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MMA

1.

Which welding process is considered to be the most versatile?

2.

(a) SAW
(b) TIG
(c) MIG / MAG
(d) MMA
One of the advantages of a multi-pass MMA weld is that it generally produces a:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

High tensile strength


High degree of ductility
Coarse grain structure
Fine grain structure

3.

MMA electrode can be grouped into three main types. These are:

4.

(a) Basic, Cellulosic and Rutile


(b) Neutral, Cellulosic and Rutile
(c) Basic, Cellulosic and neutral
(d) None of the above
Movement of the arc by magnetic forces in MMA welding is termed:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

5.

Which of the following statement is true?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

6.

The core wire in a MMA electrode has a higher melting point than the flux
Electrode dc +ve is used when welding with the MIG / MAG welding process
The HAZ of a carbon manganese steel weld usually has a lower ultimate tensile strength than the weld
All of the above are true

A multi run MMA butt weld made on C/Mn steel consists of 5 passes using 6mm electrodes. A 12 pass weld
made on the same joint using 4mm electrodes on the same material will:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

7.

Arc deviation
Arc misalignment
Arc blow
Arc eye

Have a lower heat input and a higher degree of grain refinement


Have a lower heat input and a coarser grain structure
Have a lower amount of distortion and a higher degree of grain refinement
Have a higher amount of distortion and a lower degree of grain refinement

A typical minimum preheat temperature for an MMA weld made on steel with a carbon content of 0.23% and
manganese content of 1.3%:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Preheat would not normally be required


Less than 50*c
A minimum of 100*c
Above 280*c

8.

Which is often the hardest part of a multi run weld made using MMA?

9.

(a) The HAZ of the root


(b) The HAZ of the cap
(c) The root
(d) The cap
Which of the following welding processes would you expect to use a collet:

10.

(a) TIG / TAG


(b) MIG / MAG
(c) MMA
(d) All of the above
Which of the following processes use a constant characteristic?

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Sub-arc < 1000 amps, MMA, Electro slag


TIG / TAG, Sub-arc > 1000 amps, Electro slag
Sub-arc < 1000 amps, MIG / MAG, Electro slag
MIG / MAG, Sub-arc > 1000 amps, Electro slag

11.

Which of the following welding processes uses a resistive heating system to achieve weld metal deposition?

12.

(a) MMA
(b) SAW
(c) Electro slag welding
(d) Resistance spot welding
In MMA welding, what parameter is used to control the penetration into the base material?

13.

14.

(a) Voltage
(b) Welding speed
(c) Iron powder in the coasting
(d) Current
In MMA welding, the slag produced can be varied to suit the welding position. Which type of slag would be
required for welding in the HV position?
(a) Fluid
(b) Viscous
(c) None of the above
(d) Semi fluid
The weld metal deposit of MMA electrodes, achieves its mechanical strength through:
(a) The core wire
(b) The flux coating
(c) Iron powders with the flux coating

15.

In general it is not easy to mechanise the MMA welding process because:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

16.

Which arc welding process technique is likely to be used to repair localized porosity in a weld?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

17.

Short electrode length, the control of the arc length and the process uses a flat characteristic
Short electrode length, the control of the arc length and flux coverings
The control of the arc length, stop start problems and short electrode length
Flux coverings, short electrode lengths and relationship between amps and volts

MMA PG position
Mechanised arc welding
Sub Arc
All of the above
None of the above

A repair has been made using MMA on a double V butt weld on a 10 m diameter tank. The defect repaired was
lack of inter-penetration and it had been excavated with a disc grinder prior to repair. After repair it was
determined that the wrong electrodes had been used. What action should the inspector take:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

18.

Have the repair area ground and re-repair


Accept the work if the electrodes were the same flux type
Heat treat the area
Consult the senior inspector or welding engineer if the specification or procedure does not cover the
course of action
Which of the following welding processes may be described as a low H2 process in comparison with
MMA welding?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

19.

TIG
MIG
MAG
All of the above

Sodium silicate in an MMA electrode flux:

(a) Stabilizes the arc


(b) Binds the ingredients of the flux
(c) Forms slag
(d) All of the above
Which of the following butt weld preparation is usually the most susceptible to lack of side wall fusion during
MMA welding?

20.

21.

(a) A double sided U preparation


(b) A single V preparation
(c) A double sided V preparation
(d) It is not possible to induce lack of side wall fusion during MMA welding
Which of the following will vary the most when varying the arc length using the MMA process?

22.

(a) Voltage
(b) Amperage
(c) Polarity
(d) None of the above
Why have a high OCV with MMA welding?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

23.

To initiate
To obtain penetration
To avoid lack of fusion
MMA welding does not have a high OCV

Which of the following sentences applies to the use of basic MMA electrodes?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

24.

They are used to deposit weld metal in the vertical position only
They are used where deep penetration is a primary requirement
They are usually used to deposit weld metal of low hydrogen content
Basic electrodes are chosen when ease of use is of importance

Which of the following welding processes does not use a consumable electrode?
a
b
c
d
1.

