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2011 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Systems

Simulation and Testing of Photovoltaic with Grid Connected System


K K Prajapat

Abhishek Katariya

Department of Electrical Engineering


Sri Balaji College Of Engineering and technology
Jaipur, India
kkprajapat2004@gmail.com
IEEE Member

Department of Electronics & Comm. Engineering


Sri Balaji College Of Engineering and technology
Jaipur, India
abhishek_katariya@rediffmail.com

Shuchi Shukla

Ashok Kumar

Department of Electrical Engineering


Sri Balaji College Of Engineering & Technology
Jaipur, India
ershuchi@yahoo.co.in

Department of Electrical Engineering


Sri Balaji College Of Engineering and technology
Jaipur, India
ashok.ee1@gmail.com
IEEE Member

energy is one of the options in reducing pollution.


Furthermore, natural resources used in the production of
power are dwindling and becoming more expensive. There
are a few types of renewable energies; one of this is the
photovoltaic (PV) system.PV modules used to be expensive,
but in recent years, their price has been slowly dropping, and
the payback period also reduces, as they become increasingly
economical, they will be used in more applications[1]. PV
modules output efficiency has also increased in recent years
about 24 to 30%, and with these growths in photovoltaic
technology, there is no doubt that PV will have a good stand
in the near future[5][6].
Over the last 20 years or so the price of PVs has fallen
dramatically and developments are constantly making them
ever more efficient and reliable. Globally, solar power is a
fast growing market expanding at about 20% a year with
increasing numbers of countries implementing ambitious
solar programmers to try and stimulate the market further.
Compared to other electricity generating technologies,
however, PVs are still very expensive with a unit price of
around 30-40 paisa/ KWh, however improvements in
technology will hopefully bring this cost down to around
11paisa/KWh in near future[7]. Developments in the thin
film field are likely to provide the next breakthroughs. Grid
linked solar buildings certainly offer the greatest potential in
the UK and may well be the power stations of the future
reducing the dependence on large centralized generators.
With fossil fuels running out electric vehicles will become
increasingly important. Lightweight cars with either solar
cells mounted the body or charge from special photovoltaic
stations are already being experimented with and will
undoubtedly become one of our solutions to the pollution
caused by transport as well as home energy use.
As PV becomes more affordable, its demand will
increase. With this increase, the future for inverter tied PV
systems will be better [2]. PV systems can replace batteries,
as its technology becomes more advance and standard for
safety is increased. Grid tied PV systems are increasing in
number over years. The technology is used to provide either

Abstract-In the recent years the power demand is increasing


regularly and it can be fulfilled by the use of conventional or
non-conventional energy power plants. So, renewable energy
sources like photovoltaic (PV) panels are used today in many
applications. With the rapid development of photovoltaic
system installations and increased number of grid connected
power systems, it has become imperative to develop an efficient
grid interfacing instrumentation suitable for photovoltaic
systems ensuring maximum power transfer. The losses in the
power converter play an important role in the overall
efficiency of a PV system. Grid connected systems use a
photovoltaic array to generate electricity, which is then fed to
the main grid via a grid interactive inverter. When the solar
array generates more power than is being used in the building,
the surplus is exported to the grid. When the solar array
generates less power than is being used in the building, the
difference is imported from the grid. This system includes
photovoltaic solar Panels, one inverter, 1 charge controller and
a battery bank. The result shows that PV system would be
suitable to supply electricity to cover the load requirement
without using energy from the grid. The overall efficiency of
the system depends on the efficiency of the SUNLIGHT-intoDC and the DC-into-AC conversion efficiencies. The first one
varies up to 3% over a year. The second one, instead, shows a
much greater variability. The output power of photovoltaic
(PV) module varies with module temperature, solar isolation
and 1oad changes etc. In order to control the output power of
single-phase grid-connected PV system according to the output
power of PV arrays. The experimental results of MATLAB
simulation show that the proposed method has a good
performance.
Keywords- Photovoltaic, Power Quality, State Of Charge and
Kinetic Battery Model

I.

