You are on page 1of 113

STRANDS

OF
LANGUAGE
(81-PART
t)
Mnica
Aragons
Laura
Alba-Juez

universitaria
/\ Editorial
Ramon
Areces
E

pc\$Je

cD'So$l\

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

15

INTRODUCTON

17

U N I T1 : S M I L E ! !
A) W A R M I NU
GP . . . . . . . . . . .
B) O R A LD IS C OU R SE
EX
: P R E SSING
AND
OPINIONS
D E S C R IB INEGV E N T S
ACTIVITI
ES
c) MULII-TASKING
Grammar
Capsule:
Connectors
Y
D ) T A C K L INVGOC A B U L A R........
, OW'S
Y O U RS P E L L I N G. .?. . . . . . . . . . . .
E ) N O WH
1 . c h ,k, ck,o r c? ........
2 . y ,i , o r i e ?. . . . . . . . . . . .
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
1. Suffixes-ence,-ance,-ency,-ancy
prefixes
2. Negative
un- anddis- ..........
3. Prefixescon-,ex-,in-,perHP P R OP RIATELY
ANDPUTTING
IT INTO
G ) U S I N GE N GL IS A
MOTION
genitive
Grammar
capsule:The
case's/ of
's
1. Thegenitive
case / of
2. Difference
betweenexpressions
suchas a horserace/a
race horse
3. Prepositions
at, in, of,on, andfor
4. Verbsmakeanddo (Grammar
capsule)
5 . Ne i th e r...n o r...............
pronouns
(Grammar
6. Emphatic
andreflexive
.....
capsule)

23
25

TIMETO RELAX

Self-evaluation
unit1

25
27
29
31
35
35
36
36
36
37
37
37
38
39
39
39
40
42
42
44
45

CONTENTS9

UNIT2: LUXURYAND ROMANCE


A) WARM ING
UP
B) O R A LD I S C O U R S ED:E S C R I B I NE
GX P E R I E N C E S

c) MULTI-TASKING ACTIVITIES

Grammar
Capsule:
Connectors
again!
D) T ACKLING
VOCABULARY
........
E ) NOW HOW' S
YOURSPELLTNG?
'1. ul ir
2. Doubleconsonants
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATTON
OF WORDS?

pre-/pro1. Prefixes
2. Adjective
andadverbformation
G ) U SINGENGLISH
APPROPRIATELY
ANDPUTTING
IT IN T O
MOTION
Grammar
capsule:
Zeroplural
1. Translation
of sentences
containing
thezeroplural
2 . Usesof even........
3. Verbsexpressing
epistemic
or extrinsic
modality
Grammar
Capsule:
Modalauxiliaries
4. Modalauxiliaries
5. Prepositions
on, in, at andfor
6. Tenseandtime(Grammar
Capsule)
7. Definite,
indefinite
andzeroarticle
TIME TO RELAX
Self-evaluation
unit2
UNIT3: TEA LOVERS
A) W A R M I N GU P
B) ORALDISCOURSE:
PUTTING
A CASE( lNA
CONVERSATION)
c) MULTI-TASKING ACTIVITIES
D ) TACKLING
VOCABULARY
Grammar
Capsule:
/n as an adverbial
particle
E ) N O WH O W ' Y
S O U RS P E L L | N G. .?. . . . . . . " . . . .
-ie/ -ei
1. Vowelcombinations
2. Doubleconsonants
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
-lessI -ful(Grammar
1. Adjective
formation:
Capsule)
-/y(Grammar
2. Adverbformation:
Capsule)
.
l0

(Bt-pART
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

49
3 l
c l

53
56
58
o+
b4

64
65
65
65
66
66
ol
ot

68
68
69
70
70
72
72
73
77
70

79
81
84
87
88
88
89
89
89
91

G ) U S |N GE N GL T SAHP P R OP R |A TELY
ANDPUTT|NG
tT |NTO
MOTION
92
G r a m maca
r p su l eS: o mea/ n y ..........
92
1 . S o m ea/ n y ..........
92
2. Compoundsof some,any,no, or every(nobody,no one,
anybody,everybody,nowhere,anywhere,everywhere,
anything,nothing,and everything)..........
94
3 . S u p e r l a t i v .e. s. . . . . . . . , . . .
94
(Grammar
4. Spaceprepositions
Capsule)
95
5. Frequency
adverbs
96
6 . T i m ep h r a s e .s. . . . . . . . . . ,
96
T I M ET O R E L A X
97
S e l f - e v a l u a tiuonni t3 ...,..........
98
T R A N S L AT ION
A N DC OMP OS IT ION
l( Units1- 3)
100
U N I T4 : C R I M EA N DD A N G E R. . . . . . . . . . .

101

A ) W A R M IN G
UP
103
B ) O R ALDIS C OU R SD
EIS
: C U S S ING
MEANINGS
103
c ) M U L T |-T A S K TANCG
T tV tT tE.............
S
105
D) TACKLING
VOCABULARY
110
E ) N O WH
, OW'S
Y O U RS P E L L | N G. .?. . . . . . . . . . . .
115
e
r
/
a
r
1. Spellings
f o rt h es o u n dI A L . . . . . . . .
115
2 . V o we las n dco n so n a n ts
.........
115
-ue/
-ew
3. Endings
116
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
116
Grammar
Capsule:
Compound
words
116
1. Compound
words:N+N/N+Adj/Adj+Adj
117
prefixes
2. Negative
118
dis-,un-,in-,or im- ...........
G) USTNG
ENGLTSH
AppROpRtATELy
ANDPUTT|NG
tT |NTO
MOTION
118
Grammarcapsule:The
PastPerfect
Tense
118
1 . Ve r bsi n th e P a stP e rfe ct
..,............
118
2. PastSimple+ Pastperfect
120
3. Useof wherein relativeclauses
120
4. Personal
(subjective,
possessive
Pronouns
objective,
and
possessive
(Grammar
reflexive)/
adjectives
Capsule)...,. 121
5. Phrasesof thetype Io hisamazemenV
to her owndismay
at the beginning
of the sentence/clause
.......
123

CONTENTSI I

6. Reported
speech
Grammar
Capsule:
Directand Indirect
speech
7. Useof reflexive
pronouns
TIMETO RELAX
S e lf- evaluation
unit4 ..............
U N fT5 : W ILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
..........
A) w A R M t N G
U P. . . . . . . . . . . .
B) ORALDISCOURSE:
NARRATION
ABOUTW tLDLtF E

EXPERIENCE
. .S
......

c) MULTI-TASKI
NGACTIVITIES

t+

124
tJ
to

127

129
131
131
133
138
144

D) T A C K L I NVGO C A B U L A R Y , . . . . . . .
, OW'S
E ) N O WH
Y O U RS P E L L I N G. .?. . . , . . . . . . . .
- ou/- ow ..........
1. Gr aphemes
144
2 . H o m o p h o n .e. s. . . . . . . . . .
.. 144
F) AND...HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
145
1. Compound
words:N+N;Adj/Adv+V/Adj+N
.. 145
Grammar
Capsule:Abstract
Nouns
146
2. Abstr act- noun
for m ation
..............
147
G) USINGENGLISH
APPROPRIATELY
ANDPUTTING
IT INTO
MOTTON
148
1. Usesof since.......
149
Grammar
Capsule:
Timeprepositions/
conjunctions:
sinceI for ............
148
2. Specialuseof somewordswithcertainprepositions
'150
(e.9.awayfrom).......
3. Quantifiers
a little/a few+ mass/countnouns
150
GrammarCapsule:
(a)little/(a) few
Quantifiers
150
4. Adver bs
of fr equency
..............
152
5. Relative
clauses
153
6. Useof the expressions
af the time/on time/in time/at
one time/at times
154
7. Prepositions:
about,with,by,on,after,for,from,untit ..... 155
T IMETO RELAX
155
S e l f- evaluation
unit5 ..............
156

12 sTRANDS
oF LANcuAGE
(Bt-pART
t)

Ji'{lT6: LANDSCAPEANDTHE ARTS

159

161
GP
A ) W A R M T NU
L PINIONS.
GE R S O N A O
B ) O R A LD I S C O U R S EE:X P R E S S I N P
GIVINGDETAILSABOUTFAMOUSPEOPLE'S
161
. .S
.......
B T o G R A P H T. E
163
CG
T T V T T T.............
ES
c ) M U L T | -T A S K TAN
168
VOCABULARY
D) TACKLING
172
SP
R E L L I N G.?. . . . . . . . . . . . .
E ) N O WH
, OW' SYOU
172
1 . S i l e ngt b e f o r n
e ..............
173
2. Doubleconsonants
173
FORMATTON
OF WORDS?
S
F) AND...HOW'YOUR

Noun-andadjective-formation
Capsule:
Grammar
173
m o r p h e m e. .s. . . . . . . . . . . .
-al/ -age
174
morphemes
1. Nounformation
-al ...........
174
formation
morpheme
2. Adjective
lr INTO
ANDPUTTING
APPROPRIATELY
c) usrNc ENGLTSH
175
MOTION
175
1. Compounds
with+ver
verbsin defining
Useof prepositional
Grammar
Capsule:
176
relativeclauses
176
2. Defining
relative
clauses
178
s
3 . C o mp a ri soonf a d j e cti ve...........
(second
179
........
type)
4. Conditional
sentences
sentences... 1 8 0
Capsule:
Secondtypeof conditional
Grammar
'181
t n tinuous?
..............
5 . Pr e s e nSt i mp l eo r p re se nco
182
6 . P r e p o s i t i o.n. s. . . . . . . . . . . .
183
article
7. (Omission
of)thedefinite
.........183
CONNECTION
A N DL IT E R A T U R E:THE
H ) L A N G U A GE
of an
of narratives:Analysis
1. ldentifying
the structure
excerpttrom Switzerland,the Cradleof Libertyby Mark
184
Twain
185
2. Exercise
on anothernarrative
.. 188
T I M ET O R EL A X
189
S e l f - e v a l u a tiuonni t6 ...............
191
| ( Units4- 6) .........
T R AN S L AT ION
A N DC OMP OS IT ION
MODELEXAM

193

ANDTASKS
KEYTO EXERCISES

201

I3
CONTENTS

U N I Tl : S M I L E ! !

A) WARMINGUP
1) Doyoulikeit whenpeoplesmileat you?
2) Whatdo youthinkpeoplemeanif theysmileat you?
3) Do yousmileoften?Do youfindit healthy?

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:
EXPRESSING
OPINIONS
AND DESCRIBING
EVENTS
CAN DOs: 1) Expressopinions/likes/dislikes.
2) Exchangeideas:agreeldisagree.
3) Describean eventin your life.

o) Lisienfo Wendyond Mqrk's conversqfion

fffi
(Wendyis readinge-mailson hercomputer)
Wendy:Ugh!I'm reallypuzzledaboutall thisemoticonstuff.
Mark: Emoticonstuff?What do you mean?Why? What'sso
puzzlingaboutit?
W:Well,it'sa wholenewcodewe haveto dealwithnow...Didn't
we haveenoughwithlanguage
itself?Howam I supposed
to interpret
a smileyface???

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l2 5

Andonewitha semi-colon
on it ;-)tglZ Doesit meanit'sfunny
or theyaretryingto saysomething
beyoncl
that?lf theyarewinking
an
eye,whaton earthdo theymean?Theywantus to guesstoo much...
M: Oh,com e
I t h i n ky o u ' r eo v e r d o i n gi t a l i t t l eb i t . . . ls e e n o
co mp lication
at
Just use your common sense and your
i ma g i nation!
W: ...Andhowaboutthisfacesticking
itstongueoutandsmilingat
thesametime(Q)? Doesit meantheyarenicelysmilingat youbut
you?Mygoodness!This
simultaneously
m-ocking
is insulting!
M: I don' tthinkit' sinsulting,
no..
U S EY OURIM AGINATION,
W ENDY!

sayit' sEXClTlN G...

W: lmagination?
No way!l'm not hereto imaginethings.I want
F A C TS,
symbols
lcan r elyon...a language
whichwillm ak em e feel
l 'mo n safegr ound...
Allthismoder n
ambiguity...
ldon' tlik ei t at al l l l
M: Comeon,Wendy,relax!
W: Lookat thisone:1@Whatdo youthinkmycolleague
is trying
to saywithit? lt looksso unfriendly
anddisrespectful
to me!
M: Let me see... (Afterreadingthe message):
Oooh,please,
Wendy...
Willyouforoncemakean effortto understand?
lf youplace
it rightin its context,you'llsee that whatshe-meansis that she's
stressed
andupsetwithherboss.Nothing
personal
aboutyoul!
W: Well, you know, I still think all this smiley-face
stuff is
u n n e cessar
y confusing...
and
M: Wendy,please,SMILE!Life is beautiful.
SMILE,WENDY

b) Now discussthe followingwlh your tutor


or clqssmqlesin the forum/virfuqlcloss:
1. Whyis Wendypuzzled?
2. Whatdoesshethinkaboutthedifferent
kindsof smileyfaces?