SAW
MMA
TIG
ESW

Which of the following welding processes may be described, as a low hydrogen process in comparison with general MMA
welding:

2.

a)
TIG
b)
MIG
c)
MAG
d)
None of the above
e)
All f the above
Why have a high O.C.V. with MMA welding

3.

a)
To initiate the arc
b)
To obtain penetration
c)
To avoid lack of fusion
d)
MMA welding does not have a high O.C.V.
Fish eyes, chevron cracks and fissures are:
a)
b)
c)
d)

4.

Not associated with welding


Types of cracks
Only encountered in MMA welds
Hydrogen related problems

Which of the following butt-weld preparations is generally most susceptible to lack of side wall fusion during MMA
welding?
a)
b)
c)

A U preparation
A V preparation
A double V preparation

5.

d)
Lack of side wall fusion does not exist with MMA
Which welding process is considered the most versatile?
a)
b)
c)
d)

6.

When welding using the MMA process, varying the arc length will give the most variation of:
a)
b)
c)
d)

7.

8.

9.

SAW
TIG
MIG/MAG
MMA

Voltage
Amperage
Polarity
None of the above

Which defect would you expect to obtain in TIG welds in non-deoxidized steel?
a)
Under cut
b)
Porosity
c)
Tungsten inclusions
Linear misalignment You noticed manual metal arc welding electrodes, stripe of flux, are being used as filler
wire, for TIG welding. You would object because:
a)
It is too expensive
b)
The wire would be too thick
c)
The weld metal composition may be wrong
The wire is too short When the TIG welding Austenitic Stainless Steel pipe. Argon gas backing is called for.
This is to:

a)
Prevent oxidation
b)
Prevent under bead cracking
c)
Prevent porosity
d)
Control the penetration bead shape
10. When referring to TIG welding, the shielding gas could be:
d)
Argon + Hydrogen
e)
Argon + Helium
f)
Argon + Nitrogen
g)
All of the above
11. Which arc welding process utilizes a non-consumable electrode?
h)
MIG
i)
TIG
j)
MMA
k)
SAW
l)
All of the above
12. Which
of
the
system of fusion?
a)
b)
c)
d)
13.

following

processes

uses

the

Friction welding
Diffusion bonding
Electron beam welding
Autogenous TIG welding

Argon purging on the root side is necessary in the TIG welding of stainless steel to:
a. Obtain full penetration.
b. Obtain full fusion.
c. Avoid porosity in the root.
d. Obtain a satisfactory weld surface finish.

13. Two low carbon steel pipes, 150mm diameter and 6mm wall thickness, are to be butt welded
using the TIG process. To ensure a full strength joint, which of the following preps is most
suitable?
a. Open single bevel.
b. Open single Vee.

keyholing

c. Open square preparation.


d. Closed square preparation
15.
Inherent rectification of the electrical output is produced in the arc when TIG welding using:
a. AC with a suppressor
b. AC without a suppressor
c. DC with reverse polarity
d. DC with straight polarity
16.
When referring to TIG welding, the shielding gas could be:
a. Argon and hydrogen.
b. Argon and helium.
c. Argon and nitrogen.
d. All the above.

14. Which of the following defects is more common to welds deposited by CO2 welding than
welds deposited by MMA?
a. Slag inclusions.
b. Excess penetration.
c. Lack of sidewall fusion.
d. Tungsten inclusions.

TIG

25.

The TIG welding process utilizes an electrode that is:


(a) Cellulosic
(b) Non consumable
(c) Consumable
None of the above

26.

When referring to TIG welding, the shielding gas could be:

27.

(a) Argon + Hydrogen


(b) Argon + Helium
(c) Argon + Nitrogen
(d) All of the above
Which of the following may be used for the TIG / TAG welding of austenitic stainless steel?

28.

(a) Lathanum electrode dc ve


(b) Cerium electrode dc ve
(c) Zirconium electrode ac
(d) Thorium electrode dc ve
In TIG welding the nozzle is usually made:

29.

(a) Copper
(b) Aluminum
(c) Ceramic
(d) Copper / Zinc
Which arc welding process uses a non consumable electrode?

30.

(a) MIG
(b) TIG
(c) SAW
(d) None of the above
Which of the following current types would be used for welding aluminum with the TIG welding process?
(a) Ac

31.

(b) Dc +ve electrode


(c) Dc ve electrode
(d) All of the above could be used successfully
You notice manual metal arc electrodes, stripped of flux, are being used as filler wire for TIG welding. You
would object because:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

32.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

It is too expensive
The wire would be too thick
The weld metal composition may be wrong
The wire is too short

When TIG welding Austenitic Stainless Steel pipe, Argon gas baking is called for. This is to:

Prevent oxidation
Prevent under bead cracking
Prevent porosity
Control the penetration bead shape
33.

