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# Cambridge International A and AS Level

Mathematics
Pure Mathematics 1 Practice Book
University of Cambridge International Examinations bears no responsibility for the example answers to
questions taken from its past question papers which are contained in this publication.

1 Algebra

(ii)

(vii) x =

3
2

or 1

(viii) x = 1 or 2
3

Exercise 1.1
1 (i)

(vi) x = 1 or 3

(ix) x =

11a 9b
17cd 3 14cd 15c 4 d 2

(x)

2
5

or 3

x =1

(xi) x = 1

(iii) 5a + 3ab

(iv) 2f g

(xii) x =

1
3

or 3
2

(v)

6x
y

(xiii) x = 0 or 2

(vi)

8
x

(xiv) x = 4 or
3

(vii) 149

2 (i)

60 x

(ii)

(viii) x + 15
20

2 (i)

3mn2 ( 4 + 3n)

(ii)

( p 4 )( p + 3)

(iii)

(3q 1)(q + 2)

(iv)

(t 2u )( s + p)

3 (i)
(ii)

2
12

= 1
6

4 x = 168km
5 (i)

e =

bd
v bc

pn
m2 + w
fu
(iii) v =
uf

(ii)

k =

p
d
(iv) e =
3 12 2w

Exercise 1.2
1 (i)

x = 0 or 5

(ii)

x = 5 or 5

(iii) x = 4 or 2
(iv) x = 7 or 2
(v)

x = 1
x =

1
2

or 2

(iii) x = 4
(iv) x = 1 or x = 2
(v)

x = 1
2

(vi) x = 4

Exercise 1.3

x = 17
x =

1
2

x = 8 or 5

1 (i)

( x 3)2 8

(ii)

( x + 2)2 4

(iii)

(x )
3
2

1
4

(iv) ( x + 1)2 + 4
2 (i)
(ii)

x = 3

x = 0 or 4

(iii) x = 2 or 1
3 (i)
(ii)

2( x 1)2 + 5
2 ( x + 3)2 7

(iii) 3( x + 2)2 16
(iv) 5( x 4)2 8
(v)

4( x + 3)2 52

(vi) 9 x

1
3

P1

4 (i)

a = 19, b = 4

(v)

(ii) a = 2, b = 1
5 a = 15, b = 2, c = 2
6 (i)

y
5

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5

4
3
2

1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

2 3 4 5 6 7x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

Vertex(

1
2

, 1)

2
3

(vi)

4
5
Vertex (1, 0)

(ii)

4
3
2

4
3

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

5
Vertex ( 2, 1)

(vii)

4
5
Vertex (4, 2)

3
2
1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

2
3
4
5
Vertex (0.5, 2.25)

(viii)

y
5
4
3

5
4
3
2
1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5

y
5
4

y
5
4
3
2
1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x
1
2
3
4
5
Vertex (2, 1)

(iv)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

(iii)

y
5

y
5

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

Vertex ( 12 , 4 )

y
5
4
3
2
1

3
4
5
Vertex (1, 1)

7 (i)
(ii)

y = ( x 4)2 2
2

y = ( x 1) + 5

(iii) y = x ( x + 2) = ( x + 1)2 1
(iv) y = ( x 3)2 + 4

(iii) k >

2 or k < 2

P1

(iv) k < 1
8 (i)
(ii)

m = 4, n = 12
p = 16

Exercise 1.5
Exercise 1.4
1 (i)

## x = 1.79 or 2.79 (3 s.f.)

(ii) x = 2, y = 5

## x = 6.14 or 1.14 (3 s.f.)

(iii) x = 3, y = 12

## (iii) x = 0.180 or 1.85 (3 s.f.)

(iv) x = 0.354 or 2.35
2 (i)
(ii)

x = 3, y = 1

3 2

(iv) x = 6, y = 3

Exercise 1.6
1 (i)

5 3

(ii)

(iii) 3 5

(ii)

1 (i)

x 9
x < 8

3 a = 3.

2 (i)

y
5

x < 0 or x > 1

## 4 Using to be the value of the discriminant:

(i)

No solutions

(ii) No solutions

(v)

No solutions

(ii)

5x

5x

k = 4 or 4

(ii)

y
5

0<
x<
1

1> k
k <1

k < 6 or k > 6

(iv) k >

(iv) k = 0 or 4

(ii)

k = 4

(iii) k = 2

6 (i)

0
1
2

## (vi) Two solutions

5 (i)

36
24

1 0
1
2

k > 3

7 (i)
(ii)

2 <k <
1
36

<k

k >

1
36

P1

(iii)

x < 1 or x > 1

(vi)

y
5
4

1
4

(iv)

3 < x < 3

5x

3x

y
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

(vii) 2 x 4

1 2 3 4 5x

y
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

5432110 1 2 3 4 5 x
2
3
4
5

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

y
5
4
3
2
1

5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(v)

x < 5 or x > 0

4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1 2 3 4 5 6 x

10 8

y
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
2 20
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

(ix)

x < 5 or x >

3
2

(xii)

x < 0 or x > 2
y
4

P1

3
20
2
1
10
2

3x

1
4

2
3

10

(x)

1
2

y
30

<x<3

## 1 (i) The equation could be thought of in the form

2
y = a ( x b ) + c.

25
20

## Since the vertex is at approximately (9, 15) the

15

equation becomes y = a ( x 9) + 15 .
2

10

## Substituting the point (0, 8) we get:

8 = a ( 0 9) + 15
2

2
5
10

6x

7 = a 81

(xi) 3 x

1
3

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

7
81

Equation is y = 15

7
81

( x 9)

chosen.)

y
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
6 5 4 3 2 1
2

a=

## (ii) Many answers are possible.

One approach is to determine the co-ordinates
of the centre of the hoop and ensure these
co-ordinates fit the equation.
1 2 3 x

b
c
x + = 0
a
a

2 (i)

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x 2 +

## Given the roots we can write the equation as:

( x )( x ) =

x x x + = 0

x 2 ( + ) x + = 0
Equating, we get
( + ) =

b
a

+ =

b
a

c
a

P1

(ii)

4 x 2 + ( k + 2) x + 72 = 0

(3 x )2 3 3 x 54 = 0

## The roots are and 2 .

Let t = 3 x

k+2
and 2 =
4
Solving the second equation,

+ 2 =

or ( 3) + 2 ( 3) =
4
3

7
3

and =
4
3
7
3

1 1 +
+
=
=

x +

3
7

4
7

and 1 =

= 3 + 3 + 3 ( + )
Rearranging, we get
3

3 + 3 = ( + ) 3 ( + )
= 23 3(3)(2) = 10

3
7

= 0 or 7 x 2 4 x + 3 = 0

+ ) = 3 + 3 2 + 3 2 + 3

( )

3 = 6 or 9

3 x = 6 has no solutions so 3 x = 9 x = 2
x
x
4 k2 + 2 = 8

1
=8
t
kt 2 + 1 = 8t
kt +

kt 2 8t + 1 = 0

7

## Let t = 2 x, the equation can then be written as

k+2
k = 34
4

(iv) + = 2 and = 3

+ 6)(t 9) = 0
t = 6 or 9

k+2
3+23 =
k = 38
4

(t

2 = 9
= 3
Substituting into the first equation we get:

4
2

t 2 3t 54 = 0

72
4

2 2 = 18

(iii) + =

3 9 x 3x + 1 54 = 0

= 33 = 27

The equation is x 2 + 10 x + 27 = 0

## For a single solution b2 4ac = 0

( 8)2 4 k 1 = 0 k = 16
16t 2 8t + 1 = 0

( 4t 1)2
2x =

1
4

=0t =

1
4

x = 2

Exam focus
1 a = 2, b = 2, c = 20
2 a = 4 and b = 2
3 x 1 or x
4 (i)
(ii)

1
2

Vertex is (4, 6)
6 < x < 2

2 Co-ordinate geometry

3 (i)

3y = x 6

Exercise 2.1

x + 3y + 6 = 0

1 (i)

(ii) 15 y = 12 x + 5

m=3

(ii) m = 0
(iii) m = 1

12 x 15 y + 5 = 0

Exercise 2.3

1 A: y = x + 1 or x + y = 1

## 2 (i) Length 20 4.47

Mid-point = (1, 0)

(ii) Length =

B: y = 2 x 3
C: y =

116 10.8

D: y = 3

Mid-point = (10, 2)

(iii) Length =

E: x = 6
F: y = 2 x 2
3

80 8.94

Mid-point = (1, 1)

(iv) Length =

1
x
3

1
2

1
2

180 13.4

Mid-point = (7, 3)

1
4

2 1 = 7

3
7

2
3

0.3 =

3 m = 5
3 (i)

n=5

4 (i)

(ii)

x=0

3
10

10
3

y = 2x 7
y = 1x
2

1
2

(iii)

(ii) x = 4

y = 0.5x 0.5

(iii) x = 1
5 (i)

m1 = 26.6

m2 = 63.4

m3 = 135

4 (i)

Gradient: 3, y intercept: 1

(ii)

(iii)
4x + 3y = 1

, y intercept: 2

4x + 3y = 8

## 2 (i) Equation: y = x + 2, Gradient: 1, y intercept: 2

Equation: y = 3 x 2 , Gradient: 3, y intercept: 2
2

intercept:

9
4

(iv) Equation: y =
intercept: 4

3
2

x 4 , Gradient: 3 , y
2

y
5
4
3
2
1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5

3 x 4 y 13 = 0

(ii)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4 x + 3y + 8 = 0

1
2

2x y = 7

2
3
4
5

Exercise 2.2

y
5
2x y = 1
4
3
2
1

7 6 5 4 3 2 110

## (ii) 36.9 (1 d.p.)

1 (i)

P1

5 (i)

3x 4y = 13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7x

( 32 , 4)

(ii) x + 2y 2 = 0

y
3
2
1

(iii)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

P1

## 1 The diagram shows the relationship between the

tangent and normal at the point A.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8x

4
3
A

1 Area =

8
3

= 51

y = 3 x 7
3

3
2

) (
2

+ 2 5

= 4.74 (3 s.f.)