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this paper is to come out with an


experimental model of a inverter-connected photovoltaic
system and analyze its operation. As green house effects and
environmental issues becomes more of a concern, renewable
978-0-7695-4587-5/11 $26.00 2011 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/CICN.2011.150

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respectively.This model also include the MPPT model In the


next sections, these blocks will be discussed individually.
The sections will look into how the models were
implemented . Figure 1 shows grid connected PV model.

uninterrupted. Power Supply, feeding/selling the excess


power to the grid or as a stand-alone PV system [7][3].
There are many applications for the PV modules.
Currently PV modules are used to power up water heater and
to pump water to name a few applications. Some of the
requirements that were brought up are over-current
protection for the sources, ground-fault protection and
grounding. PV systems have to meet these standards before
it could be connected to the grid. These standards are
constantly revised. Although the standards are established,
there are still some problems with integrating PV modules to
the grid[7].
Ongoing research on the standards of grid-connected PV
systems, are conducted. Other investigations on its power
quality, system losses, and problems with interfacing the PV
system to the grid are also taken into account. This report
will be looking into the interaction of an experimental model
with the grid. It will monitor any change in the grid and in
the PV system and will look at their interaction as a whole
with regards to the changes made[8].
There are many experimental models in the market
currently on grid-connected photovoltaic systems.
Simulation models of embedded and distributed generation
into the utility can be widely found. In this dissertation, an
experimental model that studies the effects of irradiation and
cell temperature on the PV modules is introduced. Other
differences can also be studied with the model. The PV
modules will be connected to the grid and therefore its
interaction with the grid will be studied. A DC to AC
converter will be connected to PV system to convert the DC
power to AC and a controller is added before it is connected
to the inverter.
The experimental model will simulate an ideal PV array
system that will generate power to the grid system. It will
also study the effects of the controller in the presence of
frequency and voltage deviations from the grid, and study the
effects of varied irradiation and cell temperature from the PV
system. The controller will act as a protection device for the
PV system from any harmful deviations. This report will also
look into the PV systems, and how the model was
implemented [4]. The basic things that need to be considered
when connecting a PV array system to the grid will also be
discussed. It will also try to answer some of the issues that
come with irradiation and cell temperature, and how it
affects the power that is pro produced by the modules or
array systems[5]. The real outcome of this paper is (i) The
additional power generated due to photovoltaic source has
been of sufficient match with the power demand on one of
the three phases,(ii) The simulation studies have shown good
results in meeting the objective, and (iii) The payback
analysis is a strong base to justify practical application of
complimentary photovoltaic system for enhanced loading..
II.

PV
System

DC to
AC

(a)

(b)

3 Phase
Source
(c)

Load

Controller

(e)

(d)

Figure 1. Simulink Block of The Experimental Model

III.

GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM MODEL

An experimental model of a grid-connected photovoltaic


system can be obtained by using all of these blocks. The
model can be connected as Figure 2. In this model, the
output PV system block is injected into the grid after its
power is converted to AC power by the inverter [2]. Varying
the irradiation and the cell temperature can vary the output of
the PV system. Varying the irradiation and the cell
temperature would affect the power that is injected into the
grid, thus affecting the power on the line also[4].
DC to AC
PV
System

3 Phase
Source

CONTROLLER

LOAD

Figure 2. Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

IV.

