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Dr. G.S Prasad M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Mathematics


C.M.R Institute of technology
No.132, AECS Layout, ITPL Road
Bangalore 560037
Email:-gsprasadphd@gmail.com

Gradient of a scalar function, unit normal,


directional derivative, divergence of a vector function, Curl of a vector
function, solenoidal and irrotational fields, simple and direct problems,
application of Laplace transform to differential equation and
simultaneous differential equations.

Gradient of a Scalar Function


Let = (x,y,z) be a given scalar field, then the

vector whose X, Y, Z components are

respectively

is called the gradient of at the point (x,y,z). It is denoted by


grad or .

Grad = =
Problems:-

1. If (x,y,z) =
=

+ 2yz + 2z find at the point (1,-2,1).

= 2x + (2 + 2 ) + (2 + 4 )
(1, 2,1)= 2 + 6 + 0

2. If (x,y,z) =
=

=2

+3

3. If =

find grad .

+4
and =

.grad = 25 at the point (3,-1,2)

show that

=( + ) +( + ) +( + )

(3,-1,2) = + 5 + 2 -------- 1

= 9 + 2 + 12 --------------- 2

. grad = 9 + 10 + 24 = 25
4. If =

p(1,-1,2).

find and || at the point

= (3x 3yz) + (3

(1,-1,2) = 9 3 + 15

) + (3z 3x )

|| (1,-1,2) = (9) + (3) + (15) = 325

5. If =
=

find at (1,2,3)

= (z + 2xy) + (

+2

(1,2,3) = 13 + 13 + 10
6. If =
. = n
=

. = n
= n(

) + (y + 2

where n is a non-zero real constant, prove that

) = n

7. If a is a constant vector show that ( . ) =


Let

. =

( . ) =
=

( . )

, =x +

( . )

( . )

Unit Normal:- is the normal vector to the surface (x,y,z) then a unit
normal vector is denoted by is defined as
=

||

| |

Where = = normal vector


Directional Derivative:- if is any vector and is any scalar point function

then .

| |

represents the component of in the direction of which is known

as the directional derivative of in the direction of .


Directional derivative = .
Problems:-

| |

= .

1. Find the unit normal to the surface


(1,2,3).

= at the point

The equation of the given surface is (x,y,z) = c


=

|| = 25 + 4 + 1 =

||

= ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + )

(1,2,3) = 5 + 2 + ,
=

30

2.Find the unit normal to the surface

= 4 at the point (1, 1,2)

The equation of the given surface is ( , , ) = 4 +


=

=3

+3

(1, 1,2) = 12 12 + 4

|| = (12) + (12) + 4 =
=

||

+2
304

(3 + 3 )

3.Find the angle between the direction of the normals to the surface
=1
at the point (1,1,1) and (1, 1, 1)
The given surface is ( , , ) =

=1

At any point (x,y,z) of this surface the normal is along the vector.
=

=2

Therefore, at the point (1,1,1) the normal is along the vector


a = | | = 2 + +

at the point q(1, 1, 1) the normal is along the vector


b = | |q = 2
If

is the angle between the direction of these normals, we have


=

.
6
=
= 1
| || | 66

This gives = as the required angle. Thus at the given points the
normals to the given surfaces are in opposite direction.
4.Find the angle between the surfaces
+

= 9 and =

3 at the point (2, 1,2)

The angle between the surfaces at a common point p is defined to be equal


to the angle between the normals to the surface at the point p.
whose equation is ( , , ) =

The given surfaces are


And

whose equation is ( , , ) =

= 2 + 2 + 2

=2 +2

=4 2 +2

=3

=4 2

=9

is along the normal to the surface and is along the normal to the
surface . Therefore, is the angle between the surfaces and at the point
p, then is the angle between and at p.
. = ||| |cos

cos

.
2 2 + . (4 2 )
=
||| |
16 + 4 + 4 16 + 4 + 1
= cos

5.Find the angle between the tangents to the curve


=

When = 3 ,

When = 3 ,
cos

= 1

.
=
| || |

3
3

at = 3

+2 + 1+

= (1 9) + 6 + (1 + 9) = 8 + 6 + 10
= (1 9) 6 + (1 + 9) =

8 6 + 10

8 + 6 + 10

. (8 6 + 10 )

64 + 36 + 10064 + 36 + 100

64 36 + 100

200 200

128 16
=
200 25

6. Find the directional derivation of =


2 2 .
= (2xyz + 4z ) +

+(

(1, 2, 1) = 8 10 ----------------1
=

| |

3
3

+4
+8

----------------2

1
37
= [16 + 1 + 20] =
3
3

at (1, 2, 1) along
)

7.Find the directional derivative of ( , , ) = 2

direction of + 2 2
=

+6

(1, 1,1) = 4 + 6 8
.