The main reason for using a back purge when welding 18-8 stainless steel with the TIG welding process is to:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Control the root penetration


Prevent root bead porosity
Improve positional welding
Prevent the formation of a dense oxide layer on the root

MIG
1.

In MIG ? CO2 welding which parameters give the greatest control of weld appearance during dip transfer or
short circuiting welding?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Wire stick out length


Amperage
Wire feed speed
Inductance

34.

Spatter may be finely controlled during MIG / MAG welding by:

35.

(a) Adjusting the inductance control


(b) Using CO2 gas
(c) Increasing the arc voltage
(d) Welding with no gas
Poor penetration would be found in MIG / MAG welded steels when using:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

36.

Which of the following processes would be most prone to lack of fusion defects:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

37.

Argon + 20% CO2


CO2
Pure Argon
Argon + 5% CO2

Pulsed arc MIG


Spray transfer MIG
Dip transfer MIG
Submerged arc

Adjusting the inductance control in dip transfer MIG / MAG welding, will control:
(a) The pulse rate
(b) The gas flow rate
(c) The amount of spatter

The arc voltage


1.

MIG welding tends to be susceptible to lack of fusion problems. This is because of:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

38.

A common gas / mixture used in MIG welding nickel alloys to combine good levels of penetration with good
arc stability would be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

39.

40.

100 % CO2
100% Argon
80% Argon 20% CO2
98% Argon 2% Oxygen

When referring to MIG welding, the shielding gas could be:


(a) Argon
(b) Argon + 1% oxygen
(c) Argon + 20% CO2
(d)
None of the above What five parameters would be checked when calibrating welding equipment for
mechanized MAG welding?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

41.

Poor maintenance of equipment


Incorrect settings
Poor inter run cleaning
All of the above

Joint set up, flux coating, polarity, travel speed and amps / volts
Amps / volts, WFS, gas flow rate, polarity and travel speed
Amps / volts, WFS, wire diameter, polarity and travel speed
Electrode stick out, WFS, amps / volts, polarity and wire diameter

Which of the following statements is true?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Electrode dc +ve always produces a narrow deep weld pool


The word Rutile means calcium carbonate
Porosity is always repairable
Dc electrode +ve is used for the MAG welding of steel

Saw
42.

When welding a double V butt with the SAW process the presence of center line porosity may be due to:

e
Damp flux
f
Incomplete penetration
g
Contaminated weld preparation
h
Atmospheric contamination
The type of SAW flux is more resistant to moisture absorption:
a
b
c
d

43.

When welding a double V butt joint with SAW process the presence of centerline porosity may be due to:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

44.

Fused
Agglomerated
Basic
All of the above the same resistance

Damp flux
Contaminated joint preparation
Incorrect stick out lengths
All of the above

SAW in single pass weld will give:


(a) Poor profile

45.

(b) Burn rapidly


(c) Good penetration
None of the above In SAW process if voltage and current is increased and travel speed is decreased, what will
be the effect in the profile?

46.

(a) Wider weld


(b) Higher weld reinforcement
(c) Concave weld surface
In SAW, the use of excessively high voltage would result in:

47.

(a) Insufficient flux melting


(b) Excessive flux melting
(c) Slag removal difficulties
Spatter Submerged arc fluxes can be supplied in two forms. These are:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

48.

Sintered and agitated


Agitated and fused
Crushed and agglomerated
Fused and agglomerated

If Submerged arc welding is to be used to make butt welds, which would you be most critical of?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The root gap tolerance


The angle of preparation
The root face width
The gas cut finish

49.

Submerged arc welding is a process that generally gives:

50.

(a) Slag free welds


(b) Low penetration
(c) Low dilution
(d) High heat input
(e)
Slag inclusions may occur with:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Manual Metal arc


Metal Inert Gas
Submerged Arc Welding
Both A & C

51.

A metallurgical problem most associated with Submerged Arc welding is:

52.

(a) Hydrogen cracking in the HAZ


(b) Solidification cracking in the weld metal
(c) Hydrogen cracking in the weld metal
(d)
Lamellar tearing in the weld metal EN standard 288 would refer to which of the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

53.

54.

Welder approval testing


Welding equipment
Welding procedure approval
Consumables for Submerged arc welding

Submerged arc utilizes:


(a) Deep penetration characteristic
(b) High deposition rates on DC +
(c) Flat (PA) welding only
(d)
None of the above Which of the following standards is entitled electrode wire and fluxes for submerged arc
welding process of carbon steel and medium tensile steel?