1
8

2x 2 = 4x 2

2x 2 + 4x + 2 = 0

x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0

(x + 1)(x + 1) = 0

5 a : b = 3 : 2

x = 1

6 (i)

y = 2(1)2 = 2

b = 10

(ii)

3
4

y =

x+

31
4

(iii) y = 4 x
3

So A is (1, 2).

or 3 x 4 y + 31 = 0

8
3

## The gradient of the tangent to the curve is 4 so the

or 4 x + 3 y + 8 = 0

1
4

y = mx + c 2 =

Exercise 2.5
1 (i)

(1, 3) or (2, 4)

y=

1
4

x+

1
4

1 + c c =

## (iii) (2, 13)

2x 2 = 14 x +

( , 6) or (3, 1)

(v)

1
2

7
,
3

4
3

) or ( 1, 2)

(8x 9)(x + 1) = 0

x=

Substitute x =

2 k = 8

( ) = 2
So B is ( , ).
y =2

9
8

5 k = 2 or 1

6 k = 7 or 1

or 1

9
8

9
8

81
64

81
32

81
32

0 <k < 4

(ii) Point is

9
8

9
8

## find the y co-ordinate:

3 k > 2 or k < 2

7 (i)

9
4

8x 2 = x + 9 8x 2 x 9 = 0

(vi) (4, 1)

4 k >

9
4

9
4

(iv)

simultaneously:

3 (i)

4 y = 3 x +

## To find where the line meets the curve, solve

16
3

4=

4x + y + 2 = 0 y = 4x 2

2 y = 2 x 2

(ii) d =

( 3)
1
,
2

## 8 Area of triangle ABC =

8

Exercise 2.4
1
2

y
5

of AB.
AB =
1
2

7 1 3 = 11 1 .
2

( 1 89 ) + (2 3281 )
2

= 2.19 (3 s.f.)

y
x

a b
bx ay = 4ab
bx 4ab = ay
bx 4ab
y =
a
b
y = x 4b
a

## From this form the gradient of the line is b ,

a
so b = 1 2b = a
2
a

k 2 36
1=
8
k 2 36

=
8
k 2 36
=
8
k 2 36 =

P1

9
8
8
64

k = 100
k = 10
y

x 0
x

= 4
= 4 x = 4a , so M is (4a, 0).
a b
a

y
0 y

a b
b

(4a)2 + (4b)2 =

16a2 + 16b2 =

0 2
14 12 10 8 6 4 2
2
B1
4

16a2 + 16b2

720

## 16(2b )2 + 16b2 = 720

16 4b2 + 16b2 = 720
64b2 + 16b2 = 720
80b2 = 720

b2 = 9
b = 3
a = 2b = 6

8 10 12 14 x
B2

6
8

x 2 4 x + 3 = ( x 1) ( x 3) so the x intercepts
4 (i) 
are x = 1 or 3.

## So the line must pass through (1, 0) or (3, 0).

y = kx + 1 0 = k 1 + 1 k = 1

or y = kx + 1 0 = k 3 + 1 k = 1
3

## So the line must pass through (a, 0) or (b, 0).

1
a

1
y = kx + 1 0 = k b + 1 k =
b
y = kx + 1 0 = k a + 1 k =

y
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
6 4 2
2

10

## 16a2 + 16b2 = 720

By Pythagoras theorem,
MN =

## So the line must pass through (a, 0) or (b, 0).

c
a

c
y = mx + c 0 = k b + c k =
b

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 x

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

y = mx + c 0 = k a + c k =

5 2 y = kx + 1 y =

k
1
x +
2
2

k
1
x +
2
2
4 x 2 + 2 x + 2 = kx + 1
2x 2 + x + 1 =

4 x 2 + (2 k ) x + 1 = 0

## 3 Mid-point of A(6, 1) and B(k, 3) is

( 62+ k , 1 +23 ) = ( k 2 6 , 1) .

4 .
Gradient of AB is 1 ( 3) =
6 k
6 k
Gradient of perpendicular is 6 k = 6 + k .
4
4

## For two points of intersection, b2 4ac > 0

(2 k )2 4 4 1 > 0
4 4k + k 2 16 > 0
k 2 4k 12 > 0

(k

+ 2) ( k 6) > 0
k < 2 or k > 6

y = mx + c 1 =

6+k k 6

+c
4
2
2

k 36
+c
8
2
k 36
c =
1
8

1 =

## Since the y intercept is 9,

Exam focus
1 The co-ordinates of D are (0, 1).
2 (i)

The equation of CD is y = 1 x + 11 .
2

## (ii) The equation of BD is y = 2x 14.

(iii) The co-ordinates of D are (10, 6).
3 k = 5

P1

Exercise 3.1

10 (i)

11 (i)

(ii) 73
58
15

(iv) 2.15

x = 1 or 16

(ii) 121.5

1 (i) 71

(iii)

\$29900 (3 s.f.)

12 (i)

## For the A.P., a = 18

u4 = a + (4 1)d = 18 + 3d
u6 = a + (6 1)d = 18 + 5d

2 (i) 27
(ii) 1080

## First three terms of the G.P. are

(iii) 1591

18, 18 + 3d, 18 + 5d

(iv) 8 4.05

So r =

3 878

(18 + 3d )2

9d 2 + 18d = 0
9d (d + 2) = 0
d = 0 or 2

5 78
6 \$60

Since d 0, d = 2

7 290
8 (i)

When d = 2 ,

(ii) n = 23

r =

9 6

Exercise 3.2
1 (i) 256
1
8

(ii)

(ii)

54

(iii)

n = 19

1 (i)

(ii)
2 (i)

2 (i) 765
(ii) 121.5

(ii)

## (iii) 213000 (3 s.f.)

(iv) 200

(iv)

5 u5 = 128 0.752 = 72
S

227.5
=
= 910.2
1 0.75

6 S

8
= 12
= 12
1 r

10

()
1
3

< x <

8 r =
u6 =

x 4 + 8 x 3 + 24 x 2 + 32 x + 16
1 9 x + 27 x 2 27 x 3
256 x 8 3072 x 7 + 16128 x 6 ...
1
12 60
+ 4 + 2 + ...
x6
x
x
1
7
21
+ 9 + 4 + ...
x 14
x
x

3 The x2 term is

4 x = 8

1
2

12
18

u5 = 8

18 + 3d
18 + 3 2
=
=
18
18

Exercise 3.3

(iii) 1 10

= 18 (18 + 5d )

4 10m + 9n

18 + 3d
18 + 5d
=
18
18 + 3d

5 1

1
2

2
8
=
=
2
2
2

8
81

4 The x4 term is

()

10
(2 x )6 1
x
4
8
2

= 13440 x 2

( 2x ) ( 3x )
6

15 2
6 x

( )

6 (i)

5
3
x

= 78 203125

2

( 2 )6 1 = 8

7 k = 3
8 b = 1
2

63 4
x
16

2
3

S30 = 450

## (ii) The coefficient of the x 2 term is 243

The coefficient of the x term is 720

11 (i)

## (ii) The coefficient of the x 4 term is 10206

12 (i)

x + 24 x + 252 x + ...

6
(ii) The coefficient of the x term is 228

Solving simultaneously:

a + 2d = 0

6a + 87d = 90

a = 2.4, d = 1.2

For Stamp 1,

## Stretch and challenge

1 u7 = 400 a + 6d = 400
30
2

S30 = 1800

## [2a + (30 1) d ] = 1800

Solving simultaneously,
d = 40 and a = 640
So Anna used Facebook for 640 minutes in week 1 of
her plan.

( )

6 r

7
3
x

For stamp 2:

## 15 [ 2a + 29d ] = 1800 30a + 435d = 1800

2a + 29d = 120

a 0.9610 = 33 400
33 400
a=
= \$50 238
0.9610
So the second stamp was bought for \$50238

6 (i)

3
6
( 3 )6 3 73 = 20k 3 x 9 343
3 kx
x
x9

( )

8r

m
x4

( )

84

m
x4

4 16

= 70k x

m4
16 = 70k 4 m4
x

## The expansion is:

x 10 + 10ax 9 + 45a2 x 8 + 120a3 x 7 +
210a4 x 6 + 252a5 x 5 + 210a6 x 4 + 120a7 x 3 +
Comparing the coefficients of the terms either
side of the x 3 term:
120a7 > 210a6 a >

8
kx 4
4

= 6860k 3

## 120a7 > 45a8 a <

7
4

k =

ar 5 + ar 6 = 729 ar 5 (1 + r ) = 729
729
3

r 5 = 243
r =

243 = 3

8
3

8
3

...