+2 2
9

+8
=

+2 2
3

= (4 + 6 8 ).( + 2 2 )

1
24
= [4 + 12 + 16] =
=8
3
3

8.Find the directional derivative of ( , , ) =


the direction of 2 2
=

= (2

= [6 1] =

9. If =

= 2 +
=

at (-1,2,1) in

(1,2,1) = 3 + + 0
.

at (1, 1,1) in the

) +

+(
=

+2

find the directional derivative at (1,-1,1) in the direction

=(

= (

+(

=(

1 +

(1, 1,1) = 0 +

2 +
6

10. If the directional derivative of =


+
+
at the point
(1,1,2) has a maximum magnitude of 32 units in the direction parallel to
the y-axis, find a,b,c.
= (ay + 3cz x ) + (2
(

+2

) +
)

(1,1,2) = ( + 12 ) + (2 + 2 ) +
( 4 ) -------1

It is given that the directional derivative of at p has a maximum


magnitude of 32 in the direction parallel to the y-axis = 32 ------------2
Compare 1 & 2

2 + 2 = 32
( +

+ 12 = 0

4 = 16

= 16) + ( + 12 = 0) = ( + 12 = 16)

( + 12 = 16) ( 4 = 0) = (16 = 16)


= 1,

= 4,

= 12

11.Find the maximum directional derivative of log (


(1,1,1)

) at

The maximum directional derivative of is ||


=

(1,1,1) =

|| =

= (2

+3

+3 ) +

= =2

= 5 and

= 2 at

+(

= (4 + 3) + (2 6) = 7 8

cos

+ + = =2

12.Find the angle between the surfaces


(1,-2,1)
= =

=4 6

+6

+3

.
7 8 . (4 )
=
||| | 49 + 1 + 64 16 + 1 + 36
=

28 + 1 + 48
114 53

Divergence of a vector function :If =

is a vector function
defined and differentiable at each point (x,y,z) then divergence of is denoted by
div or . and is defined by

div = . =

Hence, divergence factor of a vector function is a scalar function.


Irrotational vector or conservative force field or potential field :A vector field is said to be a irrotational vector or a conservative force
field or potential field or curl force vector if X = 0

Scalar potential:- a vector field which can be derived from the scalar field
such that F= is called conservative force field and is called Scalar
potential.

1.Show that =
div =

Curl = X =
= 0

=0

0
+

0 + +

= 0 is irrotational.

is both solenoidal and irrotational.

+
2
( +

0
+

2
( +

2.Find the constants a,b,c such that the vector = (


+ ) + ( + ) is irrotational

X =
=

( +

+
+

+ )

= [ 1] [1 ] + [

= [1 1] [1 1] + [

+ )

( +
+

) +

If a=b=c=1,

]=0

3.Find the divergence and curl of the vector

Div =
X =
[

= [0 2
3 ]

= (3

] [4

) +(

=6

+ 1] + [

+4

+3

) 2

] =2

[1 4

] +

4. If =

Div =

Curl = X =

show that (i) = 3 (ii) X = 0

=1+1+1=3

= [0 0] [0 0] + [0 0] = 0
(

5.Find the constants a,b,c such that the vector field = ( +


+ 2 ) + ( + + 2 ) is irrotational
X =

+2

= [ 1] [1 ] + [ 1]

+2

If c=-1, a=1, b=1

= [1 1] [1 1] + [1 1] = 0
6. =

Div =

( + + ) find div and curl


+

Curl = X =
= [

] [

+ [

) +

7.If = 3

+3

Div = . =

is solenoidal at (1,1,1) find a


+

=3 +3

If a=2, Div = . = 3 + 3 3(2) = 0


is solenoidal.

8.Find div and curl where =


= (3

) + (3

div = 6 + 6 + 6
Curl =

) + (3

= [3 + 3 ] [3 + 3 ] + [3 + 3 ] = 0

9.Find the constant a so that = (

div =
= 4

is solenoidal
+

+4

=2

+2

+2

= 0 is solenoidal

+ ) + (

=2

+4

) +

10. If = ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) is irrational. Also find a scalar


function such that =

X =

[1 1] [1 1] + [1 1] = 0 is irrotational

( + ) +( + ) +( + ) =

= +

( + )

( + )

( + )

11. =
. =

X =

( , )=( + ) +

( , )

( , )=( + ) +

( , )

( , )=( + ) +

=( + ) +( + ) +( + )

+
+

( , )

then find (i) . (ii) X at the point (1,1,1)


=2 +2 +2 =6

= [0 0] [0 0] + [0 0] = 0

12. Find divergence and curl of the vector

div =
X =

=(

+2

+ (2

= [2

13.If = ( +
X =

( +

) + (3

)=3

] [

) +(

+2

] + [6

+ 1) + ( + ) show that .

+ 1)

( + )

= [1 0] [ 1 0] + [0 1] = +

= [( +
.