26

(Bt-pART
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

3. Whatis Mark'spointof view?


4. Whatkindof personality
do you thinkWendyhas? Do you think
she'seasy-going?
5. HowaboutMark'spersonality?
Canyoucomparebothapproaches
(Wendy's
life
to
and Mark's)?

c) MULTT-TASKING
ACTIVITIES
IIONA LISA:LOOK,READ,LISTEN,STUDYand WRITE
Step1.Go on the internetand LOOKat the portraitof MonaLisaat:
http//upload.wiki
media.org/wi
kipedia/com
mons/6/6a/Mona*Lisa.jpg
Step2. READthe relatedtextand LISTENto its spokenversionto make
sureyouknowhowto pronounce
andgivethe correctintonation
to it.

She haslongteasedscholarswithher mysterious


sensuality,
and
her identityhas beena puzzlefor almost500 years.Was MonaLisa
the wifeof Francesco
del Giocondo,
as manyscholarsbelieve,or a
duke'swidow or a Medici mistress?Now computerartist Lillian
Schwartzthinksshe has foundthe "mostobvious,most revealing,
mostpoetically.tight"
answer.MonaLisais noneotherthanLeonardo
da Vincihimself.
Schwartzwas testinga new computerprogramat AT & T Bell
Laboratories
when she comparedLeonardo's
mostfamouspainting
with his onlyknownself-portrait,
drawnin red chalkat the end of his
life.She scaledeaohpictureon her computerscreento the same
proportions,
thenmatchedthe leftsideof the self-portrait
to the right
side of the Mona Lisa. The featuresmatchedprecisely- "a
congruenceso strikingas to precludecoincidence,"
she writesin
January'sArts & Antiquesmagazine.
She concludesthat eventhe

H,?5,i;.,soj:fr:|

smileis theartist'supsidedown,'lhe mirrored

Schwartzcontendsthat her identificationmakes sense, for


Leonardolovedriddlesand opticalparadoxes.
And while he kept

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l2 7

precisenoteson his other commissions,


she says,he apparently
madeno recordsforthe MonaLisa,norwashe everpaidforthework.
to Milanto
He neverpartedwithit, carryingit withhimfromFlorence
Rome to France.Historiansbelievethat Leonardowas probably
WickAllison,
Perhaps,
writesArts & Antiquespublisher
homosexual.
"a sideof himselfthathe treasured."
the MonaLisarepresents
"Nonsense,"
Manyart expertsremainunconvinced.
said James
who
Art HistoryDepartment,
Beck,chairmanof Columbia
University's
arguesthat otherLeonardofaceshavesimilarfeaturesand that the
lookis simplya matterof style."An artistpaintswhat'sin his mind,"
says Beck,"not what he sees."lf Schwartzis right,what may have
mindwasa privatejokethathasfooledposterity.
beenin Leonardo's

Step3. DOthefollowing
andSTUDYthegrammarexplanations
exercises
whennecessary:

I ) Choose the correcf qnswer from the ones gven


below
1. Whatdo you thinkSchwartzmeanswhen she says"the most
poetically
right"answer?
a,) lt remindsus of Dante'spoetry.
answer.
satisfying
b) lt is the mostaesthetically
poeticalaboutthe picture.
c,) Thereis something
to the
2. Whydid she matchthe leftsideof Leonardo's
self-portrait
rightsideof MonaLisa's?
a) BecauseLeonardomighthave paintedhis reflectionin the
mirror.
b) Becausehe was left-handed.
c) Becauseit is the bestwayto comparetwo portraitswhichare
similar.

28

(Br-PART
r)
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE

3 . Whatdo youthinka "mirrored


smile"meansin the text?
a,) A mysterious
smile.
b,) A smilewhichis upsidedown.
probablylookedat himselfin the mirrorto paintit.
c) Leonardo
4 . Thefactthathe mayhavebeenhomosexual
is important
because:

a,) lt explains
why he paintedsucha delicatesmile.
b) Hisstyleis effeminate.
c) lt represents
howhe wouldhavelikedto be himself.
5 . "Anartistpaintswhat'sin his mind"meansthathe paints:
a) Thewomanwho he is in lovewith.
b) Hisowninterpretation
of things.
c) Whathe sees.

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Conneclors
Connectors
are wordsor expressions
that are usedto connect
ideas,such as so, otherwise, then, on the contrary, on the other
hand.Whenspeakingaboutthe syntacticstructureof the sentence,
theseconnectors
are calledconjuncts.Conjunctsare unitswhose
mainfunctionis to join togethertwo or moreutterances
whichhave
a semanticrelationshipbetweenthem. They express textual
relationships.
Theyare connectorsof structure,and as such,theycan
connectphrases,clauses,sentences
andparagraphs:
E.g.: He was a liar andfurthermorea criminal.(Nounphrases)
He neverstudiedfor hisexams.However,he passedthem
all with verygood grades.(Sentences)
In spokendiscourse,
conjunctsare very frequently
usedto mark
the beginningof a turn in conversation,
and as such,they are also
consideredto be discoursemarkers.Among the most common
discourse
markersarewell,now,now then,so, then,etc.allof which
can be usedto makedifferent
typesof semanticconnections.

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l2 9

2> Pul the followingsentencesfogelher usngfhe


oppfopriqle connector
a) MonaLisais a mystery.
Heridentity
(because/until).
haslongpuzzled
scholars
b,) Schwartzwastestinga computerprogram.
Shecompared
(inorderto/while).
thetwopictures
d Shescaledthetwopictures.
Shematched
(that/before).
eachoneon thecomputer
d) Thefeaturesmatchedprecisely.
Sheconcluded
(since/in
thatMonaLisawasLeonardo
case).
e/ Schwartz's
explanation
makessense.
Manyexpertsdisagree
(whenever/although).
f) Leonardo
tookthepicturewithhim.
He travelled(wherever/u
ntil).
g) Manyhistorians
believethat Leonardo
was probablyhomosexual.
"a sideof himselfthat he
The MonaLisamayhaverepresented
red"(therefore/although).
treasu
h,) MonaLisamaybe Leonardo
himself.
Manyart expertsremainunconvinced
(unless/yet).

3) ORAI PRODUCTION:
Describingon evenf usng
connecfors
Describe
an important
recenteventin yourpersonal
lifeanddiscussit
withyourclassmates/tutor
in classor in a videoconference.Why
wasthis
eventimportant
to you?Howhas it affectedyou?Ask othersfor advice.
USEconnectors/
discoursemarkers(e.9. First,Then,Nor2,
etc.)to join
yourideasandmakethemcohesive
andcoherent.

4> MAKEA LIST,


WRITE
ANDSUMMARIZE
a) Makea listof the mostconvincing
reasonsfor believing
thatMona
Lisais actually
Leonardo.
b/ WouldyouagreewithSchwartzor withBeck?Explainwhy.
c) Rewrite
thepassageusingthefollowing
notes:
. Mona Lisa'sidentityis a mystery- wife,widowor mistress?
Schwartz's
answerpoetically
rightbutfactually
wrong?

30

(Bt-PART
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

L e o n a rd o 'sse l f-p o rtra iand


t
M ona Lisa technologically
compared.Similarityof featuresmore than coincidence?
Mirrored
smile.
Riddletypicalof Leonardo,lovedparadoxes.
No recordsof
paymentforwork,tookit withhimeverywhere.
painting
Possibly
representsa secretaspectof himselfthat he treasured.
Art
worldunconvinced?
Similarities
amongLeonardo's
other
works
makecoincidence
a "matterof style".Doestheartistpaintreality
or was Leonardo's
realityitselfa puzzle?

D) TACKHNGVOCABUTARY
BUILDUPYOUROWNGLOSSARY
OFTERMSFOB UN|Tt: Look up
the following words in a monolingual (English-English) dictionary
as well as any others you find difficult to understand in the text:
(n)
a) sensuality
(n)
b) identity
c) mistress(n)

d) obvious(adj.)
e) match(v)
f) striking(adj.)

g) famed(adj.)
h) argue(v)
i) fool(v)

I ) Findin the fext fhe oppositeor neqr opposle


of the following words
a) ambiguous
b) wrong
c) ooscure
d) unknown
e) vaguely

frown

g) agrees
h) different
i) public

UNIT
l : S M l L E l 3l l

2> Complete these sentenceswth fhe opproprote


word from those listed below
sensuality

magazines

identitity

features

mind

publisher

nonsense

aboutalmost
a) These days you can find a
beauty,sport,cars, and many other subjects.
anything;fashion,
; he neverseemsto say

b) What he said was


anythingsensible.

of the
c) The police couldn'tdiscoverthe
crime'
him
the
commit
had
seen
no-one
as
criminal,
d) She never thought she could write a book, but the
toldhershehada lotof talent.
of womenis somethingthat painters
e/ The
work.
oftentry to capturein their
has always been a
f) The power of the
favourite
subjectfor psychologists.
but
are nothingspecialindividually,
s) H e r
togetherthe effectis quitebeautiful.

3) Include one of fhe following verbs in the


oppropriote tense in lhe blqnk spqces below
fo complete the meoning of these sentences
draw
match

carry
conclude

remarn
argue

that
a) As she was alreadytwo hourslate,he
shewasn'tcomingto the PartY.
in Spainfor a weekafterthe othersleft,
b) |
becausethe weatherwas so good.
portraitsof peoplein cafs,
c) He lovesto
if theyare notawarethathe is doingit.
especially

32

(Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS
D

for hoursaboutpoliticalissues,but
everyone
stillthoughtthe sameafterwards.
a ) Thissweater
doesn't
I think
thesetrousers;
l'llreturnit to thestoreandaskfor a refund.
'
f) H e
my suitcasesall the way up to the fifth
floor,whichhurthisbackquitebadly.

d) They

4> Findlhe phrosesin lhe lexf thEt completethe


following$enlences
theday,l'm too tiredto go out.

d/

b) Heturnedtheglass

and spilledmilkall over

thefloor.
l
lf youworkharderthanotherpeople,it
that
youshouldearnmoremoney.
d) A goodstudent
of allhislectures
should
and
classes.
o ) She lovedhimso muchthatevento
himfor
was
a day
difficult,
f) To be good at a sport is usuallyas m uch
oracticeas of talent.
that peopleneverknow
s) Theytellso many
what they are laughingabout.

5) l. Findffie odjecfiyes or o'dverbsin the text


lhot medn the following
a)
b/
c)
d)

clear,blatant.
immediately
impressive.
wellknown.
according
to whatis generally
thought.

2. filouinclude the apprapriot ward from fose


you found above (rn exercise I ) in the blank
spces
a) Her beauty was
hadheardabouther.
everybody

all over the country;

l : S M l L E l l3 3
UNIT

problem
is
to yourmoney
Tome,thesolution
youshouldgeta jobthatpaysyoumore.
he is havingan affairwith anotherwoman,
but I don'tbelieveit.
because
d) Van Gogh'spaintingsare usually
of the brightcolourshe uses.
c)

) Solvelhe crossword usnglhe clues below

34

(BI-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS
D

DOWN
spirit.
1. a womanwhohasa continuing 10. thoughts,
illicitrelationship
witha man.
12. pertaining
to thesenses.
2. deceive.
14. register,
keepdata.
3. reacha judgement.
15. continue
to be.
6. discuss.
17. impressive,
obvious.
7. sketch.
18. resemble.
coincide.
books
9. a personwho publishes
or ileriodicals.

ACROSS;
4. painting
of oneself.
6. well-known.

16. characteristics.
18. publication.

8. as it seems.
11. picture.

19. to takewithoneself.
20. identified,
awareof itsexistence.

1 3 . n o b l e ma n .

21. sameness
or likeness.

E) NOW HOW'SYOURSPETUNG?
ln the text we find wordssuch as scholars,duke, opticaland Beck.
in theirspelling?
Canyoutellthedifference

I ) Add ch, k, ck, or c fo the following words


knoa=

lusy_-olo$r
la

l : S M l L E l l3 5
UNIT

2) Wordsendngin -y following$ consonsnf


chcnge the y to i beforesddng o suffix
- laboratories,
history- historians.
E.g.:laboratory
Thisis notthecasewiththesuffix"ing";carry- carrying.
Addy, i, or ie in the blankspaces:
obe_ed
stead_ly

cherr_s
fl_ing

funn_er
worr_d

SP_-S

happ_ly

stor_s

sunn_er
stud_ing
cr_s

After checkingyour answerstry to formulatethe corresponding


spellingrules.Go to your grammarbook if necessary.

F) AND... HOW'$YOURFORMATTON
OF WORDS?
Noticethe words congruenceor emergency.
The endings-ence,
-ance,-ency,-ancyare oftenusedto formabstractnouns.

