length

Easier Installation, Better Fit

Standard Grounding Lug

Insures NEC Compliance for Ground

Rotatable Enclosure

Proper Enclosure Orientation Makes for Easy Installation

Third Party Listing (for a list, ask your Representative Insures Highest Quality and Strict Manufacturing
for bulletin PD314)
Procedures
Comprehensive Quality Assurance Testing
Greater Reliability
Product Availability
Large Stock & Assembly Stock Offering
Responsive Production Facilitye
Lower Lead Times for Assembly Stock and Special Order Products
Highly Technical and Experienced Sales Force
Support and Assistance When You Need It Most

PD315-1
PDS QUALITY

Chromalox

www.chromalox.com

OCT 98
99-006

1.000+.031
-.062

1.000+.031
-.062

.328

+.000
-.187

NOTES:

"B".125

STAMP BLOCK WITH: CATALOG NUMBER, VOLTS, WATTS, DATE


CODE, MANUFACTURERS LOCATION CODE AND CUSTOMER PART
NUMBER WHEN SPECIFIED.

120V ELEMENTS REQUIRE "L" SUFFIX IN CATALOG DESCRIPTION,


EXAMPLE: (SG-1077L)

GASKET- BULK PACK (50 PCS).

ALL POLY TERMINAL BLOCKS ARE TO BE BLACK WITH WHITE OR GOLD


STAMP UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

CSA MONOGRAM REQUIRED ON ELEMENTS WITH A VOLTAGE RATING


OF 480V AND BELOW AND WATTAGE RATING OF 6000W AND BELOW.

PLATED STEEL SCREW PLUG 1"-11 1/2 NPSM.

.260 DIA. PLATED COPPER SHEATH.

FOR ADDITIONAL SPECIFICATION ON REPRESS, PIN CUT,


TERMINAL BLOCK HEIGHT REQUIREMENTS AND Q.A.
INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS SEE DRAWING 156-895669-000
FOR HAIR PIN DESIGN (FIG 1) OR 156-895670-000 FOR
FOLDBACK DESIGN (FIG II).

"C".750

.248+.000
-.187
.437 REF
.875 REF (TYP)

.187 REF (TYP)

FIG I

#10 PHILLIPS PAN HEAD


TERMINAL SCREW

1.500 REF HEX.

PART NUMBER

FIG II

VOLTS

WATTS

156-563153-

120
208
240
277
480

600
600
600
600
600

-006
SG-1077

120
208
240
277
480

750
750
750
750
750

SG-1107

120
208
240
277
480

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

SG-1103

120
208
240
277
480

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

SG-1127

120
208
240
277
480

1250
1250
1250
1250
1250

7.750

2.125

117

457385

SG-1123

120
208
240
277
480

1250
1250
1250
1250
1250

7.750

2.125

117

459401
455363

SG-1157

120
208
240
277
480

1500
1500
1500
1500
1500

SG-1153

120
208
240
277
480

1500
1500
1500
1500
1500

SG-1207

120
208
240
277
480

2000
2000
2000
2000
2000

SG-1203

120
208
240
277
480

2000
2000
2000
2000
2000

7.750

2.125

SG-2257

120
208
240
277
480

2500
2500
2500
2500
2500

7.437

2.125

SG-1253

120
208
240
277
480

2500
2500
2500
2500
2500

9.500

2.125

SG-1303

120
208
240
277
480

3000
3000
3000
3000
3000

10.687

2.125

SG-1353

208
240
277
480

3500
3500
3500
3500

12.687

2.125

187

SG-2357

208
240
277
480

3500
3500
3500
3500

9.937

2.125

II

130

-008

CATALOG NUMBER

-011
-013

-016
-018

-021
-023

-027
-028

-031
-033

-036
-037
-038
Material:

Metric
0.80
0.25
0.13

Reference:
DWO-054585, 156-048666-000

English
.030
.010
.005

General Tolerances:

x.x
x.xx
x.xxx
Angles: 2
Wattage: +5-10%

-041
-043

-046
-047
-048

"

PCN NUMBER

REMARKS

459575
7.750

2.125

70

459567

457406
7.750

2.125

94

459161

458118
7.750

2.125

94

458100

459129

459073
7.750

7.750

2.125

2.125

141

452613

141

455347
459268
455355

455056
10.687

2.125

185

457414
459428
455320

194

459436
452867

2-26-09

11-19-08

3-20-06

DATE

PMO

PMO

RKC

BY

FMS
RY

FMS

CVM

RB

APVD.