+ 1) + ( + ) ].( + )

= ( +

+ 1) + 1 + ( + ) = 0

14.Find the constants a,b and c so that the


vector = ( + 2 +
+(4 +

X =

+2 +

) +(

3 )

+ 2 ) is irrotational

4 +

X = [ + 1] [4 ] + [ 2]
If c=-1, a=4, b=2

X =0

+2

=0

15.Find the value of a,b,c for which the vector


=( +
X =

+
+

) +(

+ 3 ) + (3 +

+3

3 +

+2

X = [ + 1] [3 ] + [ 1]
If c=-1, a=3, b=1

X =0

16. Find

) given =

= X =
= [

] [0 0] + [0 ] = [
=

+ 2 ) is irrotational

] +0 +

= [0 0] [ 1 2 ] + [0 2 ] = 0 + [1 + 2 ] + 2
17. = (3

) +(

=6

) 2
+4

find
4

= (6 0) + (12 + 12) 32
= 6 + 24 32

) at (2,-1,0)

18.For what value of a does the vector


=(

) +(

) + (2

has zero divergences. Also find X


=2

+2

if a=-2
= 4

+4

+2

=0

X =
= [2

19.If = 3

] [2

4
+5

] + [(

at (1,2,3), find div

. = 6 + 10

+3

. (1,2,3) = 6 + 20 + 54 = 80
20.Find

+3
=

= [2

0] [

)(

+(

] + [6

) ]

+ )]

(3

21.Find the divergence and the curl of the vector = (


) +(
)
+

=
= [2

+ (3

] [

23. Prove that

(
=

) =

] + [6

) = 0

)+2

= 0 if =

22.Prove that

+2

) +

=0

24.Prove that

= .

Interchange dot to cross

From the identity,


.

25.If =

+ (1)

)
.

and | |= find

. (

. = . (

= | | =

=3

=
)

+ (1)
)

(2

=3

) +

+
(

+
)

+ (1)

(2

=2

) +

(2

26.Prove that X(XF) = (. ) ^2 where


=

=
= [3

] [0 0] + [

= [0 0] [2 + 6 ] + [0 0]

0 + (2 + 6 ) + 0 ------------------------- 1.
=2

(. ) = 2 + (2 6 ) 6

^2 =

=2 +0 6

(. ) ^2 = 2 + (2 6 ) 6

= (2 6 ) - ------------------------------------- 2.
From 1. & 2. ,
L.H.S = R.H.S

2 +6

27.Prove that ( X)X = 2 where =

( X)X =

( X)X =
=

= [

] = 2
2

= 2

] [

= 2 where is a constant vector

= =

28.If = prove that


+

= 2[

= 2

Let =

]+ [

=
= [

29.If =

= | | =

= | | =
=

30. =

=
=

] [

= 2[

=2

(
3

+2

=3

+2

]+ [

)+

(
+

=3

then prove that

)+

is solenoidal
+

=0
=

and | | = then prove that

= 2

and | | =

) =

+ 3

)+

)=

where

+3

=| +
(

+3

+3 (

=3

=3

31.Find
zero if = 1

)+

)= [

= [
=

)=

.1+

)+

=6

+3

| and further show that it is equal


(

)+

+ ( 2)

=| +

( 2)

+ ( 2)

+ ( 2)

=3

)=

+ ( 2)

+ ( 2)

+ ( 2)

=3

[3 +

2.

| | = 3| |
| | =

Similarly,

| |

| | = (

1
=(
| |
1
1
= [
| |
2

=(

1
+
| |

| |

+
)

1
+
| |

= | |

= | |

1
= | |
| |

= | |
|

)^1/2

)^ 1/2

] 2 = [

= [| | ]

= | |

= 1

1
=
| |

2]

then show that 1. grad

[ + 1] = 0

32.If =

| |

1
| |

| |

= | | [ +
| | =

3
| | = (
2
Similarly,

| | +

| | = [
+

| | = 3 | |

]=

| | +
+

) 2 =3 (

= 3 | |

| |

| |

| | = 3 | |

| | = 3 | | + 3 | | + 3 | |

| | = 3| |

= 3| |

33.If and are two irrotational vector function, then prove that is
solenoidal
= .

and are irrotational, hence

Then

=0

=0

Hence ( ) is solenoidal
34.State the condition under which a vector function is irrotational and
when it is solenoidal, prove that
=(

+ ) +(

) + ( ) is irrotational

= ( + 3 ) + ( 2 ) + ( 2 ) is solenoidal

The function is irrotational if curl = 0 and is solenoidal if Di = 0

curl =

= [1 + 1] [1 1] + [
Di =

( +3 )+

=0

( 2 )+

35.Find curl where =


=| +

curl =

+
+

( 2 )

and

=| +

]=0

=1+12

=
=

+
+

+
+

+
=0

36.Prove that
= .

+ =

[ + ] + .

= .
.

+ .

[ + ]+ .

+ .

+ .

+ .

37.With usual notation, prove that


where

Let = ( )

( + )

+
+ .

+ .

( )=

+ .
+

Diff. w.r.t. x

= (r)
"( )

r
=
x

( )

+ ( )[

"( ) + ( )[
"( ) +
"( ) +
"( ) +

( )
( )
( )

( )

( )

( )

"( )

)+

= (r) +

3 ( )

3 ( )

( ) = (r) +

( )

( )

2 ( )