I ) Formnew words by using one of l'rese


suffixes
different

convenient

efficient
dependent

consistent

acquaint
annoy
absent

r)
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
Gr-PART

assure
accept
predom
inant
allow

ptefxesun-,qs in "unconvinced",
2> The_negqfive
ond d,s-os n disregordore frequenilyused.
Add eitherone of themto the follbwingwords:
_illusion
order

-happy
grateful
advantaoe

_important
aqree

-loyal

WISE

aporove

healthv

ooeorenl

3) Look qt the words "precluden',"conclude",


"include"n "excludeo'.-clude is the bEse
fo which differenf prefxes ore ddded
Seehow manywordsyou can makeby joiningthesefour prefixes
(con-,ex-, in-, per-) to the following bases:
_ceive
ject

_fect

_cept

-sist

_vert

-form
-mit

G) US|NGENGUSH
APpROPR|ATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTIOH
Possessivesappearvery often in the Mona Lrbatext:
E.g.:"A duke'swidow."
"Leonardo's
mostfamouspainting"
"...The MonaLisa'sfamedsmileis theartist's"
". . . in L e o n a rd omi
's n d "

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l3 7

lf
The genitive cose: 's / of
GRAMMARCAPSULE:

in whichthe genitiveis usedin TheSecret


Examinethe instances
of the Smile.Someof them are:the wifeof Francescodel Giocondo,a
duke'swidow,Leonardo'smost famouspainting,the right side of the
MonaLisa, elc.
As we can see in these examples,sometimesthe construction
NP's(NounPhrase+'s) is usedandsomeothertimestheformulaNP + of + NP is preferred.In spite of the fact that there are usually
in a
one or the otherconstruction
reasonsfor preferring
compelling
givencase,the degreeof similarityand overlaphas led linguiststo
as variantformsof the genitive.
regardthe two constructions
's (traditionally
knownas the
In general,the genitiveconstruction
for humannouns:
is preferred
Saxonpossessive)
E.g.: a duke'swidow
mind
Leonardo's
is preferred
to a lesserextentfor animalnouns
This construction
policy).
(thecat'sears)and humangroupnouns(thegovernment's
as we can see in this
However,
this rule is not alwaysobserved,
wherethe
del Giocondo,
examplefromthe text:fhe wifeof Francesco
nounphraserefersto a humanbeing.
known as the Latin
The constructionwith of (traditionally
possessive),
is generallypreferredfor inanimateobjects,massand
abstractnouns.
E.g.: Theleft sideof the self-portrait.
is also preferredwhen the modifyingnoun
The of-construction
phraseis long:
E.g. Thearrivalof the 10:30planefromManchester.

38

(Bt-PART
t)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

I ) f{er_-consullingthis point in your grommqr book,'


join lhe following nounsusing 's oi simply t
(opostrophewitouf s)
a) Charlesthe Second/ his reign
b) The house/ Tomand Mary
c) MiltonandShakespeare
/'theirworks
d) The backyard
/ our neighbours
- e) Bismarck
/ hisGermany
f) Europe/ its difficulties
g) Bill'sfather/ hisfriend
h) John/ oneof his nephews
i) My smallsisters/ theirtoys
j) The ladies/ theirctothes
k) . My son-in-law
/ the bicycle
l) Jimand Elisabeth
/ theirchildren
m) Yerdiand Puccini/ the operas
n) The portrait/ Mr.Brown

2> Explointhe ditferencebelween the following


expressionsby sloling whqt eqch one meqns
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A goodbusiness
deal/ A gooddealof business.
A wineglass/ A glassof wine.
A pay-day/A day'spay.
A horseracelA racehorse.
A sportsfield/ Fieldsports.

3) Note-fh9 u9e of lhe prepositionsat, in, oi, on,


ond lor tn lhe texf ond ofter reqding oboul fem
in o grommqr book, fill in he blonk-spqceswih
fhe oppropriqte one
a) Mr.Smithhaslivedhere
b) Shewaswearingseveralrings

two years.
herfingers.

UNITl: SM|LEll39

themin thishouse.
the moment.
a newproject

c) Thereis no room
d) He is working

e) The childrenwrote their names

the screenof their

computers.

The man

ljust methim
thegreycoatis a detective.
thepub.

he saidbecausehe spoke
everything
s) Wecouldhear
voice.

a veryloud
lavender.
h) Marysmells
m i nd.
i) Youshouldtry to keepwhatI havetoldyou
Dillon's.
) I haveboughtthesebooks
no matterhow far
Christmas,
k) They all came home
awaythey might have been.

mywaynome.
thesupermarket
t) l'llstop
theirth i r ti es .
m) Allthe menshegoesoutwithare
the Universityof Kansas
n) He studiedChemistry
fouryears.

4, In the text we find fhe expressions


"makessense"
;"madeno records".
in meaningand usagebetweenthe verbs
Do youknowthe difference
make?
to do andto

MAKEI dO
GRAMMARCAPSULE:

&i

between
Spanishspeakersoften have problemsdistinguishing
intoSpanishas
make and do becausebothverbscan be translated
hacer.To make means to buildor producesomethingand can be
To do meansfo
translatedas hacerin the Senseof fabricar,elaborar.
as hacerwilhthe meaningofrealizar,
carryoutandcanbe translated
the choiceof theseverbsdependson the
Itevra cabo.Ultimately,
wordswithwhichtheycollocate:

40

(Bt-PART
l)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

You make: an accusation, allowances, an appointment,


arrangements,
an attempt,a bed,the bestof ..., a cake,certainthat...,
a change,a choice,a comment,a complaint,a confession,a darc,
decision,a demand,a liscgvery, a dress,an effort, an enquiry,'an
estimate,an excuse,a fire, friends(with),fun of ..., a gestur, fuss
of..,.,. a good/bad impression,a journey, a living, loss, love, a
mistake,.money,the mostof ...,.a movement,a noie,an offer,peace,
war,a phone call, a plan, a point (of ...), a profrt,progress,a wish,a
promise,a proposition,a remark, useof, a statem'ent,
etc.
. You do: your best, business,a course,the cleaning,the cooking,
damage,the dishes,your dyty,evil,an exercise,a favourlthegardenig,
qood,your hair, harry, one's homework,honour,the housetiork,a jo-b,
justice, research,right, the rooms,the shopping,
- a srJm,a translaiioni,
the washing,wonders,some work,wrong,eic.
After readingthe grammarcapsuleand some more information
aboutthe use of theseverbs in a grammarbook,includeeithermake
or do, in the appropriatetense,in the followingsentences:
a) "Whatare you
b) She enjoys
m o rn i n g .
c) The dogs
impossible
to sleep.
d) Sh e

?""l'mreading
a book".
exerciseearly in the
so muchnoisethat it was
all herclothesherself.

e) Everyone
must

the house.
f) "Whatdo you
a secretaryin a Canadianbank".

hisbedbeforeleaving
"1workas
fora living?"

s)

H e- a
mostuninteresting
proposition
whichnobodyaccepted.
h) Whydon'tyoujust
the bestof it and
enjoyyourselfinsteadof complaining
so much?
i) The children
their homeworkand
thenwentout to the gardento play.
Wouldyou
me a favour?
coffee.

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l4 1

k) What will you


holidays?
don't
t) Please,
m) D o n 't
of yourself.

for the Christmas


that,it bothersme.

that,you're

a fool

5) Thesentenceprecedingnor olwoys
hos o negqtvemeqnng
E.g.:"Hemadeno records...nor washe everpaidforthework".
parentsneverforgave
him,nor did hersisters.
Hisgirlfriend's
neither
But the mostfrequentuse of nor is with the coniunction
pair.
forminga correlative
Rewritethe followingsentencesas in the example:
Hedidn'go
t to thepub.
E .g .:Jo hn
didn'go
t to thecinem a.
Johnwentneitherto thecinemanor to thepub.
Theydidn'tfight.
didn'tquarrel.
a) Thechildren
b) The examwasn'tshort.lt wasn'teasy.
c) Thatoldmancan'tread.He can'twrite.
d) Tommustn'twork.He mustn'tstudy.
in sports.
e) Shecan'trun.Shecan'tparticipate
f) Theycan'teat fish.Theycan'teat meat.

) Theword himselfis used emphoticolly


in this lexl
"MonaLisais noneotherthan Leonardoda Vincihimself",
"a
It is also used as a reflexivepronoun: side of himself that he
treasured".

42

(BI-PART
t)
oF LANGUAGE
sTRANDS

GRAMMAR
CAPSULE:
Empholic qnd reflexive pronouns
The pronounhimselfis usedin the MonaLisatext(The secretof
the Smile)bothas a reflexiveand as an emphaticpronoun.
we usethe reflexivepronounswhenthe subjectand the object
of an actionare the same, i.e., reflexiveprononsreplacea coreferential
nounphrase,normallywithinthe samefinitevrbclause:
E.g.: Suecut herselfwiththe razor.
He lookedat himselfin the mirror.
I promisedmyselfI wouldbehavebetternexttime.
Emphaticreflexivepronouns:Reflexive
pronouns
aresometimes
placedin apposition
forthesakeof emphasis
and/orend-focus.
In this
case,andfromthe discourse
pointof view,theycannotbe saidto be
proper,for theydo notfulfilthe objectiunction
reflexive
andconveya
differentmeaning.They are used emphaticailyto indicatethat
someone,and not someoneelse, did something.
This could be
translatedintoSpanishas uno mismo,en persona.
E.g.: I myselfsowedthe dress.
lsowedthe dressmyself.
A: Canyoudo the shopping?
B:Whydon'tyoudo it yourself?
After reviewingemphaticand reflexivepronounsin the capsule
and in your grammarbook,fll n the gapswith the appropriateiorm:
a) The President
receivedthe journalists
and
explained
thesituation
to them.
b) Thatold manis alwaystalkingto
c) I live by
in an old housein the country.
d) DidSuehurt
with the knife?
e) Lookat
in the mirrorwiththatsillyhat.
f) They must solve all the problemsby
otherwise
theywon'tlearn.

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l4 3

s) We havebought

a lovelynewcarbecause
theoldoneno longerworkedproperly.

h) Stopfeelingsorryfor
get out of so muchtrouble.
i) She makesall her clothes
quitea goodjob too.

to
anddo something
and she does

i) Theseboysalwaysseemto begetting

into

trouble.

You can check the answersto all exercsesand tasks in the KEY
TO EXERCISESANDTASKSat the end of the book.
TIMETORELAX:Now let'srelax,sit down,and watchsome
withthe topicof this uni{_
interesting
videosin connection
re=relatd
?v=mPeeTbiTPCU&featu
http://www.youtube.com/watch
lwEM&feature=related
?v=lEdGhfO
http://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=ffej15-DglO&feature=fvst
hp://www.youtube.com/watch
?v=eskXn
bVYr3Y
http//www.youtu
be.com/watch
?v=nCpD72b-df
s
http://www.youtube.com/watch

(BI-PART
LANGUAGE
STRANDSOF
D

Self-EvaluationUniI I
exercises
and thencheckyouranswersin the KEy
_^ o_9llg_tollowing
TOEXERCISES
AND TASKSat the end of thebook:

I ) Ghoosefhe opposife or neor opposteof these


words
1 . a m bi g u o u s
2. unknown
3. frown

a) laugh
b) private
c) smile

4. different
5. public

d) famous
e) indifferent
f) obvious
g) similar

2> Complefe lhese words with lhe correct opfon


emistry

1.

a) ch

b) k

c) ck

d)c

b) k

c) ck

d) c

b) k

c) ck

d) c

b)k

c) ck

d) c

b) k

c) ck

d) c

2. fantasti
a) ch
lu_
a) ch
we2
a) ch
5 . psy-ology
a) ch

UNITl: SMlLEll45

3) Choose lhe correct oPfion


I. A good deal oi business
a) A lot of business.
business.
b) A profitable
c) A welldonebusiness.

2. A wine grdss
a) A glasswithwinein it.
wine.
b) A glassusedfordrinking
c) A glassof wine.

3. A day's pdy
a) A payof one day.
b) A dayon whichone is Paid.
c) A pay-day.

4. A race horse
a) A horserace.
b) A racein whichhorsesparticipate.
c) A horsefor racing.

5. Field sporls
a) A fieldwheresportsare practised.
b) A sportsfield.
outdoors.
c) Sportspractised

46

(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS
D

4> Choosefhe correct opton lo complele lhe


meqning of lhe following senlences
1. Whatdo you
a) to make
2. I lovehome
a) doing
3. I
a) did

for a living?

b) make

bread.
b) making c) made

5. Stop
a) doing

d) do

d) did

my bedandcleanedthe housebeforeleaving.
b) made

4. WhathaveI
a) to do

c) to do

c) do

d) make

to deservethis?!
b) made

c) done

d) to make

so muchnoise!You're
disturbing
us.
b) make
c) do
d) making

UNIT
l : S M l L E l l4 7

ffiruffiH
ffi=
,#ffiffiffiW
&ffiffiffi#ffie###ffi

A) WARMTNG
UP
1) Whatdo youthinkwe aregoingto studyin thisunit?Why?
2) Areyoua romanticperson?Why/Whynot?
3) Wouldyou liketo livea lifeof luxury?

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:
DESCRIBING

EXPERIENCES

1. CANDOs: 1) Describea placeand discussdreams,hopes


and ambitions.
2l Narratea story.
3) Relatedetailsof unpredictableoccurrences.

lislen fo Meg ond Lindsoy's conversolion

(Meg and Lindsayare watchinga TV show aboutthe top ten


luxurious
hotelsin theworld)
Meg:Wow!| certainlywouldliketo takemy significant
otherto a
placelikethat!