(a) BS 639
(b) BS 2901
(c) BS 2633
(d) BS 4165
In submerged arc welding, excessive arc voltage may cause?
a)
Excessive penetration
b)
Change in weld metal composition
c)
Narrow weld width
d)
Excessive bead profile
Slag inclusion would occur with:
a)
Manual metal arc
b)
Metal inert gas
c)
Submerged arc welding
d)
Both A & C
A metallurgical problem most associated with submerged arc welding is:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Hydrogen cracking in HAZ


Solidification cracking in the weld metal
Hydrogen cracking in the weld metal
Lamellar tearing in the weld metal

EN standard 288 would refer to which of the following:


a)
b)
c)
d)

Welder approval testing


Welding equipment
Welding procedure approval
Consumables for submerged arc welding

Submerged arc utilities:


a)
Deep penetration characteristic
b)
High deposition rate on DC+
c)
Flat (P.A.) welding only
Which of the following welding processes uses a resistive heating system to achieve weld metal deposition?
a)
Manual metal arc welding
b)
Submerged-arc welding
c)
Electro slag welding
Resistance spot welding
Which of the following is likely to give the highest impact strength in ferritic weld metal?
a)
Cellulosic electrodes
b)
Submerged arc with acid flux
c)
Spray transfer Co-2-welding
d)
Basic coated normal metal arc electrodes
If submerged welding to be used to make butt welds, which would you be most critical of:
a)
The root gap tolerance
b)
The angle of penetration
c)
The root face width
d)
The gas cut finish
Which of the following welding processes is most susceptible to lack of fusion?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Submerged arc
CO2 (metal active gas)
Manual metal arc
Tungsten inert gas

1.

A common gas mixture used in MIG welding nickel alloys to combine good levels of penetration with good
arc stability would be:

2.

a)
100% CO
b)
100% argon
c)
80% argon 20% CO2
d)
98% argon 2% oxygen
The type of SAW flux is more resistance to moisture absorption:

3.

a)
Fused
b)
Agglomerated
c)
Basic
d)
All of about the same resistance
When referring to MIG welding, the shielding gas could be:

4.

5.

a)
Argon
b)
Argon + 1% Oxygen
c)
Argon + 20% CO2
d)
None of the above
The steel composition in structural contract is changed form 0.15% carbon, 0.6% manganese, to 0.2% carbon,
1.2% manganese. Might this influence the incidence of?
a)
Porosity
b)
Cracking in the weld area
c)
Under cut for fillet welds
d)
Lack of root fusion defects
MIG welding tends to be susceptible to lack of fusion problems. This is because of:
a)
b)
c)
d)

6.

Poor maintenance of equipment


Incorrect setting
Poor inter run cleaning
All of the above

In MAG/CO2 welding, which parameters give the greatest control of weld


appearance during dip transfers or short-circuiting welding?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Wire sick-out length


Amperage
Wire feed speed
Inductance

Pre heat
1.

In accordance with BS 5135 what is the minimum distance the pre heat shall be applied from the joint
preparation?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

55.

56.

100 mm
25 mm
75 mm
Not specified

In accordance with BS 5135 what is the recommended minimum time allowed for the pre heat temperature to
equalize?
(a) 2 Min for each 25 mm of parent material thickness
(b) 5 Min for each 25 mm of parent material thickness
(c) 2 Min for each 50 mm of parent material thickness
5 Min for each 50 mm of parent material thickness Applying preheat when welding, carbon manganese steel is
normally done to avoid:
(a) Slag inclusions

57.

(b) Hydrogen cracking


(c) Lack of side wall fusion
(d) Porosity
Welding a steel plate of a CE of 0.45, would require preheating to:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

58.

How many temperature indicating crayons would be required to ensure the preheat temperature was lying
within a specified range?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

1.

Prevent the formation of sulphides


Prevent hardening in the HAZ
Prevent the formation of carbides
To improve mechanical properties in the weld

1
2
3
As many as possible

A carbon equivalent of 0.48%:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Is hig for a C-Mn steel and may require a preheat temperature over 100*c
Is insignificant for a C-Mn steel and preheat will not be required
Is calculated from the heat input formula
Is not a consideration for determining preheat temperature

2.

Preheating for arc welding applies to:

59.

(a) Assembly welding only


(b) Assembly and tack welding
(c) Joints over 25mm thick only
(d) Cruciform welds only
(e)
Which of the following are essential variables for PWHT?

60.

(a) Heating rate


(b) Temperature attained
(c) Cooling rate
All of the above
Why is stress relief (PWHT) some times carried out on weldments?
e
f
g
h

To dissolve entrapped hydrogen


To remove residual stresses
To fuse planar defects
All of the above

Electrode
1.

What is the main constituent of a rutitle electrode flux?

2.

(a) Cellulosic
(b) Titanium dioxide
(c) Calcium carbonate
(d) Asbestos
What does the 70 represent on a E 7010 AWS classified electrode?

3.

(a) 70 N/mm2 minimum uts


(b) 70 N/mm2 minimum impact strength
(c) 70,000 psi minimum uts
(d) 70,000 psi minimum impact strength
Which electrodes are very susceptible to causing porosity in the deposited welds if long arc employed?
(a) Basic
(b) Cellulosic

(c) Rutitle
(d) None of the abobe
61.

When H2 control is specified for a manual metal arc welding project, the electrode would normally be:

62.

(a) Cellulose
(b) Iron oxide
(c) Acid
(d) Basic
You would with certainty recognize a hydrogen controlled flux covered electrode from its:

63.

(a) Colour
(b) Length
(c) Trade Name
(d) AWS / BS639 Code Letter
In BS 639 and BSEn 499 the first digits of the electrode classification indicate:

64.

(a) Tensile and yield strength


(b) Toughness
(c) Electrode coating
(d) Electrode efficiency
Silicon is added to electrode coating as:

65.

(a) A slipping agent


(b) A slag former
(c) A de-oxidant
(d) A colouring agent
Which electrode classification would be relevant to AWS A5.1 / 81:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

66.

A basic electrode would normally:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

67.

E 6013
E 5133
E 7018
Fleet weld 5

Have superior mechanical properties


Require baking before use
Not be used on low carbon steels
Both A & B

In BS 639 an electrode classified as E51:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Has an UTS value of 51,000 psi, minimum yield strength of 330 N/mm
Has an UTS value of 430 to 550 N/mm, minimum yield strength of 360 N/mm
Has an UTS value of 510 to 650 N/mm, minimum yield strength of 360 N/mm
Has an UTS value of 510 to 650 N/mm, minimum yield strength of 330 N/mm

68.

An E80 electrode would normally be classified in which standard:

69.

(a) BS EN 499
(b) BS 639
(c) AWS A5.5
(d) AWS A5.1
What types of electrodes needs extra treatment?
(a) Basic
(b) Rutile
(c) Cellulosic

70.

71.

What constituent is needed in a coating of an electrode to prevent the formation of porosity in welding of a
rimming steel?
(a) Iron powders
(b) Calcium fluoride
(c) Silicon
(d) Calcium carbonate
The use of cellulosic electrodes is often made when welding the root pass of pipes in the field. This is because:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Hydrogen
72.

H2 control is needed
Iron powders in the electrode
Higher arc voltage can be obtained
Shorter arc length can be achieved

The presence of too much hydrogen when welding C/Mn steels would be to cause the formation of:
i
Porosity
j
Lack of fusion
k
Crack
l
undercut
Hydrogen cracking in the weld metals is likely when welding:
a
Carbon Manganese steels
b
Stainless steels
c
Micro alloyed steels (HSLA)
d
Low carbon steels
In accordance with BS 5135 which of the following is applicable for scale C with regards to hydrogen
content per 100g of deposited weld metal?
a
b
c
d

> 15 ml
> 15 ml < 25 ml
> 10 ml < 15 ml
> 5 ml < 10 ml

Solidification
1.
Name the fourth weld process crack which has a totally different formation mechanism to HICC (H2 induced
cold crack), solidification cracking and lamellar tearing:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Undercut
1.

Undercut is caused by:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

73.

Excessive amps
Excessive volts
Excessive travel speed
All of the above

Undercut is normally assessed by:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Overlap
1.

Liquation cracking
Reheat cracking
Crater cracking
Hot tearing

Its depth
Its length
Its blending
All of the above

Overlap in welds could be influenced by:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Ultrasonic
1.

Ultrasonic would be preferred over radiography due to:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

74.

Ability to find most defects


Lower skill requirement
Ability to detect lamination
Both A & C

Ultrasonic testing is of advantage in detecting which of the following weld imperfection over other NDT
method:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Tempering
1.

Poor welding technique


Welding process
Welding position
All of the above

Lack of side wall fusion


Surface undercut
Incompletely filled groove
Overlap

The process of tempering is often carried out to regain toughness after which of the following processes:

2.

(a) Annealing
(b) Normalising
(c) Hardening
(d) Stress relieving
When considering the heat treatment process of tempering:

3.

(a) This is achieved by slowly heating the material to a temperature between 200*c to 650*c and slow
cooling in air
(b) This is achieved by heating the material to around 200*c and soaking for approximately 10 12 hrs and
cooling down in air
(c) Very fast cooling form the austenite region
(d) All of the above could give a temper
Re-crystallization during annealing is used to make steel:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Softer
Harder
Tougher
Stronger

Quenching
1.
When a medium to high carbon steel is quenched:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

It becomes malleable
Its hardness increases
It becomes ductile
The plasticity is increased

Normalizing
1.
A Normalising heat treatment process is carried out by:
(a) Heating the metal just above 650*C
(b)
Taking the metal above the re-crystallization temperature and allowing to air cool
(c)
Taking the metal above the re-crystallization temperature and allowing to furnace cool
(d)
Taking the metal above the re-crystallization temperature and quickly cooling by immersing
Visual inspection
1.
The British code for visual inspection requirements is:
(a) BS 4872
(b) BS 499
(c) BS 4870

2.

(d) None of the above


A code of practice for visual inspection should cover the following:

3.

(a) Before, During and After welding activities


(b) Before welding activities only
(c) After welding activities only
(d) None of the above
A magnifying glass may be used during visual inspection by typical magnification would be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Up to 50
2 2.5
50 100
None of the above

75.