100
100
( x )44 ( a)56 +
( x )43 ( a)57
56
57

98
m4

3 a + ar = 3 a(1 + r ) = 3

ar 5 (1 + r )
=
a(1 + r )

< a<

7
4

## (ii) The terms we are interested in are:

So 70k 4 m4 = 6860k 3

10
( x )10 r ( a)r
r

8
kx 4
r

14 a = 2.5

6
kx 3
r

13 k = 4

P1

450

## 30a + 435d = 450

6a + 87d = 90

10

[2a + 29d ] =

30
2

100
( x )42 ( a)58 ...
58

We want

100 57
100 56
a >
a a>
57
56

57
44

and

100 57
100 58
a >
a a<
57
58

58
43

57
44

< a<

58
43

a (1 + ( 3)) = 3 2a = 3 a = 1.5

4 u12 = 3 u6 a + 11d = 3 ( a + 5d )

a + 11d = 3a + 15d
2a + 4d = 0
a + 2d = 0

11

P1

Exam focus

4 u21 = 15

1 (i)

## (ii) The coefficient of the x term is 435456.

12

()

2 2
4 x

12 4

(x )

3 135a4 = 2160

12

a4 = 16

a = 2

2 4

= 495

2
x 8 = 126720
x8

5 n = 29.
6 36

4 Functions

(vi) gf( x ) = 2 x x 2

Exercise 4.1

(vii) ff( x ) = x

1 (i) f(x) = x + 3

(viii) gg( x ) = 2 x 2 x 4

P1

(ii) f(x) = x 2 + 1

2 a = 3, b = 1 or a = 3, b = 2

(iii) f(x) = 2x + 1 = 1 2x

3 (i)

2
3x + 2
4(3 x + 2) + 2
=
3x + 2
12 x + 8 + 2
=
3x + 2
12 x + 10
=
3x + 2
= 4+

## (ii) Is not a function. Is not one-to-one.

(iii) Is a one-to-one function.
(iv) Is a function. Is not one-to-one.

(ii)
5 (i)

11
9

(iv) k > 2

f( 2) = 9

4 a = 3, b = 2

f( x + 1) = x 2
Is not a function. Is not one-to-one.

## (ii) Is a function. Is not one-to-one.

(iii) Is a one-to-one function.
(iv) Is a function. Is not one-to-one.
6 (i) Domain:

f(x) 2

Range:

5 (i)
(ii)

x 3 or x 1
5 x

Exercise 4.3
1 (i)

f 1( x ) =

1
3

x 1
2
f(x)
6

(ii) Domain:

(iii) x =

Range:

f(x) 3

(iii) Domain:

x1

Range:

f(x) 2

(iv) Domain:

Range:

f(x)

(1, 1)
6

Range:

9 Domain:
Range:

6x

0x4

0 f(x) 2

(ii)

f 1( x ) = 5 x

f(x)
6

f(x) 1

## 10 Given that x 1, the range is f(x) 3

Exercise 4.2
1 (i)

7 Range is f(x) 2
8 Domain:

4 (i)

6
x

## 2 All are functions.

3 (i)

fg( x ) = 14 +

(2.5, 2.5)

f( 2) = 3
6

(ii) g( 2) = 3

6x

(iii) fg( 2) = 4

(iv) gf( 2) = 8
(v) fg( x ) = x 2

13

P1

(iii) f( x ) = 1 5 x = 5 x + 1

f 1( x ) =

(ii)

f(x)
6

x 1 1 x
=
5
5

5
4

f(x)
6

3
2
1

1, 1
6 6

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

6x

2
3

6x

4
5

Domain f( x ) :

x2

Range f( x ) :

f( x ) 4

x 4
f 1( x ) 2

Domain f ( x ) :
1
Range f ( x ) :

(iv) f 1( x ) = 2( x + 1) = 2 x + 2
(iii)

f(x)
6

f(x)
6
5

4
3

2
1

(2, 2)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

6x

6x

8x

2
3

4
5

2 (i)

f(x)
6

Domain f( x ) :

x 1

Range f( x ) :

f( x ) 5

Domain f ( x ) : x 5
Range f 1( x ) : f 1( x ) 1

5
4
3

(iv)

f(x)
8

1
6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

7
1

6x

6
5

Domain f( x ) :

x0

Range f( x ) :

f( x ) 4

4 3 2 1 0
1

2
3

Domain f 1( x ) : x 4
Range f 1( x ) :

f 1( x ) 0

Domain f( x ) : x 2
Range f( x ) :

f( x ) 1

Domain f ( x ) : x 1
14

Range f 1( x ) :

f 1( x ) 2

9x
= 4x 1
9
4x 1
4x 1
9x
=

9
4x 1
= x

2

g(x)
6
5
4
3
2

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

f 1( x ) =

(ii)

1
1

P1

x +2
, x , x
4x 1

1
.
4

6x

## Stretch and challenge

1 (i) y = af ( b( x + c )) + d

3
4
5
6

Constant

2
3x 2
4 j1( x ) = 3 =
x
x
1

5 f ( x ) =

6 g1( x ) =

b

## b > 1 Horizontal compression

0 < b < 1 Horizontal expansion

( x 2)4 1
x0

(d < 0)

## (ii) The translation of f( x ) = x 2 3 x 3 units right

and one up is given by

7 k =

(ii)

## a > 1 Vertical expansion

a < 0 Reflects the graph in x axis

g( x ) 3
Domain g1( x ) : x 3
Range g1( x ) : g1( x ) 0

8 (i)

Effect on graph

x +1
1
2

Domain g( x ) :
Range g( x ) :

f( x 3) + 1

Range is 0 f 10

= ( x 3)2 3( x 3) + 1

= x 2 6 x + 9 3x + 9 + 1

f(x)

= x 2 9 x + 19
y
5
4
3
2
1
1

7x

1
x

(iii) 4 x 10

2 g(1) = f(0) = 1
g(2) = fg(1) = f(1) = 3
g(3) = fg(2) = f(3) = 7

9 (i)

x +2
+2
4x 1
x +2
ff( x ) = f
=
4x 1
x +2
4
1
4x 1

x + 2 + 2(4 x 1)
4x 1
=
4( x + 2) (4 x 1)
4x 1

## g(4) = fg(3) = f(7) = 15

We can see the pattern here, every number is one
less than a power of 2 so g(n) = 2n 1 .
h(0) = g(2) = 3
h(1) = gh(0) = g(3) = 7
h(2) = gh(1) = g(7) = 27 1 = 127

15

P1

2 (i)

3 f( x + 1) + f( x 1) = af( x )

x +1
x 1
x
3

a=

+3

(ii)

= a3

3 x + 1 + 3 x 1 3 x (3 + 31)
=
= 3 + 31 =
3x
3x

10
3

## 4 f(2n 1) = a(2n 1) + b = 2an a + b

f(2n) 1 = a(2n) + b 1 = 2an + b 1

2f(n) 1 = 2( an + b ) 1 = 2an + 2b 1

## 2an + b is common to all three expression

so the three expressions can be simplified to
a, 1 and b 1 .

## Since 1 is one of the terms, the possible

consecutive terms are

a = 2b = 3

3 (i)

x = 2
k = 3.

(ii) g1( x ) =
4 (i)

x =

1
3

x+73

or x = 2
2 7x
2x 1

g1( x ) =

(ii)

## (iii) Since b2 4ac = ( 1)2 4 1 1 = 3 the

equation has no real solutions.

(iv) f 1g( x ) =

x+4
2x + 7

(v)
Point on y = f 1( x)

Point on y = f( x)

(i)

3, 2, 1

(0, 2)

(2, 0)

(ii)

2, 1, 0

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(1, 5)

(5, 1)

(iii) 1, 0, 1
(i)

a = 3, b = 1 f(n) = 3n 1

a = 2, b = 2 f(n) = 2n 2

(ii)

a = 2, b = 1 f(n) = 2n + 1

f(x)
8
6
4

(iii) a = 1, b = 1 f(n) = n + 1

Exam focus

0
2

1 The domain of f( x ) is x 2

The range of f( x ) is y 2

The domain of f ( x ) is x 2
1

The range of f ( x ) is y 2

16

y=x

5 Differentiation

Exercise 5.3
1 (i)

Exercise 5.1

dy
= 20 x 3
dx

1 (i)

dy
= 1 20 x 3
dx

(ii)

(iii) dy = 10 x 3 = 10
3
dx

dx

1.0

1.5 x

y =

(vi) y =

dy

=
dx

(viii) y =

1
4

x 2

x +

1
2x 2

3x

2
=
3x

## (0, 0) is a local minimum

(1, 1) is a local minimum

## (ii) Points are

1
3=
3
x
1
x3

dy
3 x 4
3
1
x 3
=
=
=

3
dx
4
4
4x 4
4x

(vii) y = 2 x 3 x =

( , 4) and (
1
2

2x
3

f ( x ) = 2 x 2 2 x 3 =

2 (i)
(ii)

f ( x ) =

1
3x 2

3x 2

(iv) f ( x ) = 6

15
10
5
1

1
5
,
3
27

15
20
25
30

= 10 3 x 2

) or (1, 3).

