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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER 3
WELDING

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

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Welding Defined
It is a metallurgical process of joining two metal pieces
together to produce essentially a single piece of metal by
heating them to suitable temperatures with or without the
application of pressure and with or without the use of filler

material.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
WELDING

FUSION PROCESS

PRESSURE PROCESS

FORGE WELDING

SPOT
WELDING

BUTT
WELDING

TUNGSTEN INERT
GAS WELDING

RESISTANCE
WELDING

SEAM
WELDING

METAL ARC
WELDING

THERMIT
WELDING

ARC
WELDING

GAS
WELDING

PERCUSSION
WELDING

ATOMIC HYDROGEN
WELDING

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CARBON ARC
WELDING

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Principle of arc welding:

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

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Principle of arc welding:


In this process contact is made first between the
electrode and the work piece to create an electric circuit
and then, by separating the conductors, an arc is
formed.
The electric energy is converted into intense heat in the
form of an arc which attains a temperature of around
2500C.
Heat produced by the arc is utilized to melt and join the

pieces to be welded.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Additional filler rod is used sometimes.


The electrode may be coated with flux or it may be bare.
When the arc is produced, the intense heat quickly melts
the work piece metal which is directly under the arc,
forming a small molten metal pool.
At the same time the tip of the electrode at the arc also
melts, and this molten metal of the electrode is carried
over by the arc to the molten metal pool of the work
piece.
A solid joint will be formed when the molten metal cools
and solidifies.

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Polarity

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Electrodes of arc welding:


Electrodes are commonly divided into 2 types.
Bare electrodes
Coated electrodes

Bare electrodes:
These are cheaper but the welds produced through these are

of poor quality and their use requires very high degree of skill
on the part of welder if satisfactory results are to be expected.

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Coated electrodes:
This consists of a bare metallic wire provided with a
coating on the outside surface.
Mild steel is the most commonly used material for core
wire.

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Factors influencing the selection of electrode

Availability of current A.C or D.C


Composition of the base metal
Thickness of the base metal
Welding position flat, horizontal, vertical, or overhead.
Expected physical properties of welded joints i.e.,
strength, ductility, soundness, appearance etc.
Amount of penetration required in welding
Skill of the welders in using particular type of electrodes.
Economic considerations.

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Consumable electrode:
It is consumed during welding process.
It melts in to weld zone, thus electrode must be moved
continuously towards the work piece to maintain constant
arc length.
It will act as a filler metal.
It can be made of steel, cast iron, copper, brass, bronze,
etc.

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Non consumable electrodes:


Tungsten and its alloys, carbon, graphite are used as
non consumable electrodes.
When consumable electrodes are used for arc welding,
then welding process is termed as Metal arc welding.
If non-consumable electrodes are used then welding
process is termed by the electrode material used.
The filler metal required has to be deposited through a
separate filler rod.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Functions of flux coated electrodes:

To provide a protective atmosphere


To add alloy elements.
To add the additional filler metal.
To provide a protective slag to accumulate impurities,
prevent oxidation and minimize the cooling rate of the
weld.
Minimize the thermal losses to the atmosphere.
To remove the impurities from the molten metal.

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Classification and Coding of electrodes:


Electrode classification provides information on,

constituents of flux coating


nature of slag
current & polarity
welding position
appearance of weld deposit
quality of weld etc.

These are required to select the most suitable electrode.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Example: E307411 means


It is a solid extruded electrode
Its covering contain appreciable amount of titania
It is all position electrode
It can be operated on DC or AC with a power source having,
open circuit voltage 50 volts
Weld metal tensile strength ranges between 410 and 510 N/mm2
and minimum yield stress is 330N/mm2
Minimum % elongation of weld metal is 20%

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
Tungsten Inert Gas welding: (TIG)/ (GTAW)

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This arc welding process uses the intense heat of an
electric arc between a non-consumable tungsten electrode
and the material to be welded.
The shielding is obtained from the inert gas such as
helium or argon or a mixture of two.
Filler metal may or may not be used. When filler metal rod
is used, it is usually fed manually into the weld pool.
Electrodes used in this process are made of tungsten or
tungsten alloys.
The tungsten electrode is used only to generate an arc.
The arc doesnt melt the tungsten, which has a melting
point of over 3300C .
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Advantages:
No flux is required, hence no special cleaning is
required.
It produces high quality welds in nonferrous metals.
TIG weld joints are stronger, more ductile, more
corrosion resistance.
Dissimilar metals can be welded.

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Disadvantages:

Process is comparatively slow


There exists possibility of electrode contamination
Inert gases are expensive
High equipment cost
Skilled operators are required
Welder manually feeds the filler metal into the weld area
with one hand while manipulating the welding torch in the
other.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Metal Inert gas welding (MIG)/ (GMAW)

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Metal Inert gas welding (MIG)/ (GMAW)


Gas metal arc welding is a gas shielded, metal arc
welding process which uses a high heat of an electric arc
between a continuously fed, consumable electrode wire
and the material to be welded.
In this process the wire is fed continuously from a reel,
such that feeding rate of the electrode to the arc is equal
to the melting and deposition rate of it on the base metal.
The continuously fed bare electrode melts and acts as
filler rod.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Metal Inert gas welding (MIG)/ (GMAW)


No pressure is applied for welding purpose.
Arc is shielded by an inert gas. Shielding gases may be
carbon dioxide or Helium or Argon, generally CO2 is
used as it is cheap and is used for welding steels.
A reverse polarity DC arc is generally used because of
its deeper penetration, good spray transfer, and smooth
welds with good profile.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Metal Inert gas welding (MIG)/ (GMAW)


Advantages
No flux is required.
High welding speed.
Increased corrosion resistance.
Easily automated welding
Applicable to both ferrous and nonferrous metals

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MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Metal Inert gas welding (MIG)/ (GMAW)


Disadvantages
High equipment cost
Applications: shipbuilding, car body, pressure vessels,
etc.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal