respectively
Grad = =
Problems:
1. If (x,y,z) =
=
= 2x + (2 + 2 ) + (2 + 4 )
(1, 2,1)= 2 + 6 + 0
2. If (x,y,z) =
=
=2
+3
3. If =
find grad .
+4
and =
show that
=( + ) +( + ) +( + )
(3,1,2) = + 5 + 2  1
= 9 + 2 + 12  2
. grad = 9 + 10 + 24 = 25
4. If =
p(1,1,2).
= (3x 3yz) + (3
(1,1,2) = 9 3 + 15
) + (3z 3x )
5. If =
=
find at (1,2,3)
= (z + 2xy) + (
+2
(1,2,3) = 13 + 13 + 10
6. If =
. = n
=
. = n
= n(
) + (y + 2
) = n
. =
( . ) =
=
( . )
, =x +
( . )
( . )
Unit Normal: is the normal vector to the surface (x,y,z) then a unit
normal vector is denoted by is defined as
=

 
then .
 
 
= .
= at the point
 = 25 + 4 + 1 =

= ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + )
(1,2,3) = 5 + 2 + ,
=
30
=3
+3
(1, 1,2) = 12 12 + 4
 = (12) + (12) + 4 =
=

+2
304
(3 + 3 )
3.Find the angle between the direction of the normals to the surface
=1
at the point (1,1,1) and (1, 1, 1)
The given surface is ( , , ) =
=1
At any point (x,y,z) of this surface the normal is along the vector.
=
=2
.
6
=
= 1
   66
This gives = as the required angle. Thus at the given points the
normals to the given surfaces are in opposite direction.
4.Find the angle between the surfaces
+
= 9 and =
whose equation is ( , , ) =
= 2 + 2 + 2
=2 +2
=4 2 +2
=3
=4 2
=9
is along the normal to the surface and is along the normal to the
surface . Therefore, is the angle between the surfaces and at the point
p, then is the angle between and at p.
. =  cos
cos
.
2 2 + . (4 2 )
=
 
16 + 4 + 4 16 + 4 + 1
= cos
When = 3 ,
When = 3 ,
cos
= 1
.
=
  
3
3
at = 3
+2 + 1+
= (1 9) + 6 + (1 + 9) = 8 + 6 + 10
= (1 9) 6 + (1 + 9) =
8 6 + 10
8 + 6 + 10
. (8 6 + 10 )
64 + 36 + 10064 + 36 + 100
64 36 + 100
200 200
128 16
=
200 25
+(
(1, 2, 1) = 8 10 1
=
 