UNIT
2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCE5l

Whatdidyousay?Yourwhat?
a minutel
Lindsay:Wait
other.That'sit.
M: My significant
L : Oo o h ...w e l l ,w e l l !T h a t'sver ygoodnews!ldidn' tknowther e
girl!
wassucha personin yourlife...Tellme all aboutit,younaughty
M : We l l ....l 'm n o t g o i n gto tell you the detailsbut...hejust
it...lt wasmagic!Myknight
in my lifewhenI leastexpected
appeared
in shiningarmorcameto my rescuewhenI no longerhadanyhopes
the
Andltell you:I' mnowhaving
o n e l i n ess...
o f b e i n gsa ve d ...frol m
t i m eo f my l i few i thh i m!!!
Luckyyou!lI wishI couldsay
s e x citing!!!
L :Wo o o h l T h so
a t u n d so
t h es a m e . . .
So I
and SOOOROMANTICI!
hallucinating
M:Yes.lt lS exciting,
FV...
place
on
like
those
him
dream
plan
with
to
a
wantto
an escape
Whatdo you makeof it, eh?
idea!lf I maygiveyousomeadvice,I have
L: I thinkit'sa fantastic
but it's none of thosetop ten worlda greatplaceto recommend,
i t's...
f a m ou sh o te l s...
M :Y e a hte
, l lme ,te l lme !I'mallear s...
'.
in Spain.
L:Well,thisis a dreamplacein thevillageof Mondariz,
youknow,butit has
as thosetoptenhotels,
so high-sounding
nothing
style...lt'sthe
European
of high-class
thesoberIuxuryandelegance
you
can isolate
places
where
magical
of
those
one
MondarizSpa,
tradition,
of
enchantment,
in
atmosphere
world
an
rest
of the
fromthe
"BelleEpoque"
kindof luxury...
peaceanda particular
in Spainis that?
Whereabouts
M: Really?
'.an
of Spain..
to thenorth-west
areain Galicia,
L: lt'sin a beautiful
thinkers,
artists,politicians,
areathathasbeenableto bringtogether
place
loversandall kindsof peoplein searchof an ideal...A fantastic
i n d e e d !l !
M :Ww w ..T h amu
t's si cto mYear s!!!t
L: In the hotelyou notonlycan bathein thermalwaters,butyou
at the sametimeyou
can alsoreceiveall kindsof beautytreatments
l'd
say - out-of-body
dare
luxurious,
and
are havinga romantic,
"significant
your
other"...
with
experience

52

(Bt-PART
t)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

M: EnoughlI takeit! l'llgo on the internetrightawayto makethe


reservation
for our weekvacation!
Thanksa lot! l'll tell you all about
ourSpanish
adventure
whenwe'reback!!!!
e
!
)L

lt
S
A

b) Now discussthe followngwilh your lutor or


clqssmotesin lhe forum/-virtuqlcloss
"my significant
1) What does the expression
other"mean?lf you
haven'theardthe expression
before,makea guess.
2) Whatdo youthinkMegmeanswhenshesays:,,|'rn
notgoingto tell
youthe details"withrespectto her loveaffair?
3) Howdoesshedescribe
therelationship?
ls sheveryenthusiastic?
4) what do youthinkof the description
of Mondariz?
Doesit sound
likea niceplaceto you?Explainwhyor whynot.
5) Narratea romanticeventor storyaboutyourselfor someoneyou
know.
l.

c) MULTI-TASKING
ACTtVtTtES
THELUXURYDAIMLER:LOOK,READ,L|STEN,STUDYand WRTTE
step t. Go to the followingwebpageon the internetto see different
pictures
of GuySalmonluxurycars:
http:i/images.
google.
es/images?hl=es&q=Guy+Sal
mon+cars&btnG=
Buscar+im7"C3%A1genes&gbv=!g.q=f
Ssq=

u
Y

step2. READthe relatedtextand LlsrEN to itsspokenversionto make


sureyou knowhowto pronounce
and givethe correctintonation
to it.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 53

This is the true story of a lady,a gentleman,a Guy Salmon


chauffeuranda dozenred roses.Or,to be strictlyaccurate,twodozen
red roses.The roseswereorderedto be placedin a chauffeur-driven
reservedrecentlyby oneof our clients.
Daimler,
The roses- and the Daimler- wereto markthe occasionof his
wasto presentonewhilsttravelling
Hisintention
birthday.
ladyfriend's
for a
and elegantWestEnd restaurant
in the otherto a fashionable
surprisebirthdaydinner.
manner,he also
To start the eveningin a suitablycelebratory
in thelimousine.
waiting
and
ordereda bottleof PolRogerlobe chilled
the gentlemanknewhe couldlook
Havinggivenhis instructions,
Fortheto an eveningto remember.
forwardwi pleasantanticipation
the eveningstartedmuchearlierin
however,
Guy Salmonchauffeur,
the day.
of one particular
is the responsibility
EachGuy Salmonlimousine
perfect
mechanical
in
lt is hisdutyto ensureit is maintained
chauffeur.
perfection.
So, althoughthis
order, and washed and valetedto
particularDaimlerhad madeonly one trip sinceits last wash,the
washedit again.He polishedit too.He brushedeveryinch
chauffeur
He vacuumedthe carpets.He polishedthe wood
of the upholstery.
workand cleanedthe windows.He evenwashedoutthe ashtrays'
The limousineprepared,the chauffeurchanged into his
ice
in the Daimler's
Thenhe placedthe champagne
livery.
immaculate
His
off.
setting
seat
before
back
red
roses
on
the
bucketandthedbzen
wasa privateaddressin SouthLondon.
destination
He intendedto arrive,as always,ten minutesearly,savinghis
maybe late.His
clientsfromanylastminuteworrythattheirlimousine
timing,as always,was perfect.He knocked,informedthe gentleman
hadarrived,andwaited.
his limousine
was
wereready.The gentleman
In a fewminutes,his passengers
to
the
Thanks
impressed.
The lady was suitably
suitablycharming.
ran
love
smooth.
of
true
drivingskills,for oncethe course
chauffeur's
wasspilt,andthe couplearrivedin the best
Nota dropof champagne
of spirits.
whilst
Theladyembarked,
returned.
Fourhourslater,thelimousine
you
mind,
don't
hope
gentleman
one
side.'l
to
the
took
chauffeur
the

54

(Bt-PART
l)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

sir,but I felt the roseswereperhapsnot of the standardthev mioht


havebeen,'heexplained.'And
foui hoursin the backof the aimier
wouldnothaveimproved
them.So I tookthe libertyof replacing
them
withanotherdozenroses,sir.I hopeyoudon'tobject'.
The gentleman
certainly
didn't.Nordid his ladyfriend,
whofound
her roses mysteriously
lookingeven fresherthan when she first
received
them.But howdid the chauffeur
finda dozenfreshrosesat
in centralLondon?Well,he was a Guy Satmonchauffeur,
:]i:l'3f.,,
Punch,Publicity.

step3. Do thefollowing
exercises
andsruDY thegrammarexplanations
whennecessary:

I ) Ghoosefhe coruecfqnswerfrom the ones gven


below
1. T h ech a u ffe uclre a n s...
a) the ashtrays.
b,) the upholstery.
c/ the entirecar.
2. Thechauffeur
putsthe roses...
a) on the backseat.
b) in the ice bucket.
c) on the frontseat.
3. He leavesten minutes
early...
a/ becausehe wasoncelatedue to trafficproblems.
b/ to avoidhisclientsgettingimpatient.
c) in orderto buythe flowersbeforearriving.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 55

I
4 . Thecarpicksthe clientsup...

a) at theirhouse.
b) at a restaurant.
c) al a hotel.
drivingskills...
5 . Thanksto thechauffeur's
was notsPilt.
a) the champagne
b) theyavoidedthe trafficjam.
soonerthananyoneelse'
c,) theyarrivedat the restaurant
6 . Theyspentthefourhours...
d at an EastEndrestaurant.
b) at a WestEnd restaurant.
c) havingdrinksin the car.
mainlysells...
7 . Theadvertisement
service.
a) a practical
b,) luxury.
c,) speed.
qualityis thathe...
mostoutstanding
8 . Thedriver's
a) drivesveryquickly.
b) repairsthe car himself.
c/ foreseeseverything.

Conneclors ogon! Lel's


CAPSULE:
GRAMMAR
fevise whql we leqrnt in Unit I
that are used to connect
are wordsor expressions
Connectors
ideas,such as so, otherwise,then, on the contrary,on the other
hand.Whenspeakingaboutthe syntacticstructureof the sentence,
are calledconiuncts.Conjunctsare unitswhose
theseconnectors
whichhave
mainfunctionis to join togethertwo or moreutterances
textual
express
a semanticrelationshipbetweenthem. They

(Bt-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS
D

relationships.
Theyareconnectors
of structure,
andas such,theycan
connectphrases,clauses,sentences
and paragraphs:
E.g.:He was a liar andfurthermorea criminal.
(Nounphrases)
He neverstudiedfor hisexams.However,he passedthemail with
verygoodgrades.(Sentences)
In spokendiscourse,
conjunctsare very frequently
usedto mark
the beginning
of a turn in conversation,
and as such,theyare also
consideredto be discoursemarkers.Among the most common
discoursemarkersare Well,Now,Nowthen,So,Then,etc.all of which
canbe usedto makedifferent
typesof semanticconnections.

2> Join the following sentences by usng one


of lhe connecfors qnd including fhe necessqry
puneluqlion qnd chqnges
a) Thegentleman
hadgivenhisinstructions.
He thoughthe couldlook forwardto an eveningto remember.
(once/while)
b) Theyentered
the limousine.
He ordereda bottleto be chilled.(before/ although)
c) EachGuySalmonlimousine
is the responsibility
of oneparticular
chauffeur.
It is his duty to maintainit in perfectmechanical
condition.
(however
/therefore)
d) Thisparticular
Daimler
hadmadeonlyonetrip.
It hadto be washed.(once/ although)
e) He brushedeveryinchof the upholstery.
He alsovacuumed
the carpets.(andI as a result)
f) He wantedto arrivewithenoughtime.
Hisclientswouldnot haveto wait.(sothat/ but)
g) He hadplacedthe champagne
in the Daimler.
He set off.(once/ while)
h) He leftthenminutesearly.
Histimingwasperfect.
(once/ so)

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 57

He knockedat the door.


had arrived.(until/ in
his limousine
He informed
the gentleman
order)
He waited.
Theywerenotquiteready.(therefore
/ because)
k) The roseswerenotof the standardtheymighthavebeen.
hadto buysomenewones.(since/ in contrast)
The chauffeur

PRODUCTION:
Describeqnd
3) ORAIANDWRITTEN
discussdreoms,hopesond ombitions;nonqfe o
slory; relqle detoils of unpredicloble
occurfences

t.

Answerthese questions
to
a) Whatdoestheslogan"We'renotnumberone;youare"suggest
you?
offeredby thisservice.
b) Commenton someof the advantages
in rentingone of these
c) Whatsort of personmightbe interested
chauffeur-driven
cars?
foundthe roses?
d,) Howdo youthinkthe chauffeur
e) Wouldyoudreamof hiringa servicelikethiseverin yourlife?

2. lmagine you dre inlerestedin impressingthe

daughter of d local millionaire with d view to


marrying her eventually. Everything must be
perecl and money is no object, Explainyour
requremenfscrnd plans to ]he Daimlerdgent in
l5O words (obout two or three psragro,phs)

VOCABULARY
D) TACKLTNG
BUILD UP YOUROWN GLOSSARYOF TERMSFOR UNIT2: Look
up the lollowing words in a monolingual (English-English)

58

(Br-PART
r)
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE

dictionary, as well as any others you tind difficutt to understand in


the text:
a) strictly(adv.)
b) accurate(adj.)
c) suitably(adv.)

d) ensure(v)
e) polish(v)
f) spill(v)

g) skill(n)
h) ice bucket(n)
i) intend(v)

| ) Find fhe opposle or neqr opposle of fhe


following words in the texf
WORD

OPPOSITE/NEAR
OPPOSITE

a) false
b) vaguely
c) unstylish
d) inappropriately
e) horrible
f) unattractive
g) inability
h) obviously

2> Someof the words in lhe texl ore reloted to


cleoning.Trylo find the qpproprqleverb
fo complefe eoch senfence
clean

wipe

polish

vacuum

brush

wash

a) Youshould
b) I haveto
c) He always

yourshoesbeforeyougo out.
my hair;it'sverydirty.
histeethtwicea day.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 59

d) Thisrugis fullof dust,youwillhaveto

havespiltmilkalloverit.
thetable;you

e) Please

3)- Complete fhe following senfenceswith o verb


in the opproprofe lense from fhose listed below
order
reserve
intend

ensure
maintain
present

tmpress
mind
mark

inform

replace

improve
whenyou
highstandards

to
a) It is important
a r e r u n n i n ga b u s i n e s s .
b) lf you wantto

youmuststudY
yourEnglish,

and practicehard.

becausewe
a tableat the restaurant,
knewit wouldbe verycrowded.
h i mw i t ha
theY
d) Whenhe leftthe comPanY,

c) We

gold watchfor his years of service.

to cometo the party,butat the lastminute


the bossgaveme someextraworkto do.
thatthe housewassafeby lockingallthe
f) H e

a)

doorsand windows.

s) Theywere very

by the flowerswe bought

them;theysaidtheyhadneverseenanyso beautiful'
to
h) Everyyearwe opena bottleof champagne
thedayon whichwe gotmarried.
taking us to the airport
i) He sayshe doesn't
on Saturday,becausehe has nothingelse to do.

i) Whenhe brokethe glass,he hadto

it with

anotherone,as it wasveryvaluable.
two bottlesof wine, but the waiterhas
k)
onlyone.
brought
illnessaSSoonaS
himof hismother's
t) TheyholidaY.
he camebackfromhis

(Bt-PART
l)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

4> Cg.mp!-ete
lhe sentencesusngthe qppropriqfe
odjecfive or qdverb from those listed belbw ond
chonging fhem where necessory
strictly

particular

accurate

charming

fashionable
pleasant

mysteriously
suitable

a) Her clothes were very


; she was
appropriately
dressedfor the occasion.
b,) Hismoneydisappeared
fromhiswallet,and
he neverfoundoutwhotookit.
c,) Theirreporton thesituation
in Africawasvery
all of the correctfactswerethere.
d) H es mi l e d
man.
; he wasa veryattractive
e) She wantedthat

painting;she wouldn't
acceptanyother.
f) The sun shonevery
; it was neithertoo hot
nortoo cold.
g) Theyalwayswantto go to the most
places;
theycan'tstandgoingto unstylish
ones.
h,) His remarkswere not
true;I foundthem
rathervagueand exaggerated.