## ( ) > 0 ( , 4) is a local minimum

f ( ) < 0 ( , 4 ) is a local maximum
f

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

## (iii) Point is (1, 2)

y
7

Exercise 5.2
1 Equation of the tangent is: y = 10 x 8

2 y = 4 x 17

PR =

12 + 12 =

(ii) S is (1, 0)
4 (i)
(ii)
5 k = 5

y = 2x + 4 2x y + 4 = 0

Q is 4 1 , 6 3

0.5

10

## 4 Point is (5, 18).

5 Points are

0
5

0.5

3
x

= 3 x

27

20

2
2
3
x2
x

3 f (9) = 3 + 5 = 3 + 5 = 5 1 = 4 8
93

25

2
2 x 2

(iii) f ( x ) =
=
2
2 x 2

2
5 3
x

1
,
2

y
30

2
dy
2 x 2
1
1
2

= x 3 +
=

2
dx
3
3
33 x 2 3 x

3 (i)

= 2x 2

4 x
1
= 4 x 1 x
4
x 4
dy
4
1

= 4 x 2 = 2
4
dx
x

(v)

(iv) dy = 6 x

P1

## Stationary points are (0, 0) and (1, 1).

3 2 1 0

x = 1 is a local minimum

8x
17

P1

2 0 < x < 1

3 (i)

## 3 Since the discriminant is < 0, there are no solutions

when 1 + 2 x 3 x 2 = 0
So 1 + 2 x 3 x 2 = 0 is always < 0

4 (i)

y
5
4
x
2

3
2

()

h2 + x
2

1
0
1

2x

= x2

h2 = x 2

y = 2x3 3x2

x2
4

3x 2
4
3
h =
x
2

h2 =

3
4
5

(ii) Perimeter = 10
(ii)

g(x)
4
g(x) = 3x2 2x3

3 x + 2 y = 10 y =

A = xy +

= x

10 3 x
2

1
3
x
x
2
2

10 3 x
3 2
+
x
2
4

10 x 3 x 2
3 2
+
x
2
4
3
3 2
= 5x x 2 +
x
2
4
36 2
= 5x +
x
4
=

2x

dx

= 2.34m (3 s.f.)

5 (i)

k =5

is x = 8 = 2 2.
3

## (iii) f (1) = 6 1 + 5 = 11 > 0

x = 1 is a minimum

4 (i)

8
3

= 2r 2 +

is a maximum

Exercise 5.4
1 Maximum value of P is 9 9 = 81
2 Dimensions are 3m by 4.5m.

V = r 2h = 5000 h =

5000
r 2

S = 2r 2 + 2rh
5000
= 2r 2 + 2r
r 2

8
8
f = 6 + 5 = 11 < 0
3
3

x =

18

10 000
r

dr

r =

10 000
= 9.27cm
4

## (iii) r = 9.27 is a minimum value

5 (i)

2b + 2r = 400

(vi) y = x + 3 = 2 ( x + 3)

2b = 400 2r
b = 200 r

(ii)

400
= 31.8 m (3 s.f.)
4
b = 200 31.8... = 100 m

dy
2
2
= 2 ( x + 3) =
dx
( x + 3)2

r =

## 6 Let the length of the end be x

Let the length be y

V = x y
= x 2 (120 4 x )
= 120 x 4 x

(1 2 x )2

dV
= 240 x 12 x 2
dx

= 4 (1 2 x )

1
5

= 5 (5 x + 3) 2
5x + 3

3
dy
25

5
= ( 5 x + 3) 2 5 =
3
2
dx
2 ( 5 x + 3)

dV
= 0
dx

## Maximum volume when

240 x 12 x 2 = 0
12 x (20 x ) = 0

y = mx + c 3 = 2 12 + c c = 21
y = 2 x 21

3 Point is (2, 2)

x = 0cm or 20cm

4 g( x ) = 9 ( x + 2)

Since x 0, x = 20cm
y = 120 4 20 = 40 cm

## Since g( x ) > 0 for all values of x, the curve is always

increasing so there are no stationary points.

Volume is 16000cm3

inverse.

## The graph of y = g( x ) for x > 2 and its inverse are

shown on the next page.

9 Dimensions are:

g(x)

## length = 1.87m, width = 7.47m, height = 3.56m

(ii)

y = ( x 4)7

dy
= 7( x 4)6
dx

y = (3 x + 2)8

dy
= 8(3 x + 2)7 3
dx

1
2

3 x

1
2
3
4

1
3

(1 9 x )

6 (i)

2
3

3
3

5 (i)
(ii)

(3 + 4 x )

1
2

1 9 x = (1 9 x ) 3

dy

=
dx

1
4 x )2

2
3 + 4x

y =

= 18(5 2 x )8

3 + 4 x = (3 +

(v)

dy
= 9(5 2 x )8 2
dx

dy

=
dx

= 24(3 x + 2)7

(iii) y = (5 2 x )9

(iv) y =

3
2

Exercise 5.5
1 (i)

dy
16
3
= 8 (1 2 x ) 2 =
dx

1
( 2 x )3

(viii) y =

(vii) y =

4x + y = 120 so y = 120 4x

P1

(1 9 x )2

k =

3
2

x <

5
2

or x >

1
2

dy
2
2
= 2 ( x 1) + 2 =
+2
dx
( x 1)2
d2 y
dx 2

= 4 ( x 1)

(x

1)

## (ii) maximum point A is (0, 2),

minimum point B is(2, 6)
19

P1

h
( a + b ) 200
2
h
h
60 + 60 + 2
=
200
2
3

7 0.2cm/s

8 0.111m/min (3 s.f.)
= 11.1cm/min (3 s.f.)

9 0.16 units/s

= 100h 120 +

2h
3

10 (i)

= 200h 60 +

h
3

12 (i)

## 1 (i) g(x) = k 2x so if the gradient of the normal

is 1 , the gradient of the tangent is 2.
2

k 2 2x 5 22

60 cm

k 2 2 3 2 5 22

120 cm

80 cm
x

h
30 cm

Equation of the normal is y = mx + c

y + 80
h+ y

x

k52

(ii) 
The y value when x = 2 is g(2) = 2 3 2 2 22 = 0.

60

k 2 4 5 22

0 =
y
y = 80 cm
30

= h + 80 3h + 240 = 8 x x =
x

+ 30 + 30
2

Volume = 120

h=

3 2
h
8

3
h
8

1
2

+ 30

x 1

+ 60h
2

x 1 = 2x x 2
x 2 = 4 x 2x 2

3 2
h
16

2x 3x 2 = 0
(2 x + 1)( x 2) = 0

+ 30h

x = 1 or 2

3 2
h + 30h
16

2

g(

1
)
2

= 2

1
2

( )

1 2
2

1 41

g(x)
3

## Since h cannot be negative, h = 10.4 cm

2
1

13 (i)

2 1 0
P 1
h

3 =

4 x

In the right-angled triangle
tan60 = x

60

x 2 + 102 so cos =

2 (i) SP =

h
h
x =
x
3

PW =

h

Length of CD is 60 + 2x = 60 + 2

Volume = area of trapezium length

## The co-ordinates of the point P are 21 , 1 41 .

(iii) 0.983cm/min

20

1
2

= 45 h2 + 3600h cm3

2 + c c = 1 so y =

To find the other point, solve simultaneously

## Area of trapezium cross-section

3
h
8

1
2

x
x 2 + 102

(30 x )2 + 52

(900 60 x + x 2 ) + 25

925 60 x + x 2

cos =

30 x
925 60 x + x 2

(ii)

x 2 + 102
+
10

Time T =

925 60 x + x 2
5

1
[cos
10

T = 0 when

4 x

## 5 AE2 + 302 = 502 AE = 40km

2cos ]
1
[cos
10

2cos ] = 0

50 km

cos = 2cos

3 (i)

P1

1 2
( x + 100) 2 2 x +

2
T = 1

1
10

2 1 (925 60 x + x 2 ) 2 (2 x 60)

2
x
2(
30)

x
+
= 1 2
10 x + 100
925 60 x + x 2
x
30 x

2
= 1 2
10 x + 100
925 60 x + x 2

f(x)

x 2 + 102 + 2 925 60 x + x 2
10

30 km

V = r 2h

()

R2 = r 2 + h
2

r 2 = R2

40 x

h
4

30 km
50 km

h2
V = R2
h
4

h3
= R h
4
dV

h2
3
= R2
dh
4
dV
3h2
= 0 when R2
= 0
dh
4
2

R2 =

## In triangle BDE, BD2 = x 2 + 302 BD =

Total length of road, L, is:
L = AD + BD + CD

(ii)

Vcylinder
r 2h
= 4 3
Vsphere
3 R
=

= 1 +
R2
2R2
=
3
3

1 2
(x
2

( )
2
3R

2R

4R
2R2 2R
3

3 3
4R 3

4R
3
=
4R 3
1
=
3

+ 900)

1
2

2x

2x
2

x + 900

## Minimum length is when

1 +

2x
x 2 + 900
2x

= 0
=1

2x =

dL
= 1 + 2
dx

x 2 + 900

3r 2h
4R 3
3

= (40 x ) + 2( x 2 + 900) 2

= R2

x 2 + 900

= (40 x ) + 2 x 2 + 900

4R
= h2
3
2R
h=
3

2R

3
h2
2
2
2
r = R
= R
4
4
2
r =
R
3

x 2 + 900 +

= (40 x ) +

3h2
4

x 2 + 900

x 2 + 900

4 x 2 = x 2 + 900
3 x 2 = 900
x 2 = 300
x =

300 17.3 km

L = (40 x ) + 2 x 2 + 900
= (40 17.3...) + 2 (17.3...)2 + 900
= 91.9615... km
= 92 km (3 s.f.)

So ratio is 1: 3 or 3:3
21

P1

Exam focus

7 (i)

13
6

and

16
2,
3

Volume = r 2h +

.
r 2h = 100

2
r 3
3

100

2
r 3
3

## The slope of the normal is

h=

y = 3 x + 8 or 3 x + y 8 = 0

y = mx + c

5=

1
3

c =

14
3

## The equation of the normal is

y =

1
3

x +

14
3

(ii)

or x 3 y + 14 = 0

dx 2

At x = 0,
At x = 2,

dx 2
d2 y

At x = 2,
minimum.

d2 y
dx 2

1
( 4 r 2 )
2

200 4 r 2

+ 3r 2
r
3
200
=
+ 3 4 r 2
r
3
200 5 2
=
+
r
r
3
=

= 16 so (0, 2) is a maximum.

dx 2
minimum.

