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Blackboard 1. A vector in Rn is an n-tuple ~v = (v1 , v2 , . . . , vn ). Given ~v , w

~ Rn ,

their sum is

~v + w

~ = (v1 + w1 , v2 + w2 , . . . , vn + wn ),

their dot product is

~v w

~ = v1 w1 + v2 w2 + . . . + vn wn ,

and for R

~v = (v1 , v2 , . . . , vn ).

The norm of ~v is

k~v k =

~v ~v .

e1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0),

e2 = (0, 1, . . . , 0),

. . . , en = (0, 0, . . . , 1).

If ~v = (v1 , v2 , . . . , vn ), then

~v = v1 e1 + v2 e2 + . . . + vn en .

Lets adopt the (somewhat ad hoc) convention that ~v and w

~ are parallel if and

only if either ~v is a scalar multiple of w,

~ or vice-versa. Note that if both ~v and w

~

are non-zero vectors, then ~v is a scalar multiple of w

~ if and only if w

~ is a scalar

multiple of ~v .

Theorem 3 (Cauchy-Schwarz-Bunyakowski). If ~v , w

~ Rn then

|~v w|

~ kvkkwk,

with equality iff ~v is parallel to w.

~

Proof. If either ~v or w

~ is the zero vector, then there is nothing to prove. So we may

assume that neither vector is the zero vector.

Let ~u = x~v + w,

~ where x is a scalar, and let

f (x) = ~u ~u = |~u|2 .

Then

0 f (x) = (~v ~v )x2 + 2(~v w)x

~ +w

~ w

~ = ax2 + bx + c.

So f (x) has at most one root. It follows that the discriminant b2 4ac 0, with

equality iff f (x) has a root. Hence

b2 4ac = 4(~v w)

~ 2 4k~v k2 kwk

~ 2 0.

Rearranging, gives

(~v w)

~ 2 k~v k2 kwk

~ 2.

Taking square roots, gives

|~v w|

~ kvkkwk.

Now, f (x) has a root iff we have equality here. Hence 0 = f () = |~v + w|

~ 2 , and

~v + w

~ = ~0. In other words, w

~ = ~v and ~v and w

~ are parallel.

1

Blackboard 4. If ~v and w

~ Rn are non-zero vectors, then the angle between them

is the unique angle 0 such that

~v w

~

.

k~v kkwk

~

cos =

inequality, so this does makes sense. We also showed in that the angle is 0 or if

and only if ~v and w

~ are parallel.

Blackboard 5. A linear transformation f : Rn Rm is a function satisfying

f (~v ) = f (~v )

and

f (~v + w)

~ = f (~v ) + f (w).

~

It doesnt matter if we apply the function before or after multiplying by a scalar.

It also doesnt matter if we apply the function before or after adding.

Theorem 6. A linear transformation f : R R is of the form f (x) = ax where

a = f (1).

Proof.

f (x) = f (x 1) = x f (1) = ax.

Theorem 7. A linear transformation f : R2 R2 is of the form

a11 v1 + a12 v2

f (~v ) =

,

a21 v1 + a22 v2

where

a11

= f (

e1 )

a21

and

a12

a22

= f (

e2 ),

ej )i = ei f (

ej ).

Proof. By the definition of a linear transformation,

f (~v ) = f (v1 e1 + v2 e2 )

= f (v1 e1 ) + f (v2 e2 )

= v1 f (

e1 ) + v2 f (

e2 ).

substituting the definitions of the aij s, we get

a

a

= v1 11 + v2 12

a21

a22

a11 v1 + a12 v2

=

.

a21 v1 + a22 v2

Pn

a1j vj

a11 v1 + a12 v2 + . . . + a1n vn

Pj=1

a21 v1 + a22 v2 + . . . + a2n vn n a2j vj

,

= j=1

f (~v ) =

...

.

.

.

Pn

am1 v1 + am2 v2 + . . . + amn vn

a

v

j=1 mj j

where aij = f (

ej )i = ei f (

ej ).

The proof is the same as for the previous case. One way to describe such a

transformation is in a matrix.

Blackboard 9. The m n matrix A

Rm the m-by-a array of real numbers

a11

a21

A=

...

am1

a12

a22

...

...

am2

...

a1n

a2n

amn

where aij = f (

ej )i = ei f (

ej ). We denote A = (aij ).

Example:

Blackboard 10. If f : R2 R2 is

2v1 v2

f (~v ) =

v1

then the associated matrix is

A=

2

1

1

Blackboard 11. Let A = (aij ) be the matrix associated with the linear transformation f : Rn Rm . We define the product of A with ~v Rn by

Pn

a1j vj

Pj=1

n a2j vj

j=1

A ~v = f (~v ) =

Pn . . .

j=1 amj vj

The is the same as saying that the ith component of A ~v is the dot product

of the ith row of A with ~v .

Theorem 12. Let f, g : Rn Rm and h : Rm Rp be linear transformations.

Then

f1 (~v ) = f (~v ) is a linear transformation from Rn Rm .

f2 (~v ) = f (~v ) + g(~v ) is a linear transformation from Rn Rm .

f3 (~v ) = h(f (~v )) is a linear transformation from Rn to Rp . We also denote

it by h f .

Theorem 13. Let f, g : Rn Rm and h : Rm Rp be linear transformations. Let

A = (aij ), B = (bij ) and C = (cij ) be the matrices associated with f , g and h,

respectively.

Let f1 (~v ) = f (~v ). Then the matrix associated with f1 is (aij ). (We

denote this matrix by A.)

f2 (~v ) = f (~v ) + g(~v ). Then the matrix associated with f2 is (aij + bij ). (We

denote this matrix by A + B.)

f3 = h(f (~v )). Then the matrix associated with f3 is (dij ), where

dij =

m

X

cik akj .

k=1

Multiplying a matrix A by means multiplying each entry by . Any matrix

can be multiplied by any scalar.

Adding two matrices means adding the corresponding entires. Only matrices of

the same dimensions can be added.

The ijth entry of C A is the dot product of the i row of C with the jth

column of A. The product CA exists only if the number of columns in C is equal

to the number of rows in A.

Proof. We prove (3). Let D = (dij ) be the matrix associated with f3 . Then by

definition

dij = ei f3 (

ej )

= ei h(f (

ej ))

= ei h(a1j e1 + a2j e2 + . . . + amj em )

= ei

m

X

akj h(

ek )

k=1

m

X

cik akj .

k=1

Example.

Blackboard 14. If

A=

then

1

3

1

4

and

B=

2

A+B =

5

and

3A =

3

9

1

2

1

,

1

0

,

5

3

.

12

Another example.

Blackboard 15. Let

1

c=

1

2 1

1 5

and

1

D = CA =

4

2

A= 1

1

10

.

10

1

4 .

1

respectively. Then (AB)C = A(BC).

Matrix multiplication is associative.

Proof. Let f, g, h be the linear transformations associated with A, B and C, respectively. Then AB is the matrix associated with f g, and BC is the matrix

associated with g h. Hence (AB)C is the matrix associated with (f g) h, and

A(BC) is the matrix associated with f (g h). But (f g) h = f (g h), and

therefore A(BC) = (AB)C.

3

Blackboard 17. In general, AB 6= BA. For example, if A = (1, 2) and B =

4

then

3

3

3 6

AB = (1, 2)

= (11) and BA =

(1, 2) =

.

4

4

4 8

Even if A and B are the same

1

A=

0

6 BA. Suppose

1

1 0

and

B=

.

1

1 1

2 1

1

AB =

and

BA =

1 1

1

This is related to the fact that in general f g 6= g f .

1

.

2

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