452656

RER

459444
455312

REVISIONS

452630

DESCRIPTION

133

12

II

REV.

187

REDRAWN INTO Pro/E FORMAT, REMOVE NOTE 9, REVISE WATTAGE


TOLERANCE WAS 5%
ECR-1099

455400
459410
455339

DIMENSION "C" CHANGE FROM 2.125" TO 4.187". ECR 2149

452621

13

129

6-23-09

-071

W/

14

Date:
9-25-97

-066
-067
Emerson Heating Products

Revision:

15

Sheet:
1 Of 2

IMMERSION HEATER SCREW PLUG (SG)


CUSTOMER: APPLIANCE PARTS

Drawing No.:

156-563153-000

Critical to Regulatory Requirements


(x.xx=Cpk requirements)

-062
-063

FIGURE

15

Date:
6-16-88

Title:

Size:

-056
-057
-058

"C"

DIMENSION "C" OF 2.125" WAS 4.187 EXCEPT FOR ITEMS


-075,-098,-099,-103,-107,-114,-115,-120. ECR 2219
W/
" ON ITEM -075 WAS 132; W/
" ON ITEM -098 WAS 206;
W/
" ON ITEM -099 WAS 206; W/
" ON ITEM -103 WAS 132;
W/
" ON ITEM -107 WAS 204; W/
" ON ITEM -114 WAS 198;
W/
" ON ITEM -115 WAS 198; W/
" ON ITEM -120 WAS 142.
DIM. "C" ON ITEM -099 WAS 2.125. ECR 2337.

Checked by:
RM

Date:
9-10-96

Drawn by:
RKC

Approved by:
S.SPRINGER

Third Angle Projection: Use


ANSI Y14.5-1994 to interpret
drawing. Do not scale drawing.

Unless otherwise specified, all


dimensions are in inches. Metric
equivalent shown in [ ].

Critical to Quality
(x.xx=Cpk requirements)

-053

"B"

1.000+.031
-.062

.328

+.000
.-187

NOTES:
7

"B".125

"B".312

STAMP BLOCK WITH: CATALOG NUMBER, VOLTS, WATTS, DATE


CODE, MANUFACTURERS LOCATION CODE AND CUSTOMER PART
NUMBER WHEN SPECIFIED.

120V ELEMENTS REQUIRE "L" SUFFIX IN CATALOG DESCRIPTION,


EXAMPLE: (SG-1077L)

GASKET- BULK PACK (50 PCS).

ALL POLY TERMINAL BLOCKS ARE TO BE BLACK WITH WHITE OR GOLD


STAMP UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

CSA MONOGRAM REQUIRED ON ELEMENTS WITH A VOLTAGE RATING


OF 480V AND BELOW AND WATTAGE RATING OF 6000W AND BELOW.

PLATED STEEL SCREW PLUG 1"-11 1/2 NPSM.

.260 DIA. PLATED COPPER SHEATH.

FOR ADDITIONAL SPECIFICATION ON REPRESS, PIN CUT,


TERMINAL BLOCK HEIGHT REQUIREMENTS AND Q.A.
INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS SEE DRAWING 156-895669-000
FOR HAIR PIN DESIGN (FIG 1) OR 156-895670-000 FOR
FOLDBACK DESIGN (FIG II).