Which of the following defects is unlikely to be found by visual inspection?

76.

(a) Linear misalignment


(b) Undercut
(c) Overlap
(d) Linear slag inclusions
Which of the following standards entitled Visual inspection of fusion welded joints?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Tensile
1.

2.

Tensile strength can be increased in steel by:


(a) Annealing
(b) Galvanising
(c) Addition of carbon
(d) Casting
A tensile test will assess:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

77.

BS 4515
BS 5289
BS 5135
BS EN 440

Impact values
Stress
Strain
Both B & C

Which of the following in a fusion weld usually has the highest tensile strength?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Weld metal
Parent material
HAZ
Fusion zone

Weldability
1.
The weldability of a material may be affected by:

2.

(a) Temperature of the component


(b) The Ceq % of the material
(c) The elements in the material
(d) All of the above
Which of the following materials has the poorest weldability?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Austenitic stainless steel


Martensitic stainless steel
Carbon manganese steel
HSLA steel

Oxy fuel
1.

Which of the following statements is true?

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
78.

You see a welder using an oxy-acetylene flame with a long feathered inner cone. What would be the effect of
this on a carbon steel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

79.

2.

The temperature required for cut initiation


The ability to cut Stainless steel
The depth of cut obtainable
None of the above

The flame temperature of oxy / acetylene mixture gas is given as:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Fatigue
1.

The weld could be hard and brittle


The weld metal could be too soft
There will be no effect on the weld
The weld will have undercut

Oxy pressure and nozzle size would influence what in flame cutting:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

80.

Oxygen-fuel gas cutting is essentially an oxidization thermal cutting process


Oxygen-fuel gas cutting is essentially a melting process
The only fuel gas used is acetylene
Propane is the preferred fuel gas in oxygen-fuel gas cutting as it produces hotter flame

3200* C
2300* C
5000*C
None of the above

Fatigue testing is used to test welds:


(a) Under cyclic loading
(b) Under creep stress loading
(c) Under impact loading
(d) Under static loading
A fatigue failure is characteristic by the appearance of the fracture surface. It would be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Rough and torn


Cheveron like
Smooth
None of the above

Travel speed
1.

The possible effects of having a travel speed too fast:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

81.

Low toughness, slag inclusions and undercut


High hardness, slag inclusions and a narrow thin weld bead
High hardness, excessive deposition and cold laps
Low toughness, poor fusion and slag inclusions

Which of the following best describes a semi automatic welding process?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The welder is responsible for the arc gap and travel speed
The welder is responsible for the travel speed only
The welding plant controls both travel speed and arc gap but under constant supervision
The welding plant controls both travel speed and arc gap, no supervision required

Lamellar tearing
1.
Which of the following are essential factors for lamellar tearing?
(a) High residual stresses, poor through thickness ductility, existing plate Laminations
(b) Poor through thickness ductility, fusion face parallel with rolled direction of parent plate, most
commonly occurs in but welds
(c) Stress, poor through thickness ductility, fusion face parallel with rolled direction of parent material

2.

(d) Tensile stress, deoxidized parent plate, poor through thickness ductility
What is lamellar tearing?

3.

(a) Strain cracking at the edge of bend test specimen


(b) A type of crack occurring in the parent material is associated with poor through thickness ductility
especially when large fillet welds or tee butt joints are made on the material
(c) A type of crack found in welds which have undergone several thermal cycles either during welding or
PWHT
(d) It is another name for a plate lamination caused during plate or pipe manufacture
Lamellar tearing has occurred in a steel fabrication. Before welding could it have been found by:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

82.

Lamellar tearing:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Cold lap
1.

2.

X-ray examination
Dye penetrant
Ultrasonic inspection
It would not have been found by any inspection method

Only occurs in the rolled direction of a parent material


Is a HAZ type of type of crack
Is another term for a lamination
All of the above

Cold lapping is another term for:


(a) Lack of fusion at the toe of a weld
(b) Low amperage
(c) Undercut
(d) Hydrogen cracking
Cold lap in another term for:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Lack of fusion
Low amperage
Undercut
Hydrogen cracking

Heat input
1.

What are the possible results of having a too lower heat input?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

83.

Welds made with high heat inputs show a reduction in one of the following properties:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

84.

Ductility
Toughness
Fatigue strength
Mechanical strength

Welding procedures may require welds to be deposited at a controlled rate heat input. High heat input would:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

85.

An increase in hardness, lower yield strength and lack of fusion


A reduction in toughness, hydrogen entrapment and an increase in hardness
Entrapped hydrogen, an increase in hardness and lack of fusion
Entrapped hydrogen, a reduction in carbon content and lack of fusion

Have poor profile


Have larger grain size
Have high hardness in the HAZ
Have low elongation properties

Which is the correct heat input if the amps are 350, volts 32 and travel speed 310 mm / s?
(a) 2.16 kJ / mm
(b) 0.036 kJ / mm

(c) 2160 kJ / mm
(d) 36 kJ / mm
Mechanical test
1.

