1 views

Uploaded by nislam57

dyyy

dyyy

© All Rights Reserved

- 11 Secant Tangent and Tangent Tangent Angles
- 92811589 Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook
- 11-7 Trigonometric Ratios
- Unit 4 Mathematics for Engineering Technicians
- Trigonometry WikiBooks
- Complete Kinematics
- Free AutoCAD Tutorials _ Text, Layer, Dimensioning in AutoCAD 2012 2014
- MATEMATICAS_BACHILLERATO
- finalbsol.fall09
- Positive Kinematics Analysis of 6-3 Stewart Platform Parallel Manipulator
- 0111ExamA2
- Mathematics
- 2001 Maths3 HSC Joel swd mac books mandarins car audio banana meat pasta mint paper towel deterinant
- All Chapter 2
- Formula
- Notes
- lec10
- calculus Chapter 6
- analisis
- iit model paper

You are on page 1of 4

Blackboard 1. Let ~v , w

~ R3 . Their dot product is

~v w

~ = v1 w1 + v2 w2 + v3 w3 .

Same in R2 .

Example 2. If ~v = (1, 2, 1) and w

~ = (2, 1, 3) then

~v w

~ = 1 2 + (2) 1 + (1) (3) = 2 2 + 3 = 3.

Lemma 3. Let ~u, ~v , w

~ R3 and let R.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(~u + ~v ) w

~ = ~u w

~ + ~v w.

~

~v w

~ =w

~ ~v .

(~v ) w

~ = (~v w).

~

~v ~v = 0 if and only if ~v = ~0.

Proof of (4).

~v ~v = v12 + v22 + v32 = k~v k2 ,

which is zero iff ~v = ~0.

~ in terms of the norms of ~v + w

~ and ~v w.

~

(~v + w)

~ (~v + w)

~ = ~v ~v + 2~v w

~ +w

~ w

~

(~v w)

~ (~v w)

~ = ~v ~v 2~v w

~ +w

~ w.

~

Subtracting and dividing by 4 we get

1

((~v + w)

~ (~v + w)

~ (~v w)

~ (~v w))

~

4

1

= (k~v + wk

~ 2 k~v wk

~ 2 ).

4

~v w

~=

~ in space, note that we can define the angle

between ~v and w.

~ ~v and w

~ lie in at least one plane (which is in fact unique, unless

~v and w

~ are parallel). Now just measure the angle between the ~v and w

~ in this

plane. By convention we always take 0 .

Theorem 5. If ~v and w

~ are any two non-zero vectors in R3 , then

~v w

~ = k~v k kwk

~ cos .

Proof. Apply the law of cosines to the triangle with sides parallel to ~v , w

~ and ~v w:

~

k~v wk

~ 2 = k~v k2 + kwk

~ 2 2k~v kkwk

~ cos .

Expand the LHS:

k~v k2 2~v w

~ + kwk

~ 2 = k~v k2 + kwk

~ 2 2k~v kkwk

~ cos .

Canceling the common terms k~v k2 and kwk

~ 2 from both sides, and dividing by 2,

we get the desired formula.

We can use (5) to find the angle between two vectors:

1

~ = + . Then

1 = ~v w

~ = k~v kkwk

~ cos = 2 cos .

Therefore cos = 1/2 and so = 2/3.

Blackboard 7. We say that two vectors ~v and w

~ in R3 are orthogonal if ~v w

~ = 0.

If neither ~v nor w

~ are the zero vector, and ~v w

~ = 0 then the angle between ~v

and w

~ is a right angle. By our convention, the zero vector is orthogonal to every

vector.

Example 8. , and k are pairwise orthogonal.

(x, y, z) is orthogonal to (y, x, 0).

Given two vectors ~v and w,

~ we can project ~v onto w.

~ The resulting vector is

called the projection of ~v onto w.

~

Blackboard 9. If w

~ 6= ~0 then projw~ ~v is the unique vector that is parallel to w

~ and

such that ~v projw~ ~v is orthogonal to w.

~

For example, if F~ is a force and w

~ is a direction, then the projection of F~ onto

w

~ is the force in the direction of w.