## (iii) Stationary point is when

= 12 22 16 = 32 so (2, 14) is a

200 10
+
r = 0
3
r2
10 3
200 +
r = 0
3
200
r3 =
= 19.098...
10
3
r = 2.67cm (3 s.f.)

## 4 The function is increasing for 0 < x < 4.

5 1200mm2 /minute
6 0.012 units/second

22

S = 2rh + r 2 +

= 12 x 2 16
d2 y

r 2

100 2r
S = 2r 2 + r 2 + 2r 2
3
r

3 The stationary points are (0, 2), (2, 14) and (2, 14).
d2 y

) = r h +

2
r 3
100
3
=

r 2
r 2
= 100
2r
3
r 2

1
3

1+ c

1 4
r 3
2 3

## (iv) r = 2.67cm is a minimum value.

2
r 3
3

= 100

6 Integration

7 Area = 4.5

Exercise 6.1

x4
x2
+
+c
2
2

1 (i)
(ii)

x+

3x 2
+c
2

(2, 5)

(iii) x 2 x 5 + c
(iv)

5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1
2
3
4
5

x2 x6
+
+c
4
3

(v)

(vi)

1
+ 3x 2 + c
2x

93 x 4 + c
2

2 (i)

1
2
2
7 1 = 5
3
3
3

(iii) 4 x + c

(iv) 4 x 5 + c

## Area between curve and the y axis:

5
1
+c
3 +
x 3x 3

6 The equation is y = x +

3
2
x

A=

3x
+ x
2

2
3 22
+2 31 +1
2
2

4+7
1 = 5.5
2

(3 x + 1)6
18

(iii)
(iv)

2
3

(iii)

2
3

=5

1
3

4 Area = 2 5 1 = 10 2
3

5 Area = 10 ( 2) = 12
6 Total area = 5 + 1 = 6

x
+ 3 + c

+c

2 (1 x )
+c
3
3

3 (i)

= 4 4 10

+c

30

## 3 Area between the curve and the x axis:

= 10

+c

(1 6 x )10

(2 x 1) 2
2
3

(ii)

16
3

1
3

+c

2 The area is 1 1 .

3=9

( x 2)4

1 (3x + 1) dx

= 8 2.5
= 5.5

(ii)

1 (i)
(ii)

Exercise 6.2

2
3

Exercise 6.3

5 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 x 2 + 30

A=

= 925

10 k = 4

1
4 y = 3 + x + 2
x

1 (i)

6x

Area = 27 14 = 41

3
3

2x 3 6 x 5 + c
3
5

(ii)

(3, 0)

2
+c
x2

P1

y
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

(2 x + 1)2

+c

1
+c
4
6 ( x 4)

(iv)

2
+c
5
5 ( 7 x + 2)

(v)

3 5 2 x + c
x

(vi) 36 3 1 + + c
2

23

P1

Exercise 6.4

## Stretch and challenge

1 1 1 = 2
36 4
9

1 2 2 x + k x + 2 dx =

2 x + k x 2 + 4 x + 4 dx =

x 2 2 x + k 4 dx =

2 4

3 3

x3

2
3 x + k 4 x =

Exercise 6.5

2
0
3

8 = 25.1 ( 3 s.f.)

1 (i)

(ii)

= 4.19 ( 3 s.f.)

2 75.4 ( 3 s.f.)
V (solid) =

27

5 Points of intersection:
2 x ( x 2) = x
2x 2 3x = 0
x (2 x 3) = 0
x = 0 or x =

3
2

1 .5

x4 4x3 +

h
hr
r +c c =
Rr
Rr

15
4

dy

R r 2 y 3 2r R r y 2

+
+ r2y
=
h 3
h
2

x 2 dx

R r 2 h3 2r (R r ) h2

+ r 2h
+
=
h 3
h
2

2
h (R r )

=
+ hr (R r ) + r 2h
3

h R2 2Rr + r 2

=
+ hr R r + r 2h
3

h 2
2
2
2
=
R 2Rr + r + 3rR 3r + 3r
3
h 2
=
R + Rr + r 2
3

1.55
5 1.53
4

+
1
.
5

4
= 5

05
5 03
4
0 +

4
5

6 a = 8 ( since a > 0 )
1
2

0 x

h R r
2r (R r )
=
y2 +
y + r 2 dy
0 h
h

1 .5

1
h
3

R 2 + rR + r 2

M is (1, 8)

## (ii) Final volume = 150 66 = 84 264 units3

24

h
Rr

h
hr
x
Rr
Rr
hr
h
=
x
y +
Rr
Rr
Rr
x =
y +r
h
R r 2 2 2r (R r )
y + r2
x2 =
y +
h
h

x5
5x3
=
x4 +
5
4

10
3

y = mx + c 0 =

2
1
= x ( x 2) x dx
2
0

1 .5 4
1

= (x 4 x 3 + 4 x 2 ) x 2 dx
4
0

7 (i)

10
3

Equation is

1 .5

10
3

2k = 10
k =5

V =

V (solid)

27
40

+ 2k =

10
3

y =

1
2

x ( x 2) = x

20
3

10
3

+ k 4 2 =

10
3

## V (solid) = 24 15 = 9 = 28.3 (3 s.f.)

+ 4 + 2k 8 =

62 2 = 24

4 15

8
3

10
3

Area =

k +1

2 x 2 dx =
k +1

2x 3
3 k

109
6

109
6

2 ( k + 1)3 2k 3
=

3
3

109
6

2 ( k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1) 2k 3

=
3

109
6

2k 3 + 6k 2 + 6k + 2 2k 3 =

109
6

6k 2 + 6k + 2 =

109
6

2 ( k + 1)3 2k 3
=

3
3

109
6

2 ( k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1) 2k 3

=
3

109
6

2k 3 + 6k 2 + 6k + 2 2k 3 =

109
6

6k 2 + 6k + 2 = 109

6
3
2
2 ( 6k + 6k + 2) = 109

3
+c
4 ( 4 x + 1)

3 2
4 1

## 12k 2 + 12k 105 = 0

areaof OAFD

4k 2 + 4k 35 = 0

= ( 4 5) 12 ( 3 1)
1
3

( 2k + 7) ( 2k 5) = 0

Since x > 0, k =

5
2

or

= 4

7
2

6 Shaded Area = 42 2

5
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
4 x + y = R x = R y
2

8 (i)

w / 2w / 2 2 2
cylinder
x dxy dyV V
cylinder
w /2w / 2
w / 2w / 2
2= 2 x 2dxy2dy r 2wr 2w
0 0
w / 2w / 2
2= 2 R2R2 y2 yd2 y dy r 2wr 2w
0 0
w / 2w / 2
2 2 y 3 y 3
2 2

V =V =

( (

) )

1
2

1
2

1 1 =

=

2
3

1
2

1
6

## (ii) (a) Volume of curve rotated around the x axis:

Final volume =

r wr w
= 2= 2
R yR y
3 3

0 0

(b)
Final volume =

R2w
3
R2w w 3w
= 2= 2
r 2wr 2w
2
2 24
24

or
=

3 3

ww

2 w 2 2 2 2
R2Rw
r wr w
= 2= 2

2 2 3 3

15

21

or
1
5

w3w 3 2 2
= =R2w
r wr w
R2
w
12 12
2
w3w 3 2 2 w 2w
= =R2w
R
R2
w
R w w
12 12
4 4
w3w 3 2 2 w3w 3
= =R2w
R w
R2
w
R +
w +
12 12
4 4
1
6

18
units3
5

7 Volume =

w 2w 2
ww + r+2 r=2 R=2 R
2

r 2 r=2 R=2 R2
Also
Also
2 2
4 4

2
3

k =

P1

1
6

= =w3w 3

9 (i)

21

or

(ii)

Final volume =
Volume =

4
units3 0.838 units3 to 3 s.f.
15

or

## Since the volume does not depend on R, the claim

istrue.

Final volume =

3
5

15

units

Exam focus
1 The curve is y = x 2 + x 4
y
12
10
8
6
4
2
6

0
2

A(1, 2)

25

P1

7 Trigonometry
Exercise 7.1
1 (i)
(ii)

2 (i)

sin x tan x
LHS =

a=

b =

## 7.2225 2.69 m ( 3 s.f.)

=
=

(iii) c = 8.40 cm

(iv) = 40.5

=
=

2 (i)
(ii)

d = 11.1cm

(ii)

= 60.9
= 180 60.9 53 = 66.1

## tan x 1 sin2 x sin x cos x

LHS = tan x cos2 x
sin x
=
cos2 x
cos x
= sin x cos x
= RHS

(iii) x = 17.9 cm
(iv) = 107
(iii) 1 + cos x

sin x

(i)

Area = 27.1cm

RHS =

(ii)

Area = 512 cm

=
=

## (iv) Area = 5.49 m

4 (i)
(ii)

11.2 cm

sin x
1 cos x
sin x
1 + cos x

1 cos x 1 + cos x
sin x (1 + cos x )
1 cos2 x
sin x (1 + cos x )
sin2 x
1 + cos x
sin x
LHS