TESTING AND RESULT

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the


experimental model that represents a grid connected PV
system. In this experimental model, the PV system is
assumed to be a power generator connected to the utility
grid. The purpose of using this experimental model is to
introduce the idea of using the PV system as a form of

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTAL


MODEL

Given Simulink blocks of the different components in the


experimental model are shown in Figure 1 (a), (b), (c), (d)
and (e) is the PV array system block, inverter block, threephase source block, controller block and the load block

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secondary generator that is connected to the grid, which


overall represents the grid-connected PV system.
The model is built to evaluate and understand the nature
of the PV system output with respect to varied irradiation
from the sun. The model also evaluates what happens to the
PV system whenever there are deviations of frequency and
voltage on the grid. The resulting responses form the core of
this dissertation and fulfill the purpose in determining the
overall system when it is grid-connected. An ideal system
was designed to monitor the power that is produced by both
the grid and the PV arrays are defined in this paper.

It was observed that the short circuit current of the PV


module depends exclusively linearly on the irradiation (ISC
= C1GA), while the open-circuit voltage VOC increases
logarithmically with irradiation. Increase in the cell
temperature would decrease the open circuit voltage VOC.
The results relates to the theoretical concept given in this
paper.
B. Validation of the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
Model
In this section, the grid-connected PV system model is
validated. Interactions between the PV system and the grid
are shown here. The output at the grid will be monitored with
the variations of irradiation and cell temperature from the PV
system and frequency & voltage deviations from the grid.
The model shown in Figure 2 was run in simulink and the
following figures are the simulated results. Figure 5 shows
the 3- phase output from the source block. From the figure 5,
it can be seen that the power from the lines are 120 out of
phase from each other at 50 Hz. Figure.6 shows the 3-phase
output after power from the PV system is injected to the grid.
The simulated result shows that the power from the PV
system summed with the power from the line that it was
connected. Figure 7 is the DC power output from the PV
system and Figure 8 represents the DC power that was
converted to AC at the inverter. The power that was
converted must be in phase with the line that it will be
connected to. The current from the PV system must not be
larger than the current of the line, and the voltage of the PV
system must be the same as the lines voltage or a few
percent higher.

A. PV Model Validations
In this section the PV model is validated. Showing how
the model simulates with the influence of varied irradiation
and with different temperature cell first shows this. The
implementation of PV system is found in Figure 2 . The
modified model can used to measure the PV module output
characteristics. Figure 3 shows the characteristic of the PV
module with varying irradiation. The cells temperature is set
to 25 C. Figure 4 shows the PV modules characteristic with
changing the cells temperature; the irradiation is set to 1000
W. The y-axis from these plots is the module current and the
x-axis is the modules voltage.

Figure 3. PV Module I-V Curve with Varying Irradiation

Figure 6. 3-Phase Outputs after Power from the PV System is


Injected into one of the lines

Figure 7. DC Outputs from the PV System

Figure 4. PV Module I-V Curve with Varying Cell Temperature,TC

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Figure 8. Converted DC Output to AC after the


Inverter Block

Figure 10. Output of the Single-phase line that is connected to the


PV System with Varying Cell Temperature

C. Varied Irradiation and Cell Temperature from the PV


System
In this section, the output power from the line that is
connected to the PV system is evaluated. Simulations of the
grid-connected PV system were run with varied irradiation
and the cell temperature. The next few figures show the
results of the simulations.
Figure 9 shows the output from the line that is connected
to the PV system. Varying irradiation of the PV system from
400 W to 1000 W in steps of 200 W was run. The cell
temperature was set at a constant of 25 C. From the figure
9, it can be seen that the power on the line increases when
the irradiation increases. Figure 10 shows the output from the
line that is connected to the PV system when the cell
temperature was varied from 10 C to 45 C and the
irradiation was set to 1000 W. The figure 10 shows that the
power would increase when the cell temperature increases.