5) Thephrosqverb set off meonsto leqve,lo stort


gong.lnsqrfone of the followingverbsh the blqnk
spqeesof lhese sentences:fum off (stop by using
q switch), put of (_d.gloy,
postpone); iake o7 (thebeginningof o flight),be off (go, Iove),wedr oft
(lose intensity,fqde -9wqy),put (somene)otf
(discourqge),get oft (corire down from)
a) Please,

the light,I wantto go to sleep.


b) As soonas I finishtypingthis reportl'll
to
John'shouse.

UNIT
2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCEl

at 12.00,butit
c) The planewas supposedto
wasdelayed.
thathorse,it'sverydangerous.
d)
e) Don'tworryif the colouris too bright,it will
so o ne n o u g h .
goingto Londonuntilnext
We will haveto
month.
aboutthe idea;trynotto
g) Sheis veryenthusiastic
withyoursarcasm.
her

wth the correctform:


)' Fillin the blqnk spoce__s
positon),
setup (roseinto
9ef Pgc\ (deloy)' sef
(reserve'
rn (begin ond contnue),sel ds-id.e
setkep), seI abouf (to begin_lodo_)' down
(estoOtish),sef off (cogse.lo qct), set out
(begin o courseof oction)
to lookforthe lostgirl.
equipment
the camerasand recording
They
tme.
waste
wouldn't
they
so
arrived
actors
the
before
by the bad
All our holidayPlans were
weather.
by the teacher.
TheruleswereclearlY
by the heat.
The bombcouldhavebeen

a) We all
b)

c)
d)
e)

f) Winterhas
s) She had just

arrived.
h) At the storeI askedthemto
for me untilthe nextdaY.

62

(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
D
STRANDS

earlierthanusualthisYear.
doing her work when he

the greencoat

7> Solvefhe crosswordusing lhe clues below

DOWN
1 . a b i l i t y, q u a l i ty o f d o i n g
something
well.
2. specific,
singular.

4. precise,correct.
6. strangely.
10. makebetter.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 3

3. in vogue,uPto theminute.
waY.
5. in an approPriate
to identifY.
6. to signify,
7. affect stronglY,create a
attitude.
favorable
L substitute.

9. attractive,
Pleasant.
11. setaside.
of liquid.
12. a smallquantitY
13. tell,r ePor t.
whichis givenon a
14. something
specialoccasion.

E) NOW,HOW'SYOURSPEIIING?
I- l' Thei in q word such qs Siris sometimes
from the letter u when il s
indistinguishoble
pronounced.Add eitheri ot u lo complele
fhe followingwords
ret--n
s_rvive
c--rve
sh.-rt
rpose
o
s--rface
s_rgeon

c_rcus
b_rst
s---rprise
f_rm
c_rcle
th_rst
b_rth

d_rt
fl--rt
P-rchase
f-rnish
m_rder
b_rth
---rgent

oppe<rrin the lext


2>Someqof lhese words whichInclude
it in fhe blqnk
double consonont.
te
spoce whefe necessofy

64

chauf-eur

ac_urate

oc_as_lon

ele-gant

din-s

even-ing

(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
D
STRANDS

bot
val

le
eted

_aculate

chil_ed

rem ember
vacuum-ed

ad_res_

WOT

ti m

pas

i no

enoers

charm_ing

inform_ed

F) AND... HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
I ) Notice fhe words 'opresent,'
ond ,,promise".The
prefixes prc-and prc- hove been odded fo
lhe bqses-senfsnd -mrbeto form these lerms. See
]ro* moly words you cun mqke by joining these
fwo prefixes pre-lpro- lo fhe following bqses
fer
-*-*Pel
sume

tend

vide

voke

scribe

serve

cede

duce

-pose

dict

2) Give fhe odjeclive ond lhe odverb fhot


cofrespond lo lhese nouns:

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 5

c) usrNc ENGUSH
APPROPRTATELY
AND PUTTNG
IT INTOMOTION
"two dozenred roses"(in
1. Look at the expression
Spanishdos
docenasde rosas rojas).Noticethat the word "dozen"(like
hundred,thousand,million)when used with a definitenumber
takesneitherthe pluralsuffix-s northepreposition
of.

GRAMMAR
CAPSULE:
Zero plurol
Somenounswhichindicatequantities
or measures
havethesame
form in the singularas in the pluralwhenfollowedby a noun,for
example:dozen,foot,hundred,thousand,million,elc.
E.g.: Mexicocityhasaround22 millioninhabitants.
He'ssixfoottwo (inches).
[6ft2in.]
Or to be strictlyaccurate,two dozen (red) roses.(Seetext)
Thesenouns,however,
addthe plural-s inflectional
morphemeif
they are followedby the prepositionof (e.9.:Dozensof students,
millionsof ants\.
Someanimalnamestakethe zeropluralbut can be usedwith
a s i n g u l aa
r n d p l u ra lme a ning,for exam ple:cod, deer ,salmon,
sheep,grouse,etc.(e.9.'.Onesheep,two sheep,etc.;onecod, a lot
of cod, etc.).
Someothernamesof animalsalso havezero pluralif they are
prey,e.g.:herring,pheasant,
considered
salmon,trout,etc.However,

66

(Bt-PART
STRANDS
oF LANcUAGE
t)

if theyare usedto denotedifferent


individuals
or speciestheytakethe
rg.gulqfpluralinflection(e.g:^Theysaw fivedeer'runningin"thepark;
The fishes of the tndic ocean are different from "those tn
Caribbean\.
zeroplurals.
include:a)
somewordswithbasesendingin -s:
^
91h.r
senes,me.?ns,species(one series/ two series, etc.);b) Nati-onality
yorq: endingin -ese: p91lyguese,Chinese,etc. 1onortuguesi
two Portuguese,etc.);c) words such as aircraftanddice qe.i: on
aircraft/ dice;two aircraft/ dice, etc.)

| ) Now frqnslqte into English


a) Trescientosdlares.
b) Cincuenta
euros.
c) Cientosde libros.
d) Cincodocenasde huevos.
e) Ochomiltrescientas
personas.
f) Docenasde flores.
g) Cincomillones
de habitantes.

2> look of the use of lhe word evenin the texl:,,He


even wqshed out lhe qshtroys,,(inctuso)
..."lookingevenfresherthanwhenshefirstreceivedthem,'. (an ms)
Fromthe following
pairsof sentences
writea newone usingthe word
evenas in the examplebelow:
E.g.: Yesterday
was hot.Todaywas hotter.
Todaywas evenhotterthanyesterday.
a) Maryis beautiful.
Sophieis morebeautiful.
b) Thisfilmis bad.The otherone is worse.
c) Londonis big.Tokyois bigger.
d) Tomis thin.Billis thinner.
e) Piccadilly
Circusis large.Trafalgar
Squareis larger.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 67

3) Severqlmedal verbs expressilg gp:femic or


extrinsiemodalitY qppecrr in fhe text with the
following meonings
-possibility,,...the gentleman
to an eveningto
knewhe could lookforward...
remember"
-probability"...anylastminuteworrythatthe limousine
may be late."
politenesswithexcessive
remotepossibility
"l felt the roseswere perhapsnot of the standardthey might have
begn".

Modql ouxilqries: mayf


GRAMMARCAPSULE:
might/canf could
whichbehavein somewayslike
arespecialverbs
Modalauxiliaries
do, but which have certain
have
and
the primaryauxiliariesbe,
are:
Theirmaincharacteristics
peculiarities.
accordingto the
1. They form the negativeand interrogative
to his boss;
not
speak
(e.g.:
paftern
He
could
norralauxiliary
questionl'
May I askyou a
primaryauxiliaries,contractionof these verbs is
2. As with 'in
possible the negative(e'g': can't; mustn't; couldn't;
needn't;etc.\.
3. Theycan be usedto formtag questions(e.9.:Youcan'tswim,
can you?).
4. Theycan be usedin shortanswers(e.9.:A:Canyou swim?B:
No,I can't.),
5. Theycanreplacea verbor clausethathasbeenreferredbefore
(Shecan'tswim,but I can)'
avoidredundancy
and,therefore,
and
theyhaveno infinitive
6. In contrastwithprimaryauxiliaries,
preceded
to.
by
be
cannot
thereforethey
7. They do not add an -s to the third personsingularin the
presenttense.

(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS
D

8 . All modalverbsare followedby the bare infinitive,


exceptfor
ought to and used to (Shemight wantto seeyou).
Theseverbsare defective
becausetheyonlyhaveone or two
forms.Theyusuallylacka formfor ths futuie,the conditional
and an -ing form.
After readingthe grammarcapsuleand more informationabout
modal verbs in your grammarbook, do the following exerciseby
adding may,might, can or could in the blank spaces:
a) You
losethem.
b) H e
c)
d) You

usemy classnotesif youarecarefulnotto


stillcome,it'snottoo lateyet.
I borrowyourpen?
be right.l'm in no position
to judge.

e) The chairmanaskedpolitelyif he

colleague.

interrupt
his

f) The childrenshouldhavebeenmorecarefulwhentheycrossed
the street,they
havegot runover.
paintthe roomin two days.
s) l ' msu reI
h) You
i)

i) Long

keepyourrooma littlemoretidy.
speakFrenchfluentlywhenI wasyounger.
it last!

4) Answerthe following quesfonsu$inglhe words


in brqekefs
. E.g':whyisn'the home?(mayrgo cinema)He mayhavegoneto the
cinema.
a) Whydidn'the writeto us?(could/ forget)
b) Howdid he knowaboutourplans?(couldi guess)
c) Whyisn'tshewaitingat the busstop?(mayldelay)

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 69

d)

Whydidn'the cometo visitus?(might/ busy)

e) Whyis he in bed?(might/ ill)

qnd
5)' Notice fhe use of the prepostionson, in, of
qnd
for, which qppeqr frequently in this text'
qft'erreviewing them, fill in the blonks with fhe
oppfopfiote one
her birthday.

a) I hopeto be withmYdaughter
b) She lives

the third floor of that building

a big apartment.

them or ning.
s get up earlY
c) Theyalway
the
dressed
d) She was not sufficiently
occasion.
thewallis stillwet.
e) Thepaint
answered.
thedoorbutnobodY
f) We knocked
theyusuallyopentheirpresents
Germany
s)
Eve.
Christmas
thetrain.
h) They had a quick mea
i)

He has worked
two years.

France

j' ) T h e p r o b l e m w i t h | i v i n g t h e c o a s t i s t h
duringthesummer'
therearetoo manytourists
theend.
k) Theysaythatcrimedoesn'tPaY

t) We can meet

frontof youroffice.
m) Theywentoff to the mountains

Wednesday,

theweekend.

"Hoving given his.


)' Noticethe sentence:
the genllemon knew..."In lhe first
nslructonso
clouse of ftrisexmple,the speoker/wtitet
expressessomethingthol is finished.In the
seondclouse onotheroctivity is storted,in
which cose the Post simPleis used
70

l)
(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Tenseond time
including
Englishand spanish,verbaltense
. In mostlanguages,
doesnotnecessarily
coincidewithrertime.Teneis the grammatical
ggleggry (linguisticexpression)that we can identifyas verbal
inflection.
In English,for example,we can distinguish
two tenses;
presentand past (Englishhas no futureinflectedform of the verb),
whereaswe, as humans,can identifyeventsoccurringin the pasi,
presentor future.Inthesameway,we canusedifferent
tnsesto'refer
to variousmomentsin time; for instance,we can use the simple
presentformsto referto a timedifferent
fromthe momentof speaking.
presenttense
E.g.: Thenthe FrenchinvadeEngland.
(Historic
- pasttime)
I hear she has been givenan award.(presentusedwith
- pasttime)
verbsof communication
Derekleavesfor Rometomorrow.
(presenttense- future
time)
lf Sallywere here today,she wouldbe sad. (past tense
- present
time)

After studying the different tenses and their relationshipto


aspectin your grammarbook,put the followingsentencestogeiher,
as the exampleshows:
E.g.: He finished
hislunch.