## (iv) tan2 x sin2 x tan2 x sin2 x

y = 6 cm

sin2 x
sin2 x
cos2 x
sin2 x sin2 x cos2 x
=
cos2 x

LHS =

Exercise 7.2

1
Angle

Other angle
thesamevalue

sin 30

sin 150

sin 210

sin 330

cos 60

1
2

1
2

1
2

cos 300

1
3

tan 30

tan 210

cos 150

cos 210

tan 120

tan 300

3
2

sin2 x 1 cos2 x
2

cos x
sin2 x sin2 x
=
cos2 x
2
sin x
=
sin2 x
cos2 x
= tan2 x sin2 x
= RHS

Exact value

thathas

26

1
cos x
cos x
sin x
sin x
cos x
sin2 x
cos x
1 cos2 x
cos x
cos2 x
1

cos x
cos x
1
cos x
cos x
RHS

3 (i)

(
= ( sin

)(
x ) (1)

## LHS = sin2 x cos2 x sin2 x + cos2 x

2

x cos

= sin2 x cos2 x
= RHS

sin (1 + sin )

(1 sin ) (1 + sin )
sin (1 + sin )

(ii)

tan x +

1
cos x

cos x
1 sin x
sin x
1
LHS =
+
cos x cos x
sin x + 1
=
cos x
sin x + 1 cos x
=

cos x
cos x
sin x + 1) cos x
(
=
1 sin2 x
( sin x + 1) cos x
=
(1 sin x )(1 + sin x )

(ii)

(iii)

cos x
cos x
2

1 cos x 1 + cos x
tan2 x
cos x
cos x
LHS =

1 cos x 1 + cos x
cos x (1 + cos x ) cos x (1 cos x )
=
(1 cos x ) (1 + cos x )
=

1
1
2
+

1 cos x 1 + cos x
sin2 x
LHS =

(1 + cos x ) + (1 cos x )
(1 cos x )(1 + cos x )

2
1 cos2 x
2
=
sin2 x
= RHS

(iv) 1 + tan2 x
1 tan2 x

LHS =

=
=
=

1
2cos2 x 1
sin2 x
1+
cos2 x
sin2 x
1
cos2 x
cos2 x + sin2 x
cos2 x
2
cos x sin2 x
cos2 x
1
cos2 x
cos2 x sin2 x
cos2 x
1
cos2 x

2
2
cos x cos x sin2 x
1
cos2 x sin2 x
1
2
cos x 1 cos2 x

1
2cos2 x 1
= RHS
=

4 (i)

P1

=
=

## cos x + cos2 x cos x + cos2 x

1 cos2 x
2cos2 x
sin2 x
2
sin2 x
cos2 x
2
tan2 x
RHS

cos x
1 sin x
= RHS
=

1 sin
sin
1
sin
=

sin sin
1
=
1
sin
= RHS
=

Exercise 7.3
1 (i)
(ii)

sin x =

15
4

tan2 x = 15
7
53

2 (i) cos x =
(ii)

3 (i)
(ii)

sin2 x =

4
53

x = 210 or 330
x = 30 or 150 or 210 or 330

## (iii) x = 63.4 or 243.4 (1d.p.)

(iv) x = 120
4 x = 21.1 or 81.1 or 141.1 (1d.p.)
y 1

5 (i)

cos
1

1
tan (1 + sin ) sin
cos
sin
(1 + sin )
cos
cos2
=
sin (1 + sin )

LHS =

0.25
1x

(1 sin )
2

=
=

sin (1 + sin )

(1 sin ) (1 + sin )
sin (1 + sin )

1 sin
=
sin
1
sin
=

27

P1

(ii)

y 1

7 (i)

## x = 90, 270, 60, 300

(ii)

x = 120, 120

(iii) x = 180
1

8 (i)

1x

0.7

4 cos2 x + 7sin x 2 = 0

4 1 sin2 x + 7sin x 2 = 0
2

4 4 sin x + 7sin x 2 = 0
4 sin2 x + 7sin x + 2 = 0
4 sin2 x 7sin x 2 = 0

( 4 sin x

x = 134.4 or 225.6

1
4

sin x =

y 1

(iii)

+ 1)(sin x 2) = 0

## Since sinx is never greater than 1, sin x =

(ii)
1

or sin x = 2

= 5.5, 214.5

1x

Exercise 7.4
1 Degrees
1

x = 41.2 or 221.2

(iv)

y 1

1 x

2
5

6 (i)

x = 203.6 or 336.4

( cos1 + tan )

1 + sin
1 sin

sin
( cos1 + cos
)
1 + sin
=(
cos )

LHS =

=
=
=

(1 + sin )2
cos2

(1 + sin )2

(1 sin )
2

(1 + sin )2

(1 sin ) (1 + sin )

1 + sin
1 sin
= RHS
=

(ii)
28

= 203.6 or 336.4

120

2
3

36

330

11
6

150

5
6

240

4
3

54

3
10

225

5
4

315

7
4

Degrees

12

0.209

10.9

0.190

145

2.53

169.0

2.95

235

4.10

288.8

5.04

342.5

5.98

78.5

1.37

1
4

Angle

## Other angle that has

Exact value

sin

sin

3
4

1
2
=
2
2

cos

cos

11
6

3
2

tan
6
cos

5
4

1
2

sin

5
3

sin

4
3

3
2

2tan
x = tan2 x

5
tan x
04 = tan2 x 2tan
4
0 = tan x ( tan x 2)

tan x = 0 or tan x = 2
2
4
x 4.25
3=0
x sin
= 0,x+, 24sin
, 1.11,
(2sin x + 3)(2sin x 1) = 0
3
or sin x =
2
5
x = ,
6 6

(ii)

sin x =

1
2

## (iii) sin x = 3.30 or 0.303

x = 0.308 or 2.83
1
2

(iv) cos x =
x =

(v)

4
3

tan x =

or tan x = 1

(vi) sin x =
x =

1
2

or sin x = 5

1
2

6 6 sin = 36

18 18sin = 36
18 ( sin ) = 36

sin = 2
= sin + 2

(ii)

= 2.55

7 (i)

tan =

AC
AC = 8 tan
8

sector OAB
=

1
2

8 tan 8

1
2

82

= 32tan 32

= 32 ( tan )

## (ii) Perimeter = 3 + 8 + 8 3 30.2 cm ( 3 s.f.)

8 (i) Since triangle OCD is equilateral, angle
OCD =
3

So angle ACD = = 2
3
3
(ii) Perimeter = AD + BD + AB

or cos x = 1

5
,
, 0, 2
3 3

1 2
6
2

3
4

4 (i)

5 (i)

1
3

cos

tan

P1

7
tan
6

=8
32

+ 8 + 16

+ 8 cm

## (iii) Shaded area =

64
3

16 3

Exercise 7.6
1 (i)

5
,
6 6

y
3
2
1
0

Exercise 7.5
1 (i)

P = 22.4 cm

A = 29.4 cm2

P = 75.2 cm ( 3 s.f.)

(ii)

## A = 314 cm2 ( 3 s.f.)

2 =

12
7

= 1.71 = 98.2

3 Perimeter:

10
+ 10 3 = 27.8 cm ( 3 s.f.)
3

Area: 17.1cm2

90

180

270

360 x

3
2

2 x

(ii)

y
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

29

P1

(ii)

(iii) y

3
2
1
0

90

180

270

0
1
2
3
4
5

360 x

(iv)

T
5
4
3
2
1

y
5

3
2

## t = 0.7, 1.3, 2, 2.7, 3.3 and 4 (1 d.p.)

t = 12.40pm, 1.20pm, 2pm, 2.40pm, 3.20pm,

4pm

0
1

3
2

2 x

9 (i)

2
y
4
3
2
1

y
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4

90

180

270

360 x

10 (i)

(ii)

y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

2 x

y =

+ x
x
1
= +
= 1 + x = 1 + 0.318 x

f (x) 2
f

( ) = 2
1
3

(iii) f(x)
5

0
1

3
2

2 x
10

2 A = 4, B = 1, C = 2
15

3 A = 5, B = 2, C = 1
4 A = 2, B = 3, C = 2
5 A = 2, B = 1 , C = 3
2

6 A = 2, B = 3, C = 2

8 (i) period =

(iv) f 1 ( x ) = 2tan1 2 x
11 (i) b = 5.

7 A = 2, B = 1

30

3
2

(ii)
The line we need to draw is:

(vi)

4 t

## (iii) From the graph, the highest points occur at

(v)

2
3

a = 3.

