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LSD, otherwise referred as Lysergic acid diethylamide is one of the

hallucinogenic drug that can powerfully and transiently modify human
behavior, perception and also mood even at extreme low doses. Few aspects
of behavior that are stimulated by acute LSD doses are closely similar to the
mental disorders like schizophrenia. In spite of carrying out extensive
research in this field for more than 40 years, the actual mechanism of
hallucinogenic drugs remains a question mark.

The change in the behavioral pattern by LSD is known to come from the
agonist effect at 5-HT 1A, 5-HT 2C and 5-HT 2A receptor subtypes. But how
the interactions of this receptor can affect the cognition functions of the

brain is still unclear. Added to the action of serotonin receptors, the LSD
carries high range of affinity towards dopamine receptors.

It has been found that it act as agonist to the receptors. LSD is known to be a
unique category of ligand that can bind to dopamine and serotonin receptor
subtypes simultaneously as implicated in both abnormal and normal human
behavior. Thus lysergic acid from acts as an outstanding tool to
analyze the biochemical background of behavior.

The hallucinogenic effect cannot be produced just be increasing the

serotonin levels in the brain. Experiments carried out very recently stated
that this LSD binds to same receptor similar to endogenous serotonin ligand.
It possesses the capability to stimulate various intracellular signaling

The signaling of intracellular cascade influence the expression of gene, the

LSD stimulated signaling pathways inside the cell will alter the expression of
gene leading to the changes in physiological state of neurons and thereby
leading to the alteration in the cognition process. The specific behavioral
effect of the LSD may resemble the paranoid schizophrenia. Freedman stated
that specific subset of the mood alternations may happen during the
continuing phase of LSD effect.

This delayed effect of the second phase may happen as result of the
transient change in the expression of gene. Identifying the gene and
characterization of them may prove to be extremely significant in
understanding the mechanism that underlies the mechanism by how the LSD
hallucinogen alters the human behavior.
In addition to this, understanding this mechanism may also lead to
identification of the novel therapeutic sites for the treatment of various
mental disorders. The gene expression was analyzed in the thalamus/mid
brain, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the rat brain.
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