~

Blackboard 10. As projw~ ~v is parallel to w,

~ we have

projw~ ~v = w,

~

for some scalar . Lets determine . Lets deal with the case that 0 (so that

the angle between ~v and w

~ is between 0 and /2). If we take the norm of both

sides, we get

kprojw~ ~v k = kwk

~ = kwk,

~

(note that 0), so that

=

kprojw~ ~v k

.

kwk

~

But

cos =

kprojw~ ~v k

,

k~v k

so that

kprojw~ ~v k = k~v k cos .

Putting all of this together we get

k~v k cos

kwk

~

k~v kkwk

~ cos

=

kwk

~ 2

~v w

~

=

.

kwk

~ 2

There are a number of ways to deal with the case when < 0 (so that > /2).

One can carry out a similar analysis to the one given above. Here is another way.

~ and ~u = ~v is equal to <

/2. By what we already proved

projw~ ~u =

~u w

~

w.

~

kwk

~ 2

~ = ~v w,

~ so we get the same formula in the end.

To summarize:

Theorem 12. If ~v and w

~ are two vectors in R3 , where w

~ is not zero, then

~v w

~

projw~ ~v =

w.

~

kwk

~ 2

Blackboard 13. Recall that w

=

~v (w).

~

1

~

|w|

~ w

is the direction of w,

~ and that (~v w)

~ =

~v w

~

projw~ ~v =

w

~

kwk

~ 2

w

~

w

~

= ~v

kwk

~

|wk

~

= (~v w)

w.

Example 14. Find the distance d between the line l containing the points P1 =

(1, 1, 2) and P2 = (4, 1, 0) and the point Q = (3, 2, 4).

Suppose that R is the closest point on the line l to the point Q. Note that QR

is orthogonal to the direction P1 P2 of the line. So we want the length of the vector

P1 Q proj

P P

1

P1 Qk.

d = kP1 Q proj

P P

1

Now

P1 Q = (2, 3, 2)

We have

kP1 P2 k2 = 32 + 22 + 22 = 17

and

and

P1 P2 = (3, 2, 2).

P1 P2 P1 Q = 6 + 6 4 = 8.

It follows that

8

P Q =

proj

(3, 2, 2).

P1 P2 1

17

Subtracting, we get

8

1

5

P Q = (2, 3, 2)

P1 Q proj

(3, 2, 2) =

(10, 35, 50) =

(2, 7, 10).

P1 P2 1

17

17

17

Taking the length, we get

5 2

(2 + 72 + 102 )1/2 3.64.

17

Theorem 15. The angle subtended on the circumference of a circle by a diameter

of the circle is always a right angle.

Proof. Suppose that P and Q are the two endpoints of a diameter of the circle and

that R is a point on the circumference. We want to show that the angle between

Let O be the center of the circle. Then

P R = P O + OR

and

QR = QO + OR.

P R QR = (P O + OR) (QO + OR)

= (P O + OR) (OR P O)

= kORk2 kP Ok2

= r2 r2 = 0,

where r is the radius of the circle. It follows that P R and QR are indeed orthogonal.