(ii)

(ii)

2 (i) H (m)

3
2

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

2 x

cos ( x ) = k
cos ( x ) = k

(ii)

(ii)

tan ( x ) = k

1
1 + k2

(iv) sin ( + x ) =

k
1 + k2

(v)

tan

14 (i)

x =

4
5
or
3
3

x =

5
or or
3
3

(ii)

+x =

1
k

)
)
)
)

16 32
,
3
3
1
3

2
3

occurbetween 5

5
or
4
4

1
3

2
3

Sun

Moon
r
q

## Stretch and challenge

3sin3 + 3 = 2cos2 3

3sin3 + 3 = 2 1 sin2 3

3sin3 + 3 = 2 2sin 3
2sin2 3 + 3sin3 + 1 = 0
+ 1) ( sin3 + 1) = 0
1
2

t (hours)

( )

(iii) t = 23 seconds

sin3 =

( )

t = 5 , 10

Period = 40 seconds

(2sin3

2
= 4 hours

10.5 = 9 3cos t
8

3cos t = 1.5
8
1
cos t =
2
8
= cos 1 1
t

8
2
2
4

=
,
t
3 3
8
t =

## (iv) x = 0.970 or 2.74 or 4.11or 5.88 ( 3 s.f.)

15 (i)

Period =

(
(
(
(

tan ( x ) = k

(iii) cos x =

(iii) 1 am

1 k2
k

tan x =

H = 2sin t + 3
2

(iv) cos ( + x ) = k

13 (i)

H = 2sin t + 3
2
Amplitude = 2
Period = 2 : = 4
2

1
2
3
4

(iii) sin x = 1 k 2

(v)

P1

12 (i)

90,110

y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

or sin3 = 1

(i)

A= 2
1
r 2
2

1 2
r 2
2

1
2

r 2 sin2

= r 2 2 r 2 sin2

= 4 2sin2
2sin2 = 4

270, 450
31

P1

(ii)

4 LHS = sin x +
r

=
=
q

r
2

1
sin x
cos x
sin x
cos x
+
cos x
sin x
2
sin x + cos2 x
sin x cos x
1
sin x cos x
RHS
cos x

r
cos = 2 cos =
r

(iii)

A=2

1
2

1 2
r 2
2

= 60 =
1
2

r 2 sin2

= 2r 2 r 2 sin2

2
= 2r 2 r 2 sin
3
3
2 2
3 2
=
r
r
3
2
2
3 2
=

r
3
2

2
3 2

r
2
3
% covered =
100%
r 2
2
3

2 100%
= 3

= 39.1%

5 LHS =

sin x (1 cos x )

2

=
=
=

sin x (1 cos x )

2 2cos x
sin x (1 cos x )
2 (1 cos x )
sin x (1 cos x )

2
sin x
= RHS
=

## 6 x = 15 or 165 or 195 or 345

7 x =

5
11
7
or
or
or
12
12
12
12

8 sin x = 0 or sin x = 1
x = 0 or x =

Exam focus
1 (i)

(ii) c = 2.

x =

1
2

or 2

,
3
3

b = 4.

a = 2.

(ii)

cos x =

1 k2

(iii) tan x =
3 LHS =
=
=
=

32

9 cos x =

sin2
1+
cos2
cos2 + sin2
cos2
1
cos2
RHS

10
+ 10 3 + 10
3

12 (i)
1 k2
k

5
3

## (ii) DE = 6.60 = (3 s.f.)

(iii) Shaded area = 9.63 cm2 (3 s.f.)

8 Vectors

1
c
2

Exercise 8.1

5
+ 2a =
0

P1

1 (i)
c
b

(ii)

2 (i) 4i 5j

6
2a =

(ii) i + 2j

5
b =

(iii) g = 6j
h = 4i 5j

1
c=
2
2
1

g + h = 6j + 4i 5j = 4i 11j

3 (i)
(ii)

1c
2

l = 3.61 ( 3 s.f.)
l = 2.24 ( 3 s.f.)

## (iii) AB = 6.08 ( 3 s.f.)

b

2a

(iii) a + b =

(i)

1
b 2c =

(ii)

3
OA =

4
BC =
7

(iii) CA =

2
(iv) D is (15, 23)
5 (i)
(ii)

OB = 2 m + 1 n

OE =

5
m
2

+ 5n
2

(iii) BD = 2 m + 3 n
2

33

P1

(iv)
6 (i)

EC =

1
m
2

3n
2

0.8
Unit vector =

0.6

or

17
(ii)

Unit vector =
1

17
or

7 (i)

1
( 4i j)
17

8 (ii)
18

18
13

(ii)

3i + 4k

2i + 6j

= 121.9 (1d.p.)

4 = 77.5 (1d.p.)

5 c = 2
5

0
PQ = 3

6 (i)
(ii)

## (iii) Since QR = 2PQ,

they are parallel

QR is twice the length of PQ

7 (i)

OM = 14i + 20k

C M = 30i 20k

## QR goes in the opposite direction to PQ.

MB = 14i + 16 j + 20k

S is (1, 2, 3).

CB = 12i + 16 j + 40k

8
CD = 4

21

= 4i + 10j 3k
AF

## (iii) = 53.1 (1d.p.)

12

AB = 10

BF = 4i + 10j + 3k

(ii) QR = 6

(ii)

(ii) EC = 3

= 47.1 (1d.p.)

## Stretch and challenge

a 1

1 = 0 a + b + 3c = 0 (1)
c 3

1 b .

13 G is (8, 13, 6)

34

= 97.9 (1d.p.)

19

10 CD = 9.64 (3 s.f.)

14 (i)

= 147.3 (1d.p.)

9
(iii)
a=

(v) 5i 6j 4k

12 (i)

= 169.7 (1d.p.)

1 (i)

3 (i)

(iii) 5i 6j + 4k

(iv)

(5i 12k )

2 = 130.2 (1d.p.)

(ii) 5i + 6j + 4k

11 (i)

Exercise 8.2

(ii)

9 (i) 3i + 4k

(vi)

1
13

0.521
15 The unit vector is 0.047

0.852

8 AB =i + 5j 4k

(iv)

5
13

0
=
12

13

## (ii) Unit vector is 1

0
13
12

1
3

Unit vector = i

2
3

j +

2
k
3

a 2

b . 0
c 5

= 0 2a + 5c = 0 

(2)

2a + 2b + 6c = 0

(1) 2 (3)

2b + 11c = 0

## There are infinitely many solutions to this system of

two equations with three unknowns.
Choosing the whole number solutions, b = 11, c = 2,
5

## a = 5, the vector is 11 (or any scalar multiple).

2

42 + a2 + 32

a2 + b2 + 9 = 16 + a2 + 9
b2 = 16
b = 4
a 4

b . a
3 3

P1

## 1 So the unit vector in the direction of

OR is

6
0
8

1
10

0.6

= 0
0.8

2 p = 6
3 = 51.2 (1d.p.)

a2 + b2 + 32 =

2 p = q

Exam focus

(2) + (3)

= 0 4a + ab + 9 = 0

9
8

If b = 4, 4a + 4a + 9 = 0 a =

So a =

9
8

and b = 4
2

## 3 v b = 1202 + (60) + 402 = 140 m/s

v a = 140 + 35 = 175 m/s
va = k vb
va =

120 120k

= k 60 = 60k
40 40k

(120k )

## + (60k ) + ( 40k ) = 175

19600k 2 = 1752

va =

120
60
40

k2 =

25
16

k =

5
4

150

= 75 = 150i 75 j + 50k
50

35

P1

(ii)

2 (i)
(ii)

16 ( x 4)2
a = 16, b = 4

5 (i)

## x < 1or x > 4

y= x

3
2

a = 3 ,b =
2

9
4

9
4

Equation of BC is
y=

1
2

x + 11 or x 2 y + 11 = 0
2

## (ii) C is (13, 12)

(iii) Perimeter = 2 20 + 2 180 35.8
2 (i)

Equation of BC is:
y=

1
2

x+4

Equation of CD is:

y = 2 x + 29

(ii)

C is (10, 9)

3 (i)

or k < 96

(iii) \$14300
6 (i) 10836
(ii) (a) x = 96
(b)
S = 432
7 (i)

32 + 80u + 80u 2 +

## (ii) The coefficient of the x 2 term is 160.

8 (i)

32 + 80 x 2 + 80 x 4 +

## (ii) Coefficient of x 4 term is 272

9 a = 5
10 (i)

(a) d = 3

(b) 57
(c) 570
(ii) (a) \$6515.58 or \$6516
(b) \$56827 or \$56800

## (ii) 96 < k < 96

4 (i)

\$369000

(ii) \$3140000

2 x 10

2 Co-ordinate geometry
1 (i)

## (ii) S32 = 3280

1 Algebra
1 (i)

4 (i)

4 Functions
1 (i)

x =71
2

Equation of CD is:
y = 3 x + 24 or 3x + 2 y 48 = 0

(ii)

f(x)
4

D is (10, 9)

5 m < 10 or m > 2

M is (5, 2)

(ii)

6 (i)

D is ( 7, 2)

(ii)
7 (i)
(ii)

6:4 = 3:2

k = 8.5

(ii)
2 (i)
(ii)

a=

= 27

S = 81
\$61.50
S = 18

3 Coefficient of x is 1080
36

4 x

2
3

1 (i)

18
2
3

(iii) x = 9 or 2
2

2 (i)
(ii)

a = 2, b = 3
x=

9
4

## 3 (i) The domain of g1(x) is x 16 and range is y 4.

(ii)

g1 ( x ) = 16 x + 4

4 (i)

8 The domain of f 1 is x 3

## x < 3 and x > 5

(ii) Range is f ( x ) 1 .

9 (i) Range of f is 0 f 4.

(ii) f(x)

## No inverse as f(x) is not one-to-one.

P1

2
2
(iii) gf ( x ) = g ( x 2 x ) = 2 ( x 2 x ) + 3

= 2x 2 4 x + 3
2 x 2 4 x + 3 = 0 has b 2 4ac = 8
so has no real solutions.

(iv)

g(x)
6
5
4
3
2
1

6 5 4 3 2 110
2
3
4
5
6

5 (i)
(ii)

2 x for 0 x 2
x
2
2 for 2 < x 4

f -1 ( x ) =
(iii)

10 (i) a = 2b = 8
(ii) fg ( x ) = 22 6 x

Range is 1 f(x) 5.
y
5

5 Differentiation
1 (i) V =

(ii) r = 8cm

90

180

360 x

270

2 (i)
(ii)

## (iii) Largest value is when A = 90.

r
2

h= 4r

A = 2r h +

3 x
2

(iv) g1 ( x ) = sin1
f( x ) 9

1
r 2
2

not one-to-one.