"C".750

.248+.000
-.187
.187 REF (TYP)

.437 REF
.875 REF (TYP)

FIG II

FIG I

1.500 REF HEX.

PART NUMBER

156-563153-075

-078
-079

-083

-086
-087

-091

-095

-098
-099

-103
Material:

Metric
0.80
0.25
0.13

Reference:
DWO-054585, 156-048666-000

English
.030
.010
.005

General Tolerances:

x.x
x.xx
x.xxx
Angles: 2
Wattage: +5-10%

-106
-107

-111

#10 PHILLIPS PAN HEAD


TERMINAL SCREW

"B"

"C"

11.750

2.125
4.187
2.125
2.125

FIGURE

SG-2457

208
240
277
480

4500
4500
4500
4500

11.750

2.125

II

137

SG-1453

208
240
277
480

4500
4500
4500
4500

13.687

2.125

221

SG-2453

208
240
277
480

4500
4500
4500
4500

7.937

2.125

II

221

SG-2507

208
240
277
480

5000
5000
5000
5000

13.437

2.125

II

130

SG-2503

208
240
277
480

5000
5000
5000
5000

9.937

4.187
4.187
2.125
2.125

II

212
212
206
206

SG-2557

208
240
277
480

5500
5500
5500
5500

15.125

2.125
4.187
2.125
2.125

II

132
136
132
132

SG-2553

208
240
277
480

5500
5500
5500
5500

9.937

2.125
4.187
2.125
2.125

II

204
233
204
204

SG-2607

208
240
277
480

6000
6000
6000
6000

15.125

2.125

II

137

SG-2603

208
240
277
480

6000
6000
6000
6000

11.750

4.187
4.187
2.125
2.125

II

203
203
198
198

SG-2307

120
208
240
277
480

3000
3000
3000
3000
3000

9.000

2.125
2.125
4.187
2.125
2.125

II

142
142
146
142
142

SG-1173

120
208
240
277
480

1750
1750
1750
1750
1750

SG-1163L

120
208
240
277
480

1650
1650
1650
1650
1650

7.750

2.125

156

SG-1383

120
208
240
277
480

3800
3800
3800
3800
3800

13.687

2.125

187

452672

459460
452859

459225

452681

459284
455398

459170

457502

452760

15

-123

-128

452648

412072
7.750

2.125

164

459237
6-23-09

2-26-09

11-19-08

3-21-06

DATE

RER

PMO

PMO

RKC

BY

FMS
RY

FMS

CVM

RB

APVD.

Emerson Heating Products

-135

459250
455371

459230

REVISIONS

196

DESCRIPTION

12

2.125

459452
455380

REV.

13.687

452664

REDRAWN INTO Pro/E FORMAT, REMOVE NOTE 9, REVISE WATTAGE


TOLERANCE WAS 5%
ECR-1099

4000
4000
4000
4000

REMARKS

DIMENSION "C" CHANGE FROM 2.125" TO 4.187". ECR 2149

SG-1403

208
240
277
480

132
135
132
132

PCN NUMBER

13

4000
4000
4000
4000

"

14

SG-2407

208
240
277
480

II

W/

DIMENSION "C" OF 2.125" WAS 4.187 EXCEPT FOR ITEMS


-075,-098,-099,-103,-107,-114,-115,-120. ECR 2219
W/
" ON ITEM -075 WAS 132; W/
" ON ITEM -098 WAS 206;
W/
" ON ITEM -099 WAS 206; W/
" ON ITEM -103 WAS 132;
W/
" ON ITEM -107 WAS 204; W/
" ON ITEM -114 WAS 198;
W/
" ON ITEM -115 WAS 198; W/
" ON ITEM -120 WAS 142.
DIM. "C" ON ITEM -099 WAS 2.125. ECR 2337.

Date:
12-15-94

-114
-115

-120

Title:

15

Revision:

IMMERSION HEATER SCREW PLUG (SG)


CUSTOMER: (APPLIANCE PARTS)

Drawing No.:

156-563153-000

Sheet:
2 Of 2

WATTS

Date:
1-5-92

Checked by:
ADA

Date:
12.20-94

Size:

C
Critical to Regulatory Requirements
(x.xx=Cpk requirements)

VOLTS

Drawn by:
RKC

Approved by:
L.KEEFOVER}

Third Angle Projection: Use


ANSI Y14.5-1994 to interpret
drawing. Do not scale drawing.

Unless otherwise specified, all


dimensions are in inches. Metric
equivalent shown in [ ].

Critical to Quality
(x.xx=Cpk requirements)

CATALOG NUMBER