- 11 Secant Tangent and Tangent Tangent AnglesUploaded byAnwar Hossain
- 92811589 Mechanical and Metal Trades HandbookUploaded byHiban Achmad
- 11-7 Trigonometric RatiosUploaded byMr. Aulisio
- Unit 4 Mathematics for Engineering TechniciansUploaded byAli Ibrahiem Atwa
- Trigonometry WikiBooksUploaded byAgustinus Wahyu Adi Putra
- Complete KinematicsUploaded byinkheartkat
- Free AutoCAD Tutorials _ Text, Layer, Dimensioning in AutoCAD 2012 2014Uploaded bymohit
- MATEMATICAS_BACHILLERATOUploaded byAnonymous qmwoKAf
- finalbsol.fall09Uploaded by79vwrabbit
- Positive Kinematics Analysis of 6-3 Stewart Platform Parallel ManipulatorUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Science
- 0111ExamA2Uploaded byCarla Coelho
- MathematicsUploaded byKaran Doshi
- 2001 Maths3 HSC Joel swd mac books mandarins car audio banana meat pasta mint paper towel deterinantUploaded byk02033
- All Chapter 2Uploaded bykmoiz
- FormulaUploaded byAnonymous 8aj9gk7GCL
- NotesUploaded bySitesh Sil
- lec10Uploaded bymukesh3021
- calculus Chapter 6Uploaded byAnna Lewis
- analisisUploaded byRidha Rakhmi Nurfitri
- iit model paperUploaded byGudipati Rajesh
- Calculus Alternative proof of sin'(x) = cos(x).pdfUploaded bynm
- Crossfire_ProjectileMotion.docUploaded byAsa Ka
- 4.4 HomeworkUploaded byPedro Rodriguez Jr.
- eportfolioUploaded byapi-251384933
- M21 Circular FunctionsUploaded byKiana Marie Sy
- copyofmayaporchegeometryfinal-2paragraphreflectionUploaded byapi-359563798
- mathexit-4Q1112.docxUploaded byJoachim De Leon
- UNIT6.docUploaded byAliaBintiZaidel
- QC - Unit 2 - Mod 1 (P) 2015Uploaded byJenique Jehoshebeth Ferdinand
- Experiment 01Uploaded byZeynal Abidin Şabaş

- MIT 18.022 8Uploaded bynislam57
- CORDIS Project 55901 EnUploaded bynislam57
- Allen KnutsonUploaded bynislam57
- A Survey of Harmonic AnalysisUploaded bynislam57
- Platonic Solids Practice SheetUploaded bynislam57
- Tao Nonlinear Dispersive PDEsUploaded bynislam57
- Merged DocumentUploaded bynislam57
- example0 (3)Uploaded bynislam57
- eynjyedjnUploaded bynislam57
- uykgygUploaded bynislam57
- TorusUploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 5Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 19Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 18Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 17Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 16Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 15Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 14Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 13Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 12Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 11Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 10Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 9Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 7Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022222222Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 2222222222222222Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022Uploaded bynislam57

- 24330220 Maneuvering and Control of Marine VehiclesUploaded byphuocthontu
- Demos ExcelUploaded bySakura Nuguishi
- CA PEOUploaded bykaps_er_3
- AhlforsSolutions.pdfUploaded byVinayDeshpande
- Dr Tariq Jarad ProjectsUploaded byMark Anderson
- Basic Integrations to RememberUploaded byAnchiano Aix
- Abaqus Theory ManualUploaded byAbdul Munir
- An Introduction to Grids Graphs and NetworksUploaded byGuillermo Martinez Silva
- Semiclassical Nonlinear Approach for Mesoscopic CircuitUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- Ch4_Probability and Probability DistributionsUploaded byVamsiDeepak
- Direct Solution to Problems of Hydraulic Jump in Horizontal Triangular ChannelsUploaded byrgscribd61
- Three Moment Theorem2Uploaded byHans Hans Sadz
- Advanced AlgebraUploaded byIosif Beniamin Șolot
- Quadritic EquationUploaded bypjojibabu
- Linear AlgebraUploaded byramasam01
- EM102_Topic_3_moment_and_equilibrium.pdfUploaded byYao Ssengss
- Section 3.6Uploaded byPeter Mueller
- hw3solUploaded bymasfenix1
- Notas de Aula - Lectures on Fourier Series - S. KesavanUploaded byMarco Fernandes
- (Oxford Graduate Texts) Henrik Bruus, Karsten Flensberg-Many-body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics-Oxford University Press, USA (2004)Uploaded bybstrekha
- Spin Dynamics Study of 1D Heisenberg ModelUploaded byt_sairam
- Transformasi Koordinat RobotUploaded byRama Gian Hendraloka
- Fine 1947 - Binomial coefficients modulo a primeUploaded byvojarufosi
- AQA-6360-W-SP-12Uploaded byNeelam Rathod
- 1 DiffusionUploaded byHugh Huijue Fan
- Differential calculusUploaded byVignesh Ds
- 21 Functions Part 1 of 3Uploaded bySunil Das
- Homework Solution 3Uploaded bySaad Malik
- Lecture Notes to Transition to Advanced Mathematics - MauchUploaded byKennedy Bright
- Fourier Transform 2Uploaded byPrasanna Kumar Kottakota