2.

Bend test specimens have been taken from a 25mm thick carbon steel butt weld. Which would show lack of
inter-run fusion:
(a) Side bend
(b) Root bend
(c) Face bend
(d) Guided bend
Internal lack of fusion defects can be normally found by using:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

86.

Penetrant testing
Impact tests
Side bend test
Hardness test

In a bend test, the face of the specimen is in tension and root is in compression, the type of test being carried
out would be:

87.

(a) A root bend test


(b) A side bend test
(c) A face bend test
(d) None of the above
Which of the following destructive test would indicate the toughness of weld metal and parent metal HAZ?

88.

(a) Macro
(b) Nick break
(c) Hardness
(d) Charpy vee notch
What is a charpy test used for?
(a) To measure the ductility of a material
(b) To test the tensile strength of a material
(c) To test the notch toughness of a material
(d) to measure crack propagation speed

1.

What is a Vickers Pyramidal Indentor used for?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

89.

To measure indentation toughness


To measure ductility
To measure hardness
All of the above

Why is a weld procedure qualification test necessary?


(a) To ensure the welder is able to make sound welds meeting the requirements of the agreed welding
procedure
(b) To ensure the welder satisfies the NDT and mechanical requirements of the specification
(c) To give maximum confidence that the variables used for welding are compatible and will produce sound
welds meeting the requirements of the agreed specification
(d) To give a guarantee that defect free welds are going to be produced

90.

A welder and procedure re-qualification would be required:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

When the run out date of the procedure has been reached
Every Year
When changing from day to night shift work
When there is a change in an essential variable

1.

A welder qualification test is to verify:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Skill of the welder


The quality of the materials
The non-destructive test procedures
The manufacturing method

Defect
1.

A planar defect is:

2.

(a) Incomplete fusion defects


(b) Slag inclusion
(c) Incomplete penetration
(d) Both A & C
Defects outside of the limits specified in a standard should always be:

3.

(a) Repaired
(b) Reported to a senior person
(c) Radio graphed
(d) All of the above
Stray arcing may be regarded as a serious defect. This is because:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

It may reduce the thickness dimension of a component


It may cause liquation cracks
It may cause hard zones
All of the above

91.

Which of the following may be classed as a More serious defect?

92.

(a) Slag inclusions


(b) Fusion defects (Inter run)
(c) Fusion defects (Surface)
(d) Porosity
The most serious defect types are:

93.

(a) Planar
(b) Cracks
(c) Lack of fusion
(d) All of the above
Which of the following NDT method is not suitable to detect sub surface defect?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

94.

Planar defect are best described as:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

95.

UT
PT
RT
MPI

Linear from at least one direction


Rounded indications
Linear from at least one direction with volume
May be classed as all of the above

Non-planar defects associated with a weld:


(a) Are not significant
(b) Must be removed
(c) Are not usually as significant as planar defects

(d) Only exit sub-suface


Structure
96.

The hardest grain structure capable of being produced when welding C/Mn steel is:

e
Bainite
f
Austenite
g
Pearlite
h
Martensite
Which of the following steel structures has the highest hardness:

a
Martensite
b
Austenitic
c
Ferritic
d
All have the same hardness
The extent of the changes in microstructure will depend on the following:

a
Material composition
b
Heat input
c
The rate of cooling
d
All of the above
A large grain structure in steels said to produce:
a
b
c
d

97.

Low ductility values


Low fracture toughness values
High fracture toughness values
High tensile strength

The HAZ associated with a fusion weld on steel has up to how many separate regions of micro structure?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

98.

4
6
1
2
A martensite grain structure:

(a) Is always present in welds on steel


(b) Is brittle grain structure
(c) Is obtained when the preheat temperature exceeds 200*c
(d) All of the above
1.

If arc strikes are found on carbon steel (C eq of .5%), what undesirable grain structure may be present?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Perlite
Martensite
Bainite
All of the above are undesirable grain structures in constructional steels

Crater pipe
1.
If arc strikes are found on carbon steel (C eq of .5%), what undesirable grain structure may be present?

2.

(a) Perlite
(b) Martensite
(c) Bainite
(d) All of the above are undesirable grain structures in constructional steels
Which of the following is an alternative name for a crater crack?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Radio gragh

Cold crack
Tearing
Star crack
Fatigue crack

1.

Which of the following would show as light indications on a radiograph?

99.

(a) Slag inclusions and copper inclusions


(b) Tungsten inclusions and excessive penetration
(c) Cap undercut and root piping
Excessive cap height and incomplete penetration An IQI would be used in radiography to assess:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

100.

Image quality
Type of steel
Density of graph
Type of welding process used

In X-ray the quality of radiographic negative is assessed by the:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Density of the film


IQI Indicator
KVA available
Stand off distance

Degrease
1.