3
3
+4
+8
2
1
37
= [16 + 1 + 20] =
3
3
at (1, 2, 1) along
)
direction of + 2 2
=
+6
(1, 1,1) = 4 + 6 8
.
+2 2
9
+8
=
+2 2
3
= (4 + 6 8 ).( + 2 2 )
1
24
= [4 + 12 + 16] =
=8
3
3
= (2
= [6 1] =
9. If =
= 2 +
=
at (1,2,1) in
(1,2,1) = 3 + + 0
.
) +
+(
=
+2
=(
= (
+(
=(
1 +
(1, 1,1) = 0 +
2 +
6
+2
) +
)
(1,1,2) = ( + 12 ) + (2 + 2 ) +
( 4 ) 1
2 + 2 = 32
( +
+ 12 = 0
4 = 16
= 16) + ( + 12 = 0) = ( + 12 = 16)
= 4,
= 12
) at
(1,1,1) =
 =
= (2
+3
+3 ) +
= =2
= 5 and
= 2 at
+(
= (4 + 3) + (2 6) = 7 8
cos
+ + = =2
=4 6
+6
+3
.
7 8 . (4 )
=
  49 + 1 + 64 16 + 1 + 36
=
28 + 1 + 48
114 53
is a vector function
defined and differentiable at each point (x,y,z) then divergence of is denoted by
div or . and is defined by
div = . =
Scalar potential: a vector field which can be derived from the scalar field
such that F= is called conservative force field and is called Scalar
potential.
1.Show that =
div =
Curl = X =
= 0
=0
0
+
0 + +
= 0 is irrotational.
+
2
( +
0
+
2
( +
X =
=
( +
+
+
+ )
= [ 1] [1 ] + [
= [1 1] [1 1] + [
+ )
( +
+
) +
If a=b=c=1,
]=0
Div =
X =
[
= [0 2
3 ]
= (3
] [4
) +(
=6
+ 1] + [
+4
+3
) 2
] =2
[1 4
] +
4. If =
Div =
Curl = X =
=1+1+1=3
= [0 0] [0 0] + [0 0] = 0
(
+2
= [ 1] [1 ] + [ 1]
+2
= [1 1] [1 1] + [1 1] = 0
6. =
Div =
Curl = X =
= [
] [
+ [
) +
7.If = 3
+3
Div = . =
=3 +3
) + (3
div = 6 + 6 + 6
Curl =
) + (3
= [3 + 3 ] [3 + 3 ] + [3 + 3 ] = 0
div =
= 4
is solenoidal
+
+4
=2
+2
+2
= 0 is solenoidal
+ ) + (
=2
+4
) +
X =
[1 1] [1 1] + [1 1] = 0 is irrotational
( + ) +( + ) +( + ) =
= +
( + )
( + )
( + )
11. =
. =
X =
( , )=( + ) +
( , )
( , )=( + ) +
( , )
( , )=( + ) +
=( + ) +( + ) +( + )
+
+
( , )
= [0 0] [0 0] + [0 0] = 0
div =
X =
=(
+2
+ (2
= [2
13.If = ( +
X =
( +
) + (3
)=3
] [
) +(
+2
] + [6
+ 1) + ( + ) show that .
+ 1)
( + )
= [1 0] [ 1 0] + [0 1] = +
= [( +
.
+ 1) + ( + ) ].( + )
= ( +
+ 1) + 1 + ( + ) = 0
X =
+2 +
) +(
3 )
+ 2 ) is irrotational
4 +
X = [ + 1] [4 ] + [ 2]
If c=1, a=4, b=2
X =0
+2
=0
+
+
) +(
+ 3 ) + (3 +
+3
3 +
+2
X = [ + 1] [3 ] + [ 1]
If c=1, a=3, b=1
X =0
16. Find
) given =
= X =
= [
] [0 0] + [0 ] = [
=
+ 2 ) is irrotational
] +0 +
= [0 0] [ 1 2 ] + [0 2 ] = 0 + [1 + 2 ] + 2
17. = (3
) +(
=6
) 2
+4
find
4
= (6 0) + (12 + 12) 32
= 6 + 24 32
) at (2,1,0)
) +(
) + (2
+2
if a=2
= 4
+4
+2
=0
X =
= [2
19.If = 3
] [2
4
+5
] + [(
. = 6 + 10
+3
. (1,2,3) = 6 + 20 + 54 = 80
20.Find
+3
=
= [2
0] [
)(
+(
] + [6
) ]
+ )]
(3
=
= [2
+ (3
] [
(
=
) =
] + [6
) = 0
)+2
= 0 if =
22.Prove that
+2
) +
=0
24.Prove that
= .
25.If =
+ (1)
)
.
and  = find
. (
. = . (
=   =
=3
=
)
+ (1)
)
(2
=3
) +
+
(
+
)
+ (1)
(2
=2
) +
(2
=
= [3
] [0 0] + [
= [0 0] [2 + 6 ] + [0 0]
0 + (2 + 6 ) + 0  1.
=2
(. ) = 2 + (2 6 ) 6
^2 =
=2 +0 6
(. ) ^2 = 2 + (2 6 ) 6
= (2 6 )   2.
From 1. & 2. ,
L.H.S = R.H.S
2 +6
( X)X =
( X)X =
=
= [
] = 2
2
= 2
] [
= =
= 2[
= 2
Let =
]+ [
=
= [
29.If =
=   =
=   =
=
30. =
=
=
] [
= 2[
=2
(
3
+2
=3
+2
]+ [
)+
(
+
=3
)+
is solenoidal
+
=0
=
= 2
and   =
) =
+ 3
)+
)=
where
+3
= +
(
+3
+3 (
=3
=3
31.Find
zero if = 1
)+
)= [
= [
=
)=
.1+
)+
=6
+3
)+
+ ( 2)
= +
( 2)
+ ( 2)
+ ( 2)
=3
)=
+ ( 2)
+ ( 2)
+ ( 2)
=3
[3 +
2.
  = 3 
  =
Similarly,
 
  = (
1
=(
 
1
1
= [
 
2
=(
1
+
 
 
+
)
1
+
 
=  
=  
1
=  
 
=  

)^1/2
)^ 1/2
] 2 = [
= [  ]
=  
= 1
1
=
 
2]
[ + 1] = 0
32.If =
 
1
 
 
=   [ +
  =
3
  = (
2
Similarly,
  +
  = [
+
  = 3  
]=
  +
+
) 2 =3 (
= 3  
 
 
  = 3  
  = 3   + 3   + 3  
  = 3 
= 3 
33.If and are two irrotational vector function, then prove that is
solenoidal
= .
Then
=0
=0
Hence ( ) is solenoidal
34.State the condition under which a vector function is irrotational and
when it is solenoidal, prove that
=(
+ ) +(
) + ( ) is irrotational
= ( + 3 ) + ( 2 ) + ( 2 ) is solenoidal
curl =
= [1 + 1] [1 1] + [
Di =
( +3 )+
=0
( 2 )+
curl =
+
+
( 2 )
and
= +
]=0
=1+12
=
=
+
+
+
+
+
=0
36.Prove that
= .
+ =
[ + ] + .
= .
.
+ .
[ + ]+ .
+ .
+ .
+ .
Let = ( )
( + )
+
+ .
+ .
( )=
+ .
+
Diff. w.r.t. x
= (r)
"( )
r
=
x
( )
+ ( )[
"( ) + ( )[
"( ) +
"( ) +
"( ) +
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
"( )
)+
= (r) +
3 ( )
3 ( )
( ) = (r) +
( )
( )
2 ( )