= 2r 4 r r +
2

1
r 2
2

= 8r 2r 2 r 2 +

1
r 2
2

= 8r 2r 2

1
r 2
2

## (iii) r = 1.12cm ( 3 s.f.)

(iv) r = 1.12cm is a maximum

(iii) x = 25

3 The point is

(ii)

(192r r )

7 (i)

6 (i)

1 2 3 4 5 6 x

1
,
2

51 .
4

4 y = 2 2

f(x)
6

6 f ( x ) =

(2x

12

+ 3)

12
(2 x + 3)2

## Since (2 x + 3)2 > 0 for all values of x, then

is always negative.

## Since f (x) is always negative, the curve is always

decreasing.

6x

(iii) x = 1

37

P1

7 f ( x ) = 9 ( 3 x + 2)

(ii)

Since (3 x + 2)2 > 0 for all values of x, f (x) > 0 for all

8 (i)

(ii)

y =

2
3

24 x

(x

x +

7
3

+3

x = 4 is a minimum point

(ii)
2 (i)
(ii)
3 (i)
(ii)

Equation is y =

(ii)
5 (i)

3

6 (i)
+2

1
2

(ii)
7 (i)
(ii)

Area = 9 1
3

x = 1,

dy
=
dx

8 (i)

8
15

## Maximum point is ( 1, 32)

When x = 1,

dy
=
dx

4
3

0 ( 5 62x ) dx
2

= 36 (5 2 x ) dx
1

1
5 2 x 1
(
)
1

= 36

1
2

dy
2
24
= 8 (3 x + 2) 3 =
2
dx
(3 x + 2)

1
1
= 36

2 (5 2 x ) 0

dy
24
=
= 3
2
8
dx
(3 2 + 2)

1
1
= 36

2 (5 2 1) 2 (5 2 0)
= 36 1 1
6 10

## Equation of tangent at (2,1) is:

y = mx + c 1 = 3 2 + c c =
8

y = 3 x +
8

7
4

= 36 1
15

7
4

Co-ordinates of C is when y = 0
0 = 3x +
8

42
3

7
4

x =

2=

14
3

= 42
3

9 (i)

22
3

## Area of triangle BDC =

38

k = 27

(iii) V =

1
8
y =
= 8 (3 x + 2)
3x + 2

DC =

Equation of curve is y = 3 4 x 3 6

## (ii) 0.015 units/second

or x > 1

At x = 2,

2y = x + 9 x + 2y = 9

(iv) A = 33.75

Equation of curve is y = x 3 2 x 2 + x + 5
1
3

9
2

## (iii) The function is decreasing for 1 < x < 3

5
6

At x = 1 = 0.025 units/second

x <

dx

## Equation of normal at P is:

y = x +

y = 2 x + 12

(iii) Area = 2
4 (i)

(1 + 2 x )3

= 64 1
8
= 8

6 Integration
1 (i)

(3 x + 2)

1
1
= 64

3 (3 2 + 2) 3 (3 0 + 2)
= 64 1 + 1
24 6

2
0

2
1
= 64

3 (3 x + 2) 0

or 2x 3y + 7 = 0

x=4

2
3 x + 2 1
(
)
1

= 64

3
1

0 ( 3x8+ 2 ) dx

= 64

## values of x, hence the function is always increasing.

dy
=
dx

V =

1
2

22
3

1=

4
3

12

Shaded area = 2 1

(ii) V =

14
9

4
9

= 4.71 ( 3 s.f.)

10 (i)

k=5

## Using Pythagoras theorem,

Equation is y = 5 x x 2 + 5

AB2 = AC 2 + BC 2

(ii)
11 (i)
(ii)

3
=
l + l2
2

a = 1, b = 2
A = 2.25

(iii) c =

8 =

2 1.41

(ii)

(iii)

y
3

3
2

5 (i)

3
4

(ii)

5
6

l
3
l
2

2
3

2
+ 30 ) = tan1
3

1
3

( 2)

## (iii) AB2 = 82 + 82 2 8 8 cos

Cosine rule:

AB2 = 64
AB = 8 cm
or

2
2
2
cos AOB = 20 + 20 32
2 20 20
cos AOB = 0.28

8
9

or
sin

1
2

AOB =

1
AOB
2

) = sin

16
20

## So triangle OAB is equilateral so AB = 8cm

BC 2 = 82 + 82 2 8 8 cos

2
3

BC 2 = 192

1 16

BC =

20

= 24 + 8 3 cm

A = 371 cm

## (iii) Area of cross-section = 502cm2 ( 3 s.f.)

3tan = 2cos
3sin
= 2cos
cos
3sin = 2cos2

192 = 8 3

Perimeter = 8 + 8 3 + 16

## AOB = 1.855 ( 3 s.f.)

6 (i)

4 sin4 + 5 = 7cos2

4 sin4 + 5 = 7 1 sin2
4

4 sin + 5 = 7 7sin
4 sin4 + 7sin2 2 = 0
With x = sin2 we have 4 x 2 + 7 x 2 = 0

3sin = 2 1 sin2

3sin = 2 2sin
2

2sin + 3sin 2 = 0

4 (i)

1
l
2

2
30
x = tan1
3

2 x

(ii)

7 l2 = 7 l =
4
2

In triangle ABC

(x

0
1

3 (i)

7 2
l
4

tan ( x + 30 ) =

(ii)

+ l2

tan ( x + 30) =

3 2
l
4

b = 3
a=5

(ii)

2 (i)

AB =

7 Trigonometry
1 (i)

P1

= 30 or 150

(ii)
7 (i)
(ii)

## = 30, 150, 210, 330

Shaded area = 21.5cm2 ( 3 s.f.)
Perimeter = 20.6cm ( 3 s.f.)

3
l
cos 30 = AC AC = cos 30 l =
l
2
sin30 = DC DC = sin30 l = 1 l
2
l
BC = 2 DC = l
39

P1

8 (i) y

(ii) = 60 or 300

y = 2 sin x

14 (i)

0
1

3
4

15 (i)

y = cos 2x

(ii)

BD = 6.66cm

2 5cos2 x
a = 2, b = 5

## (ii) Greatest value is when cos2 x = 0, f ( x ) = 2

Least value is when cos2 x = 1, f ( x ) = 3

Two solutions

3 f ( x ) 2

9 (i)
B

## (iii) x = 0.685 or 2.46

16 x = 113.6 or 70.5

O
q

15 cm

17 (i)

8 cm

15 cm

2
1
1
LHS =

sin tan
2
1
cos
=

sin
sin

1 cos 2

=
sin

( )

(ii)

## tan = 15 = tan1 15 = 1.08 ( 3 s.f.)

8
8
So AOB = 2 1.08 = 2.16 ( 3 s.f.)

= (1 cos )
sin2

## (iii) Shaded area = 50.8 cm2 ( 3 s.f.)

cos2 x =

21
25

(ii) tan2 x =

4
21

10 (i)

11 (i)

(ii)

3 3cos2 x = 8 cos x

0 = 3cos x + 8 cos x 3

13 (i)

## (1 cos )(1 cos )

(1 cos )(1 + cos )

3
= 6
=3 3
3
2
Distance from E to AB is 10 sinq
Equating these distances gives:
10 sin = 3 3
sin =

2tan cos = 3
sin2
2
cos = 3
cos2

8 Vectors
1 (i)

MC = MO + OC + CC
= ( 4i 6k ) + 4 j + 12k
4
= 4i + 4 j + 6k = 4

2 2cos2 = 3cos
2cos2 + 3cos 2 = 0

4

MO = MB + BO = 4i 6k = 0

2sin2
=3
cos
2sin2 = 3cos

0 = 2cos2 + 3cos 2

3 3
10

## (ii) P = 16.20 cm ( 4 s.f.)

2 1 cos2 = 3cos

40

3 3
= sin1

10

(1 cos )

= 64.6 or 295.4

3cos2 x + 8 cos x 3 = 0

(ii)

## 18 (i) Distance from D to AB is 6 sin

3 1 cos2 x = 8 cos x

12 (i)

(1 cos )

1 cos
1 + cos
= RHS

3sin x tan x = 8
sin x
3sin x
=8
cos x
3sin2 x
=8
cos x
3sin2 x = 8 cos x

(ii)

= 109.7 (1d.p.)

2 (i)

BA = a b = ( 3i + 2k ) ( 2i 2j + 5k )
= i + 2j 3k

BC = c b = ( 2j + 7k ) ( 2i 2j + 5k )

4 (i)
(ii)

= 2i + 4j + 2k
1 2
4
BA BC = 2 i
= 1 2 + 2 4 + 3 2
3 2

## Since BA i BC = 0 the vectors are perpendicular.

(ii)

= 5 ( i + 2j + k )

5 (i)

6 (i)

## Since both vectors are multiples of

i + 2j + k they are parallel

(ii)

BC : AD = 2 : 5

1
The unit vector is
6

(ii)

2

4 =

1
3

2
3
2
3

1
2

4

1
The unit vector is 2 =
6

4

2
3
1
3
2
3

or 2 i + 1 j + 2 k
3 3
3

## Acute angle is 180 105.8 = 74.2

= 66.6
3 + 2p

2 + p or ( 3 + 2p) i + ( 2 + p) j + ( 4 3p) k
4 3p

(iii) p =
7 (i)

8
14

4
7

PQ = 3i + 6 j 3k

RQ = 3i + 8 j + 3k

(ii) p = 10
(iii) q = 7 or 5

P1

## (iii) Perimeter = 15.4

BC = 2i + 4j + 2k = 2 ( i + 2j + k )

3 (i)

(iii) p =

AD = d a = ( 2i + 10 j + 7k ) ( 3i + 2k )
= 5i + 10j + 5k

4 20
2 10
The vector must be 5 AC = 5

=
4 20