2.

The main reason degreasing agents should always be dried from metals prior to welding, is because they are
likely to:
(a) Increase the arc voltage
(b) Produce hazardous fumes
(c) Slow down the welding speed
(d) Produce lack of fusion defects
Degreasing components are essential for quality welding but some agents may:
(a) Cause corrosion problems
(b) Give off phosgene gas
(c) Leave residues

Carbon
1.

2.

3.

Carbon equivalent values are useful to determine:


(a) Weldability aspects
(b) Crack sensitivity aspects
(c) Typical mechanical properties
(d) All of the above
High Phosphorous contents in carbon steels may cause:
(a) Cold shortness
(b) Hot shortness
(c) An increase in ductility
(d) An increase in malleability
The steel composition in a structural contract is changed form 0.15% carbon, 0.6% manganese to 0.2% carbon,
1.2% manganese. Might this influence the incidence of:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

101.

Porosity
Cracking in the weld area
Undercut for fillet welds
Lack of root fusion defects

Pre-heating a carbon steel manual metal arc welding is carried out to minimize the risk of:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Scattered porosity
Worm hole porosity
Parent metal cracking
Lack of penetration

102.

Pre-heating a carbon steel manual metal arc welding is carried out to minimize the risk of:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Harden
1.

2.

Scattered porosity
Worm hole porosity
Parent metal cracking
Lack of penetration

Which of the following chemical elements has the greater effect on the hardenability of a steel plate?
(a) Molybdenum
(b) Chromium
(c) Titanium
(d) Carbon
To prevent the hardening and cracking of High Carbon Steel plate when flame cutting it is advisable to:

(a) Pre-heat the plate


(b) Soak the plate in oil
(c) Cool the plate quickly after cutting
Increase the cutting Oxygen pressure
Process
1.

Which of the following welding processes is not classed as an arc welding process?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Electro slag welding


Thermit welding
Plasma welding
Both A and B
All of the above

103.

Which of the following heat treatment processes would be used for grain refinement?

104.

(a) Annealing
(b) Normalizing
(c) Quenching
(d) H2 release
Which of the following welding processes is not a fusion welding process?

105.

(a) Electro slag welding


(b) Oxy-gas welding
(c) Forge welding
(d) TIG welding
Which of the following processes joints metals plastically:

106.

107.

(a) Friction welding


(b) Resistance welding
(c) Plasma welding
(d) All of the above
Which one of the following type of steels would give rise to the formation of porosity when autogenously
welded with an arc process?
(a) Fully killed steel
(b) Semi killed steel
(c) Rimming steel
(d) Fine grained steel
Which one of the following processes uses the Key holing system of fusion?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Friction welding
Diffusion welding
Electron beam welding
Autogenous TIG welding

108.

Which of the following is not a fusion welding process:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Centreline
1.

Thermit welding
Electro slag welding
Laser welding
Friction welding

You observe centerline cracking in a weld that has been made at one of five work station each making similar
components. The first action to take is:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Impound all welding consumables


Report the occurrence to a higher authority
Stop all welding
Call for full NDT checks

Weld symbol
1.
Weld symbols placed on a dotted line in accordance with ISO requirements means:

2.

(a) Weld on Arrow side


(b) Weld on Other side
(c) Weld on site
(d) Full penetration
BS 499 part II communicates by the use of symbols the type of joint preparation to be used. Listed below are
four symbols. Which of these indicates the depth of penetration of the weld required on the joint?
(a)

(b)
10
10

(c)
10
10

(d)

1.

To BS 499 part 2, which of the following is true for a welding symbol:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Porosity
1.

This or arrow side of the joint goes on top of the reference line
This or arrow side of the joint goes below the reference line
This or arrow side of the joint goes in the middle of the reference line
All of the above

When open site working, serious porosity in metal arc welds is brought to your attention. What would you
investigate:
(a) Electrode type
(b) Power plant type
(c) Electrode storage
Day temperature

109.

Porosity would mostly occur in which of the following:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

110.

The main causes of porosity in welded joints are:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

111.

When MMA welding semi de-oxidized steel


When MIG / MAG welding fully de-oxidized steel
When welding TIG welding non de-oxidized steel
When Sub Arc Welding semi killed steel

Poor access
Loss of gas shield
Dirty materials
All of the above

Porosity is caused by:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Entrapped slag in the solidifying weld


Entrapped gas in the solidifying weld
Entrapped metallic inclusions in the solidifying weld
None of the above

Discontinuity
1.

Which of the following discontinuities could be as a primary processing discontinuity often found in cast
material?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Fatigue crack
Stress corrosion crack
Porosity
Lack of penetration

112.

Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a service induced discontinuity?

113.

(a) Fatigue crack


(b) Porosity
(c) Machining tear
(d) Lap
Which of the following is a discontinuity that might be found in a forging?
(a) Shrinkage cracks

(b) Laps
(c) Cold shuts
(d) Insufficient penetration