He wentoutto play.
Havingfinished
hislunch,he wentoutto play.

a) | wonthe firstprize.I receiveda sportscar.


b) He finishedreadingthe book.He gaveit to hissister.
c) | studieduntilverylate.ThenI wentto bed.
d) He lostthe keysto his apartment.
He spentthe nightat a friend's
house.
e) Shefinished
lunch.Shewentoutfora walk.

UNIT2: LUXURY
AND ROMANCE 7l

7>
- Note the use of the definiteqnd indefiniteorlcle
in the text, ond fhen include eilher o(n), the'
ot O (no orticle) in the blunk spoces
hard-boiled
eggand
a) Heonlyhad
diet.
applefor lunchbecausehe is on
bedsandcleaned
b) Theymade
room.
countryfor
c) We livedin
coupleof years.
piano?No,but l'mverYfondof
d) Do youplay
music and I play bir.
guitar
been
it'scertainly
daylYes,
e) What
dayto remember.
to learn.
language
difficult
0 Japaneseis
Madrid
g) firstthingtheydidwhentheygotto theywanted
Pradomuseumbecause
wasvisii
Meninas.
to see
bananaor -'h) 'Wouldyou prefer "-orange
please,I love
orangeor dessert?"
oranges".
E:
\P

TIMETO RELAX:Now,let'srelax,sit down,andwatchsome


withthe topicof thisunit:
videosin connection
interesting

re=relaled
E&featu
?v=4caOwK7Vq2
http:i/www.youtube.com/watch
r
165312/this*is_realy*good-for-you
com/watch/
metacale.
http://www.
_perfomanees/

72

(Bt-PART
l)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

$elf-Froluation LlnitZ
Do the followinoexercises
and thencheckyouranswersin the KEy
TO EXERCTSES
A-ND|ASKSi i" ."0 of rhebook:

t ) Choosethe opposteor neEr opposleof lhese


w0rds
1. false
2. unstylish
3. inappropriate

a/ skill
b) suitable
c) true

4. obviously
5. inability

d) fashionable
e) clearly
f) unfalse
g) mysteriously
h) clearly

2> Choosethe correcf opfion to complete


- the
meqningof lhe followingsenteneds
1. I thinkhejustwantedto
muchmoney.
a) impact
b) impress

us by spending
so
c) impressing d) impression

2. Tom'sgradeswon't
harder.
a) ensure

b) improve

3 . This medicinewill
a) improved

b) ensured

if hedoesn'tworkmuch
c) good

d) to improve

youa goodnight'ssleep.
c) ensure
d) assured

4 . What he said was

a joke,buttheytookit
_as
seriously
andwere
veryangryat hirn
a) intented b) intended c) intent
d) intending

UNIT2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCE 73

John as caPtainof the football


5. Harryhas
team.
d) replaced
a) substitute b) respondedc) respond

3) Chooselhe correcl opton fo complete ihe

meoningof the followingsenfences

1. Youcanphonehimnow,he'salwayshome
the evening.
c) for
b) in
a) on

Segovia

2. Do you know when the train


arrives?
c) o n
b) for
a) at

d) in

Tuesdayif You'refree.

3. We can meet
b) in
a) at

d) on

c) for

her father,who

4. Mary has alwaYsworked


ownsa big clothingcompany.
c) in
b) on
a) for

d) at
theairportuntil

5. Hesaidhewouldwaitforus
we arrived.
a) at

d) at

c) on

b) in

d) for

4> Choosethe correct option to complete fhe


followingsentences

television.

1. I lovewatching
b) an
a) a
2.

74

c) the

in
doctorsaysyoushoulddo moreexercise
orderto keePfit.
b)an
a)a

l)
(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
sTRANDS

c) the

d)a

Year.
a) a

mathematics
is my favouritesubjectthis
b) an

c) the

d)@

4. MyfriendJohnSmithwasbornin
a) a

5. Theysay
a ) a

b) an

c) the

applea daykeepsthe doctoraway.


b) an

c) the

UNIT
2: LUXURY
ANDROMANCE75

t NIT3: TEALOVER$

A) WARMINGUP
1) Whatdo you usuallyhavefor breakfast,
tea or coffee?
2) Do y_ouhavepreference
for any kindof tea (green,black,white,
etc.)?
3) Do youthinktea is goodfor yourhealth?lf so, in whatrespects?

B) ORAI DISCOURSE:
PUTTING
A CASE
(rN A CONVERSATION)
CAN DOs: 1 ) Briefly give reasons and explanations for
opinionsand/oractions.
2l Developan argumentwell enoughto be followed
without difficultymost of the time.

o) Lisfenlo Tony ond Shqron's conversqlion:

Wl

(Tonyand sharon are working,and it is now time for a break)


Ughl l'm overwhelmed
withso muchwork.I needa cup of
--Ton_V:
coffeefor energy.
sharon:coffee?oh prease,Tony,you shourdbe more hearthconscious.
Coffeeis not...

UNIT3: TEALOVERS79

| needsomekind
T:Well,whatdo youwantme to drinkinstead?
of invigorating
stuff.
AND healthyat the
S: TEA is your bestoption.lt's invigorating
p
o
ssi
b
l
e
...
Youcan' timagine
TEA...
dr inkGREEN
s a m eti me A
. n d ,i f
has.
thisbeverage
all the goodproperties
sorry.Thankyou very
T: Tea?No way! No! | find it disgusting,
much.
yourEnglish
youdon'tliketea,considering
S:Well,it'sincredible
o r i g i n s...
T:Yes,I'mtheblacksheepof theU.K.I knowit.l'vealwaysrebelled
I don'tthinkI shouldliketeajustfor
andconventions.
traditions
against
l'venevergonealongwiththecrowd...
themerefactof beingBritish....
It'sa question
of principle.
S: I seeyourpoint,butif whattheydo is goodforyourhealth,you
Look,l'llgiveyoumany
it, don'tyouthink?...
shouldat leastconsider
whyyoushoulddrinkgreentea...Andyes,don'tdrinkit like
reasons
putanymilk
yourfellowcountrypeople,
becausein factyoushouldn't
the
s
i n i t ....l t h a sto b e d ru n kw i thNO milkandNO SUGAR....That'
r i g h th
t i n gto d o ...
Youwantme to drinktea,and
T: Oh Sharon,youmustbe bonkers.
putsugarin it??!!.Howon
you're
I
tellingme shouldn't
on top of that
least
I shouldbe allowedto
it,
At
earthwill I be ableto swallow then?
with
somesweetness!
taste
coverup the disgusting
S: Look,sweetie,youtakeit or you leaveit, but if youdo whatl'm
and/or
againsta longlistof incurable
tellingyou,youwillbe protected
unwanteddiseases,such as cancer,heartdisease,arthritis,tooth
-FYl- green
youwillloseweight!Because...
decay...AND,besides,
tea raisesyour metabolismand causesthe body to burn more
Canyouthinkof a betterdrink?
calories...
T: I sureCAN'T,Sharon.HowcouldI everhavethoughtthatI could
YOUW IN!!l!!
c o n tra d iyo
ct u ?Y OUWl N ,S H ARON,

b) Now discuss lhe following wth your lutor or


cossmqles in the forum/virtuql closs
1) Why does Sharonthink tea is betterthan coffee?Wouldyou
agree?

80

(Bt-PART
t)
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE

2) H.owwouldyou describeTomaccordingto what he says about


himself?
3) Whatkindof personis Sharon?
4) Whatdo youthinkconvinces
Tomto drinktea at the end?
5) \gry lt'rgt_Vou
knowall aboutthe benefitsof greentea,wouldyou
drinkit? Saywhyor whynot.

c) MUrT|-TASKING
ACTTVITIES
DRINKING
TEA IN BRITAIN:
WATCH,READ,LISTEN,STUDY
and WRITE
stgp 1. Go on the internetand wATcH the followingvideosabout
drinking
tea in England
http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=qiqEp RkLbck
http://www.
youtube.com/watch
?v=GFqJOxJseTe
step 2. READthe relatedtextand LlsrEN to its spokenversionto make
sureyouknowhowto pronounce
andgivethe correctintonation
to it.

"n,:l5i,1iJ".":iiJ;,il:,li3lilfl
l3!;iLiJ;,?ilElf.::lff
lh:l
biological
q3oe complicated
experiments
to finda wayof s-poiting

3n!
it.To the eternalgloryof Britishsciencetheirlabourborfruii.The
suggested
that if you do not drinkit clear,or with lemonor rum an
sugar,butpoura fewdropsof coldmilkintoit, and no suoarat all.the
desiredobjectis achieved.once this refreshing,
aromtic,oriental
beverage
was successfully
transformed
intocolourless
and tasteless
gargling-water,
it suddenlybecamethe nationaldrnkof GreatBritain
and lreland- stillretaining,
indeedusurping,
the high-sounding
titleof
tea.
Therearesomeoccasions
whenyoumustnotrefusea cupof tea,
you are judgedan exoticand barbarousbirdwithoutany
othenryise

UNIT3: TEALOVERS8l

hopeof everbeingableto takeyourplacein civilisedsociety.lf you


youget
are invitedto an Englishhome,at fiveo'clockin the morning
a cup of tea.lt is eitherbroughtin by a heartilysmilinghostessor an
almostmalevolently
silent maid.When you are disturbedin your
(orMabel),I think
sweetest
morning
sleepyoumustnotsay:"Madame
you are a cruel,spitefuland malignantpersonwho deservesto be
you haveto declarewithyourbestfiveo'clock
shot".On the contrary,
smile:"Thankyou so much.I do adorea cup of earlymorningtea,
especially
earlyin the morning".
lf theyleaveyoualonewiththeliquid,
you maypourit downthe washbasin.
Then you havetea for breakfast;
then you havetea at eleven
youhaveteafortea;then
o'clockin themorning;then
afterlunch;then
aftersupper;andagainat eleveno'clockat night.
Youmustnot refuseanyadditional
cupsof tea underthe following
circumstances:
if it is hot;if it is cold;if youaretired;if anybodythinks
you mightbe tired;if you are nervous;if you are gay*;beforeyou go
out;if you are out;if you havejust returnedhome;if youfeellikeit; if
youdo notfeellikeit;if youhavehadno teaforsometime;if youhave
just hada cup.
Youdefinitely
mustnotfollowmy example.
I sleepat fiveo'clockin
I drinkinnumerable
the morning;I havecoffeefor breakfast;
cupsof
blackcoffeeduringthe day;I havethe mostunorthodox
and exotic
-l jusi mentionthis
The otherday,for instance
teasevenat tea-time.
you
howlowsomepeoplecansinkas a terrifying
exampleto show
piece
I wanteda cup of coffeeand a
of cheesefor tea. lt was one
hot days and my wife (once a good
of those exceptionally
Englishwoman,
now completelyand hopelesslyled astrayby my
wickedforeigninfluence)madesome cold coffeeand put it in the
refrigerator,
whereit frozeand becameone solidblock.On the other
hand,she leftthe cheeseon the kitchentable,whereit melted.So I
hada pieceof coffeeand a glassof cheese.
GeorgeMIKES,Howto be an Alien
- Note
that this text was written in 1946, when the modern use of gay (meaning
homosexual)was not known. In this text gay is used as an adjectiveand it means
"happy".Gay meaninghomosexualis
consideredto be a neologism,and can also be
useo as a noun.

82

(Br-PART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
r)

Step3. DO the following


exercises:

I ) soy whetherthe following siofemenlsore frue or


fqlse qccordngto the possqge;when folse,gve
lhe correcl verson
a) Teawasoriginally
an unpleasant
drink.
b) A groupof Britishscientists
decidedto makeit better.
c) Theysuggested
you shouldput a sliceof lemonin it to makeit
drinkable.
d) Teais the national
drinkof GreatBritainand lreland.
e) Peoplewho are not fond of tea are considered*exotic,,and
"barbarous,,
by the British.
f) The writer loves being woken up early in the morningby
somebody
whooffershima hotcupof tea.
g) TheBritishdrinknumerous
cupsof teaat anytimeof theday.
h) The author'swife, as a good Engrishwoman,
arwaysrespects
national
customs.
i) Thewriterhasleftasidehis pernicious
foreignhabitsand hasgot
usedto the English
wayof life.

2, order the followilg elemenfsto form meqningful


senlencesqccording to the pqssoge
a ) t h e r e/ c up /o f /o cca si o n/w
s h e n/ r efuselnoV some/ must/you
/arelaltea.
b) tea/ morning/ adoreI do I I I cupI a I earlyI ot.
c) definitely
I you lnot / must/ example
/ follow/ my.
d ) i n n u m e ra b lbel/a ck/co ffe/ er /cu ps/dr inkI of I dayI r heldur ing.
e) refrigerator
/ coffeeI theI andI frozeI it I in I theI put / we.
f ) u n o r t h o d /olx/ t e a s/ e x o t i c /m o s tl t h el h a v e l a n d .

