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Hydrostatic pressure

(p+ p dz) dx dy
z
dx
dy
(p+ p dy) dx dz
y

pressure forces on
a fluid element

g dx dy dz

p dy dz

(p+ p dx) dy dz
x

dz
p dx dz
z
y
x

p dx dy

fluid at rest (hydrostatic conditions)


p
p
=
=0
x
y
Universitt Stuttgart

p
= g
z

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

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Hydrostatic pressure distribution in liquids

integration for incompressible


liquids:

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pabs = p atm
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h
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pabs = p atm+ gh
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p = gz + C

definition:
h=

p
+z
g

h
piezometric head
p/(g) pressure head
z
depth

boundary condition:
p(h) = patm C = patm + gh
absolute pressure

p = pabs = patm + g(h z)

relative pressure p = pabs patm = g(h z)


Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

. p.2/11

Hydrostatic pressure distribution in gases


Consideration of the compressibility: = p/(RT )

dp
p
=
g
dz
RT

integration for T = const.

p = exp[

gz
+ C]
RT

boundary condition: e.g., p(z0 ) = p0


C = ln p0 +

gz0
RT

and p(z) = p0 exp[

g(z0 z)
]
RT

Example:
For z = 0 m and T = 293 K, let be: p0 = 1 105 Pa
What is the pressure in an altitude of 500 m if the assumption T = const. is made?
p(500) = 1 105 exp[

Universitt Stuttgart

9.81 (0 500)
] = 94334 Pa
287 293

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

. p.3/11

Hydrostatic forces on plane surfaces


patm

h(x,y)

resultant force:
F = (patm + ghsp )A
= psp A
F

center of
gravity

dA = dx dy
x

center of
pressure:
g sin Ixy
xsp =
F
g sin Ixx
ysp =
F

center
of pressure

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

. p.4/11

Hydrostatic forces on plane surfaces


Splitting into horizontal and vertical components:
F = g h cg A cos
V

F = g h cgA
h

p = g h1

p = g h1

center of gravity
center of pressure

p = g h2
2

center of gravity
center of pressure

p = g h2

Universitt Stuttgart

F = g h cg A sin

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

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Hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces


x

x
1

h
p

p = g h2

p = g h2

Resultant forces:
FH

FV

h2

1
gb(h22 h21 )
2
h1
Z x2
Z x2
gbh dx = gb
h dx
gbh dh =

x1

x1

FV equals in magnitude and direction the weight of the entire column of water above
the curved surface.
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

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Layered fluids

p = g (h o z1 )

ho

oil

hw

water
z1

p = p + w g z 1= w g h w
2

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

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Buoyancy

FA

dA H

1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0dA
1

Sv

z 1 z2

Archimedes (third century B.C.):


A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of
the fluid it displaces.
FA = g V

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

. p.8/11

Swimming stability
line of symmetry

a)

SG

SG
G

G
M

Sv

FA
Sv

FA

overturning moment

b)
M
SG
G
FA
Sv

SG
FA
Sv

restoring moment
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

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Uniform linear acceleration

No relative motion between fluid


particles.
no viscous forces.

a
p

s
g-a

p
1
p
2
p
3

p = (g a)
-a

Pressure gradient in the direction


s=g a.
lines of constant pressure are
perpendicular to this direction.

tan =

ax
g + az

1/2
`
dp
= a2x + (g + az )2
ds
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

. p.10/11

Rigid body rotation

p
= r 2
r

p
= g
z

1
p = p0 gz + r2 2 .
2
2

r
z=
2g

a =-r
patm

z
g

g- a
- a

p2

R
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/hydstat_F.tex

Fluids at rest and in uniform linear acceleration

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