D. Simulated Results of Deviations in Frequency and


Voltage from the Grid
In this section, the controller block will be evaluated with
respect to deviation of voltage and frequency from the grid.
The PV system is disconnected or connected to the grid by
the controller that uses the information from the grid.
The controller has an operating window for both the
frequency and voltage of the grid that it is connected. When
the frequency and/or voltage on the grid go beyond this
operating window, the controller will disconnect the PV
system from the grid. Voltage is related to power by the
equation
P=I*V=V2/R
Therefore, if voltage increases or decreases on the grid,
power on the grid would be affected. Figure 11 shows
simulated results of the voltage deviations from the grid. 1
pu is the nominal power of the grid. If the nominal power
continues to run on the line, the PV system would continue
to be connected to the line. Once the power falls below or
above the operating window, it will be disconnected from the
grid. This can be observed in the figure 11 where the power
above the operating window is 1.26 pu and power below the
operating window is 0.79 pu. In both cases, the controller
disconnects the PV system from the line, and the line has the
power purely from 3- phase source running on it.
Figure 12 shows the simulated results of frequency
deviation on the grid. It can be clearly seen that the controller
disconnects the PV system from the grid when the frequency
on the grid operates beyond the specified operating window.
In the figure 12, the nominal frequency used was 50 Hz. 40
Hz and 60 Hz are the frequencies that went below and above
the operating window respectively. It can be observed from
the figure 12 that the controller disconnects the PV system
from the grid at the 40 Hz and 60 Hz frequencies, leaving
only the source power to run on the line.

Figure 9. Output of the Single-Phase line that is connected to the


PV System with Varying Irradiation

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V.

PAYBACK ANALYSIS

Installation cost of Photovoltaic system


Cost per MW = 1 crore
MW to be Generated = 125
Total cost for 125 MW generation = 125 crore
Energy produced by the system per annum
=125*365*24 MW-h
Or
= 125*8760*106 W-h
Or
= 125*8760*103 Units
Cost of energy per unit = Rs. 10
Cost of energy produced by photovoltaic system per annum
= 125*8760*104
Or
= 125*87.60*106
Or
= 125*87.60 Lack
Cost of energy produced by photovoltaic system in 10
years = 109.50 Crore
Cost of echo friendly environment due to non pollution
power generation in 10 years about 50 Crore.
So total aggregate cost of energy produced by PV System
in 10 years =159.50 crore
From above analysis it is clear that over system payback
the installation cost in 8 to 10 years.
Due to latest development in PV technology the
installation cost of photovoltaic system is rapidly reducing
and the payback period lies between 5 to 7 years.
The most solar panels are warranted for 25 years and will
probably perform even longer if properly cared for.
Therefore, a payback calculation needs to look at the savings
from the solar system across a 25 years period.

Figure 11. Voltage Deviations on the Grid

VI.

Figure 12. Frequency Deviations on the Grid

CONCLUSION

The objective of this dissertation is study an experimental


model of grid-connected photovoltaic system. Now, the
experimental model consists of the main element PV system,
and other elements such as the inverter, the controller, the 3phase source and the load.The proposed design options are
able to achieve 2% to 4% conversion efficiency
improvements under different conditions, which directly
improve system performance. Optimum inverter sizing
depends on climate, tilt and variables as orientation and
shading not taken into account in this analysis. This makes
clear that system optimization for specific applications are
necessary. However, some general rules could be drawn
under some parameters. Its survival time is as large as 20
years and therefore the cost of photovoltaic system is
recorded in about 10 years of working. If the rest of the life
of PV system is up to 25 years leads to free power generation
with non pollution of environments.
However, further work is needed to evaluate impact on
system lifetime, reliability, and economic and environmental
cost.

The PV system will reconnect to the grid when frequency


and voltage deviations are not present. From the simulated
results, the experimental model has shown that power
injected into the grid increases with increasing irradiation
and decreasing cell temperature of the PV system. The
experimental model also shows that with the implementation
of a controller, PV system can be disconnected from the grid
when there are voltage and frequency deviations. These
deviations on the grid could cause power quality problems
on the PV system. The controller in the experimental model
would also eliminate the problem of islanding, because when
the grid fails and power on the line falls below the operating
window, the controller will disconnect the PV system from
the grid automatically.

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