UNIT3; TEALOVERS83

3) ORALPRODUCTION:
Answerlhese queslions
a) DoyouthinkBritishscientists
evermadebiological
in
experiments
order to tell peoplehow they shoulddrink tea? Explainyour
answer.
b) Do you believethe authorexaggerates
when he quotesthe
innumerableoccasionson which British people drink tea
throughout
the day?Givea reasonfor youranswer.
c) The bookfromwhichthispassagehasbeentakenwaswrittenin
1946by a Hungarian
authorafterhe hadlivedin England
forsome
years. Do you know if Englishpeople'scustomshave now
changedin thisrespect?lf so, howhavetheychanged?
d) Canyoufindanyironicstatements
in thetext?Quoteat leastthree
of them.
e) Whichis, in youropinion,the funniestparagraph
in thistext?

D) TACKLINGVOGABUTARY
BUILD UP YOUROWN GLOSSARYOF TERMSFOR UNIT3: LooK
up the tollowing words in a monolingual (English-English)
dictionary, as well as any others you find difticult to understand in
the text:
a) spoil(v)
b) drop(n)

(adj.)
d) high-sounding
(adv.)
e) otherurise

g) spiteful
(adj.)
h) sink(v)

c) achieve(v)

f) heartily(adv.)

i) wicked(adj)

| ) Fill in the gops using fhe following verbs in fhe


oppfopriule form
achieve
deserve

84

refuse
suggest

(Bt-pART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
D

disturb
sporl

a) He is an honestman. He doesn't

such
treatment.
b) Lastyear'sorangecropwas
by hail.
c) Don't
them.Theyhavehada verytiringday.
d) He will never
timidly.
e) Whydid you

successif he behavesso
theirinvitation?

f) She
thatwe shouldwalkfasterif we wanted
to reachthe top beforedark.

2) Gomplelethesesenlenceswthlhe expressions
in fhe box

a) You can't rely on her;the otherday,


, she
hadan important
appointment
and shedidn'tturnup.
b,) "Shallwe go to the cinema""No,I don't
it."
c) He didn't acceptthe other'sopinion.
he
maintained
thathe was notto blame.
d)
Mrs.Martin,for havingpostedthe letters
for me.
e) I don'tfeelwell;l'llhave
food
f) Youcan'treallysay he is a hardworker,but
he is alwaysreadyto help.

UNIT3: TEALOVERS85

3) The words motching the definilions qre hdden in


the word squore; lhey moy hove q horizonfo,
verticql, or dqgonol position (the firsl one hos
been done to show you)

F o

U R X

E T

W E

o
o

W N

E M H M U J

o c
U c

A W E

B W S

D M T

a) Go downbelowa surface,fallto a lowerlevelor position.


b,) Hardenintoiceas a resultof greatcold.
c) The expectation
of something
happening
as onewishes.
d/ Causeto flowsteadilyand rapidly.
e) Femaleservant.
f) Worry,annoyance,
risk.
g) Theamountof liquidthatfallsin oneroundmass.
guests.
h/ A womanwho receives
i) Becomeliquid.

(Br-PART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
D

4) Decide which of fhese odjectives from the text


ccn modily the tollowingnouns.Someof the
udjecfivescon suif more lhon one noun
E.g.:civilised society,civilised customs.
ADJECTIVES
civfised
smiling
silent

foreign
sm ile
witch

spiteful

laughter

malignant
gay

society
customs
prayer

unorthodox
wicked

look
child
reading
colours
ideas
expressions

See the use of bring rn in the text.

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
ln os on odverbiol porlicle

gl

particle
ln usedas an adverbial
canhavethefollowing
meanings:
Usedwithverbsof movement
it means"enter"(comein. drivein.
rush in, walk in).
Usedwithverbswitha directobjectit canmean"help"or "inviteto
enter"(askin, bringin, carryin, let in).

UNIT3: TEALOVERS87

Be at home(be in, stay in).


Keepinside(fastenin, shut in).
Visit (cal/in, drop in).

5) Jrlo* complete the sentencesby using one of


fhese verbs in the qppropriofe form: sk, lef,
shut,drive, drop, be
a/ Don't
ready.

the childrenin yet.Dinnerisn't

b) He usually
in for a coffeeafterwork.
c) lf the dog is too noisy,
h i mi n .
just
d) Youneedn'tparkyourcaroutside,
In.
e/ Aren'tyou
yourfriendin?
f)

Stevein?

E) NOW HOW'S YOUR SPELING?


I ) Fillin the gops wth one of lhe vowel
combnqlions-ieo -ei
consultyourEnglish
dictionary
wherenecessary;
usearsoa phonetic
dictionary
to checkpronunciation.

ach
ve
rec_ve
dec___ve

88

o c
bel

e
f

s_ze

th

sTRANDS
(Bt-nART
oF LANGUAGE
D

conc___ve
f

c_ling
rel
f
f_td

?) Decide whetherthe followngwords from fhe lexl


crrespelt eitherwth singleor wilh u double
consonnl;includethe second consonnfwhen
necessfy
sug_est

suc_es_ful_y

stif_
colourles_
heartil_y

sud_enl_y
oc_as_ion
hos_tes_

especial_y

sup_er (themeal)

ad_it

fol_ow

ional

ter_ifying

cof_ee

F) AND...H(}W'SYOURFOnMATION
OFWORDS?

[i tr'J,l

GRAMMAR
CAPSULE:
Adjective formqtion:
-less I -lul

ll

thing 2 dol

a) Abstractnounsreferto a qualityor idearatherthanto a physical


object.The suffix-ful is usuallyaddedto abstractnounsmeaning
"having
thequalityof" or "fullof":
E . g . : s p oo n

spoonfu/

beauty

beautiful

b) The suffix-/esscan be addedto nounsto formadjectives


with
the meaning
of "nothavingthequalityof":
E . g . : p e nn y
spot

penni/ess
spot/ess

wotethatwhilesomenounscantakebothendings,
othersaddeitheroneor the
other.

UNIT
3:TEALOVERS89

I ) Turnthe followng nouns into odiectives qnd


ploce them under one of lhe heodings in the
toble below. Mqke qny chonges in spelling you
find necessofy
help

harm

rest
heart

sleep
hair

meaning
pain
success

-less/ -ful

fright

breath

colour
penny

thought
revenge

-less

-ful

2> Look ot lhe following odverbs in lhe texl


SuccessfuIIy, suddenly, heartiIy, especially, definitely,
excepti onalIy, comp leteIy, hopeI essly.
this
Theyhaveall beenformedby addingthesuffix-ly to an adjective,
ln some
of manneror viewpoint.
beinga commonwayof formingadverbs
hasalsobeenmadefroma noun:
casesthe adjective
- successfully
E.g.: success- successful
heart- hearty- heartily
- exceptionally
- exceptional
exception
- hopefully
hope- hopeful

90

(Br-PART
t)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Adverb formqlion: -ty
Adverbsin Englishcanbe formedby addingthederivationar
suffix
-ly to adjectives.
In mostcases,the resultingadverbis an adverbof
manner:
E.g.: kind
legal

kindly
legally

Someadverbsof time (frequency


adverbs)can also end in -ly:
monthly,weekly,hourly.
This type of adverbcan be placedin almostany positionin the
sentence.
lt cango in initialposition:
E.g.: Slowly,Jessydroveto herdestination.
Middleposition:
E.g.: Jessyslowlydroveto herdestination.
Finalposition:
E.g.: Jessydroveto herdestination
slowly.
Now give the noun and adjectivefrom which theseadverbshave
beenformed:
NOUN

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB
personally
carelessly
fashionably

dirtily
faithfully
noisily
endlessly

UNIT
3:TEALOVERS9l

confidentially
funnily
contemptuously
intentionally

G) US|NGENGUSHAPPROPRTATETY
AND PUTTING
IT INTOMOTON
I ) After reqdng lhe grommor copsule, do fhe
exercise below

GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Somef Any

The use of some:


Thepartitive
some,as opposedto any,is markedaffirmatively
and
quantity"a certainnumberor
has the meaningof an indefinite
lt canmodifybothcountable
nouns.
amount".
anduncountable
Examplein the text:/.../ to showyou how low somepeoplecan
sink.
Someis usedwhenyou are interested
in the quantitybut you do
notwant(or need)to be veryspecific.lt is pronounced
/snm/.
livein Sydney.
E.g.: Someof my relatives
in theobjectitself
Somecanalsobe usedwhenyouareinterested
ratherthan in the quantity.
In this caseit wouldbe the pluralformof
a/an and one with the meaningof "a numberof" or "a few of". lt is
pronounced
isEm/.
please.
E.g.: Giveme somecookies,

(Br-PART
92 sTRANDS
r)
oF TANeUAGE

As a rule,some is used in: a) affirmative


(e.g.:He
sentences
wantedsomesugar;b) offersandrequests
(e.9.:Would
youlike-some
wine?);c) questions
wherethe answer"yes"is expected(e.g.:Why
don'tyoubuysome of thosepastries?)
The use of any:
Thewordany is alsousedlo referto an indefinite
quantityand is
not markedaffirmatively
or negatively.
As a rule, we use any in
negativesentences:
Therearen'tany peoplein the street.
We use any in normalunemphatic
questionswhere both an
affirmative
anda negativeanswerare possible.
Arethereany newbooksto buy?
We can also use any in affirmative
sentencesas a determiner
referring
to something
or someonewhoseexactidentityor natureis
irrelevant.
In this case,any will havethe meaningof cuatquier(a)in
Spanish.
E.g.: Any personcando thsjob.

Nowput in someor anyto complete


the sentences:
a) "Can I offeryou
don'twant
b) He wasworkingfor
c) There'shardly

morecake?""No,thankyou, I
more."
firmin Sheffield.
milk left.

d) lf I couldfindmy records,
l w o u l dl e ndyou
a)

f)

He nevershowed
We gottherewithout

s) Youcanvisitus
h) Theremustbe

consideration
forourfeelings.
trouble.
time.We are alwaysat home.
placeto leavemy luggage.

UNIT
3:TEALOVERS93

Why don't you invite


house?
"Whichdo youprefer?"
"
D

friendsto your country


willdo."

2> fncfudeone of fhe compoundsof some,dny, no,


ot every (nobody, no one, crnybody,everybody,
nowhere, crnywhere,everywhere, anything,
nothng,dnd everylhing) to complete the
meonngof thesesenlences
a) I waitedfor a longtimebut

came.
can playit.

b) Thegameis veryeasy;
c) We are going

nextweekend.We are stayingat

h o me .
d)

yousay maybe usedagainstyou.

e)

shesaidwastrue.

f)

There was _
alreadyleft.

in the theatre.

had

g) The weatherhere is hotterthan


else in the
country.
h) Yourtoysare lying
; pickthemup,please.

3) Note lhe superlqfivesin the lext


"...agroLtpof the mosteminent..."
"...in your sweetestmorningsleep" "...withyour best five o'clock
smile"
"...themost unorthodoxand exoticteas"
Now translate into English:
a) Se pusosu mejorvestidoy se fue a la fiesta.
b) Es el niomsaltode la clase.
c) Es el mssimptico
de lostreshermanos.
d) Creoque haselegidoel peorregalo.

94

(BI-PART
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAcE
r)

e) Es la msinteligente
de la familia.
f) EsMoscla capitalmsfrade Europa?
g) Porqute compraste
el trajemscarode la tienda?
h) Es unode los pasesmspequeos
del mundo.

4> After reodngfhe grommqr point, do ihe exercise


below
GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Some spqce preposifions
In front of / behind:
Bothin front of andbehindexpressrelative
position
in a horizontal
way {in contrast,above and below are exampiesof verticalrelative
position).
Thesetwo prepositions
canbe seenas converse
opposites:
Peteris sittingin frontof Mary= Maryis sittingbehindpeter
(Noticethatin thiscasewe cannottranslate
in front of intoSpanish
as en frentede.The appropriate
translation
wouldbe delanted.
Out ofl into
Out of can be seenas the converse
of into.
E.g.: Shesteppedout of the car// Shesteppedinto the car.
out of can alsosignifymaterialor constituency
as in the following
example:
E.g.: Theymadea modelout of clay.
Outside/Inside
lnsidecan be saidto havethe samemeaningas in, and outside
can substitutefor out (of). Both prepositions
aie usedwith stative
verbs,butcanaccompany
a dynamicverbas well.
E.g.: He wentoutsidethe room.(= outof)
I havemy cellularphoneinsidemy pocket.(= in)

UNIT3:TEALOVERS95

Now,fill in the gaps with one of the prepositionsstudiedin the


GrammarCapsule:
a) Whenshe heardthe telephonering,she ran
the house.

b) The puppyis sitting


stepon it.

you;be carefulnot to

c) He was standingright

me but I hadn'tseen

him.
d) His letteris

thatdrawer.

e) She took her glassescalmly


inspected
the newcomer.
f) Don'tstay

her bag and

; it'sverycold.

5) Putfhe frequencyodverbsin the correct plqce:


a) He kepton promising
he wouldcomeand see us but he did
(never).
b) | go for a walkafterlunchbut Marydoes(often,hardlyever).
c) She lovesgoingto the theatrebut she is free in the evenings
(seldom).
her beauty(always).
d) | shallremember
e) Haveyouwrittena poem?(ever).
f) They have lunch at work but they have it in a restaurant
(sometimes,
generally).

) Sfudy the use of these lime phroses (Noie thct


they generollyoccur at the end of the sentence)
at five o'clock in the morning

early ln the morning

after supper

at eleven o'clock at night

during the day at tea-time

the other day

after lunch

96

(BI-PART
r)
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE

Now translate into English:


en septiembre.
a) Voya cogerlasvacaciones
b) Vamosa ver a Helenpasadomaana.
venla televisin.
c) Porla nochesiempre
d) Mi cumpleaos
es el 10 de noviembre.
porla maana.
e) Me gustahacerla compratemprano
f) Terminarn
la nuevaestacindentrode unosmeses.
g) Ayerpor la tardefuimosal cine.
h) Anteayerrecibimos
unacartasuya.
r) Nosllamaron
portelfono
haceunosdas.
-,F.-,
Y

TIMETO RELAX: Now, let'srelax,sit down, and watch some


interesting
videosin connection
with the topicof this unit:

youtube.comiwatch
rCn49
http:/lwww.
?v=vnvYym
Hl3mks&featu
re=related
http.//www.youtube.com/watch
?v=2ooT1
youtube.com/watch
http:/iwww.
?v=BpWqCz
ru5zk&featu
re=reIated
http://www.youtu
?v=|UcH5lSVTCg
re=related
be.comiwatch
&featu

UNIT3: TEALOVERS97

Sel-EvaluotionUnit 3
and thencheckyouranswersin the KEy
__ D_othe followingexercises
TO EXERCISES
ANDTASKS
at theendof the-book:

| ) Circle fhe correcf onswer


1. Therewas hardly
holiday.
a) nobody

in town becauseit was a

b) none

2. Sherefusesto have
a) nothing
3. There's
language.

a) nobody

c) anybody

d) everybody

to do withherex-boyfriend.

b) everythingc) anything

d) anywhere

I cantalkto becausetheydon'tspeakmy
b) everybody c) nothing

d) nowhere

4. His parentsreallyspoiledhim;theygavehim
wanted.
a) nothing

b) everything c) anywhere

5. He was very depressedand claimedthat


a b o uh
t i m.
a) anybody

b) everybody c) nobody

he
d) everywhere
cared

d) nothing

2> Circle lhe letferwilh the correcl spellingof the


followingwords
1. a) succesfuly b) sucessfuly c) successfully
d) successfuly
2. a) sudenly
b) suddenty c) suddenlly d) cudenly
3. a) aditional b) adicionat c) additionat d) addisional
4. a) occasion b) ocassion c) occassion d) ocasion
5. a) terifing
b) terrifyng c) terrifying d) terryfying

98

sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
(Bt-IART
t)

3) Choose lhe suffix thqt ctln be qppled lo the


following nouns lo turn lhem inlo odjeclves
1. harm
a) -less/-ful b) -less

c) -ful

2. meaning
a) -less/-ful b) -less

c) -ful

3. breath
a) -less/-ful b) -less

c) -ful

4. revenge
a) -less/-ful b) -less

c) -ful

5. colour
a) -lesslful

c) -ful

b) -less

4> Choosethe correct oplion


hisgoalunlesshe worksharder.

1 . T o mw i l ln e ve r
a) reached

b) achieve

c) gets

d) access

2. He askedherto marryhim,butshe
a) denied
3. 1
a) suggest
4. She

a) merit

b) deny

c) refused

d) disagree

we finishthisreportbeforegoingoutfordinner.
b) want

c) believe

d) desire

to win becauseshewasthe best.


b) denied

c) deserve

d) deserved

5. Theconstant
noiseof thecarswasmost
a) disturbing b) bother

c) disagree

d) bothered

UNIT3: TEALOVERS99

AND COMPOSITIONI
TRANSTATION
(Units I - 3)
Do exercisesI and 2,andthen handthem in or sendto yourTutor
for correction:

I ) Trqnslotefhe following senlences nfo English


el de Juany Mara.
vecinos;es
a) Esteno es el perrode nuestros
l mismola cartani dejaraquela escribiese
b) Dijoqueni escribira
Laura.
en Zaradesdehacemsde dosaos'
c) Llevatrabajando
peronotanguapacomo
d) Es muchomsdelgadaquesu hermana
ella.
e) Recibidosdocenasde rosasrojaspor su cumpleaos'
f) se lavlas manos,se peiny se miren el espejoantesde salir
de casa.

2> Composition
what do you think of the text in unit 3 (Tea)?ls it funny?old
Doesit representEnglandtoday?Utq g
Tobstereotyped?
fashioned?
of thetextandof British
givingyouropinion
words)
shortessay(about150
peoplein general.

100

(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
D
STRANDS

UNIT4:
CRIMEAND DANGER

WARMINGUP
Do you reador watchthe newsaboutcrimein yourcity?
ls thereanyproblem
withthesecurity
in yourneighborhood?
Whal
aboutyourcity/town?
Areyou interested
in crimestories?
Whatdo youknowaboutSherlock
Holmes?

B) ORArDTSCOURSE
CANDOs: 1) Exchangeideas.
2) Give opinions on the meaningsof certainwords
or expressions.

t) Lislento the conversqfion between Fred qnd Jqck

Fred:My goodness!Life is gettingmoreand moredangerous


sedays.
Whatmakesyousaythat?
Jack:Why?

4: CRIME
UNIT
ANDDANGEB 103

F:Whatmakesme say that???Don'tyou reador watchthe daily


newsaboutcrimein ourcitY?
you'reright".That'sprecisely
J:AhlThat'swhatyoumeant.Yeah,
webinaron...
thisveryinteresting
whyl'm attending
what?
F:An interesting
webinar.
J: An interesting
F:Whaton earthis that?
J:Youdon'tknowwhata webinaris???Well,you needto learn
but
A webinaris likea seminar,
moreaboutmodernwebresources...
the
on the web.So that thousandsof peoplefromdifferentspotsof
planetEarthcan be connectedat the sametime,attendinga given
beminaron whatevertopicsthey are interestedin, just by sitting
desk.'..
at theircomputer
comfortably
F : M m m mI s e e . . .
withthewebinarlecturers
J: Andof coursetheyareableto interact
marvelsof the new
The
it?
Ahh...
isn't
Wonderiul,
or organizers.
world!
technological

J: lt's aboutcrimeand how to protectyourselffrom impending


by simplybeingalertandawareof thefact
dangersin yourcommunity,
thatthesedangersexist.
F: And havetheytoldyou whatthe crimerateis likein our city?
or evenburglary...
or pursesnatching,
I don'treferto pick-bocketing
childabuse,rapeor serialkillersin thisarea...
I meanmurder,
of the main
J: Notyet,buttheyare goingto presentthe statistics
theywill
I
think
so
next
session,
n
tne
citiesin th'eUS and urop
the
you
after
know
l'll
let
of
them.
includeSan Franciscoas one
session...
F:O.K.
J: Or...maybe youwouldpreferto joinus!Yousimplyhaveto fill
dataandtheywillgiveyouthe
torniwithyourpersonal
in an electroni
password
to accessthewebinar'
F:Yeah,right...but I'msureit alsocostsa lotof money"'lt'snot
j u s tfi l l i n go u ta fo rm...

104

(BI-PART
oF LANGUAGE
D
STRANDS

J: Don'tworryaboutthe money.Be my guest!!!


F:Oh,no...Undernocircumstances
willI acceptthat...NO,NO...
J:Oh, comeon, Fred.Be reasonable.You've
alwaysbeenmy best
friend...WHATARE FRIENDS
FOR?| WON'TTAKE'NO' FORAN
A N S W ER ! ! !

b) Now discussfhe followngwilh your fulor or


clqssmqfesin lhe forum/virtusl clqss
1) Whyis Jackattending
the webinar?
2) Whatarethe differences
between_a
webinaranda seminar?
3) Do they give practicaltips on how to protectyourselfand your
familyat thiswebinar?
4) In generalterms,howwouldyoudescribethe kindof crimeFredis
mainlyinterested
in?
5) Whatdo the expressions:
be my guestandI won'ttake"no"for an
answermean?

c) MULTI.TASK|NG
ACTMTIES
READ,LISTEN,STUDYand WRITE
StepL READsomeof the information
aboutSherlockHolmesandcrime
in generalon the web:
http://en.wikipedia,org/wiki/Sherlock_Holmes
http://wwwsherlockian.
neV
.

http://en.wikipedia.orglwiki/Crime

Step2. READthe relatedtextand LISTENto its spokenversionto make


sureyou knowhowto pronounce
andgivethe correctintonation
to it.

UNIT4: CRIMEAND DANGEn | 05

Lastyear'sriotsat Broadwater
Farmmarkedthe firsttimein living
memorythatfirearms
havebeenusedagainst
thepolicein a mainland
civil disorder.Accordingto ScotlandYard,weaponsdealersin that
areahavehada bonanza
sincethen.Andit is notonlythere.Shotgun
licencesare this yearbeingdemanded
and issuedin Londont a
fasterrate than ever.All over the countrythe Britishare arming
themselves,
with a startlingvarietyof weapons.Much of it is
happening
in the nameof a cultcalledSurvivalism.
I havea friendin
Hampstead,
as middle-class
an area as you can get. He and his
childrenhavebeenattacked
by groupsof youths,his househasbeen
burgled,
and to his own dismayhe foundhimselfpickingup a knife
whenhe wentoutfor a walkon the Heathoneday.Myfriendwentinto
one of thosehomesecurityshopswhereyou buy burglaralarms,
windowlocksand everyotherpieceof steelwithwhichpeoplehope
(oftenvainly)to securetheir goods.The shop assistantwas also
frightenedand observedrather ruefully,"Your burglarsare my
neighbours".
He livedin northLondonon the sort of estatewhere
televisions
aresometimes
dropped
fromhigh-rise
windows,
on carsif
noton heads.He hadbeenmugged
threetimesandhiscarhadbeen
continually
trashed.ln despairratherthanwithgleehe had bought
himselfa powerfulair gun and stoodwith it at the windowof his flat.
When he saw a kid muckingaroundhis car, he shot him, ran
downstairsand found the car spatteredwith blood.My friend
expressed
somehorror,but the assistantshruggedand askedwhat
elsehe coulddo to protecthimselfandhisthngs.
Sometimes
it seemshardto find someonewho has not been
mugged,robbed,threatened
in somewayor another-or at leasthad
it happento a closefriend.(lronically,
I was burgled,
for the second
timein a fewmonths,
whilewritingthisarticle.)
As a resultpeopleare
buyingweapons.
Britainis notlikethe UnitedStateswhereweapons
are accumulated
with an obscenityalmostbeyondimagination,
but
moreand moreof a fortressmentality
appearsto be developing.
lt is
anotheraspectof Victorian
values;a hundredyearsagopeoplereally
fearedto walkmoststreetsof London,and it is startingagain.
The Spectator
i

l0

(Bt-pART
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

Sfep3. DO the followingexercises:

I ) Ghoosefhe correci onswer


1. Theriotsof Broadwater
Farmwere...
a) theonlyonesin whichthe policeusedfirearms.
b) thefirstonesin whichfirearmswereusedagainstthe police.
c) lhe lastonesin whichthe policeusedfirearms.
2 . A l lo v e rt heco u n try
th e B ri ti sh ...
a) arelosingtheirarms.
b) areusingtheirarms.
c) arearmingthemselves.
3. Thecultis calledsurvivalism
because...
a/ it hassurvived
a longtime.
b,) it hasto do withpeoplesurvivingattacks.
c) it is impossible
to survivein London.
4. Theauthor's
friendpickedup a knifebecause...
a) he hadbeenattackedbeforeandwasfrightened.
b) he wantedto attacksomeone.
c) he hadseena biganimalnearhishouse.
5. Hisfriendwentintoa security
shopto buy...
a) an insurance
for hishouse.
b) aweaponto defendhimself.
c) thingswithwhichto protecthishouse.
6. Wheredidtheshopassistant
live?
a) ln a housewithburglars.
b) ln a houseprotected
by alarms.
c) In a flatin northLondon.

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEB | 07

7 . He boughthimself
a gunbecause
he wantedto...

a/ defendhis property.
b) shoothimself.
c/ trashhiscar.
8 . Theauthor
thinksthatit is har d...

a,) to findsomeoneto attack.


b,) notto attacksomeone.
c) to findsomeonewho hasn'tbeenattacked.
o

Peopleusedto be afraidto walkthe streetsbecause...


a) theywereafraidof QueenVictoria.
b/ Londonwas alsodangerous.
c) theirvalueswereimmoral.

2)' Join these sentencesby usngone of the


connectorssnd includingthe necessory
punctuofion
a) May shotgunlicensesare beingdemanded.
The Britishare
(because
armingthemselves.
/ with)
b) lt is happening
in the nameof a cult calledSurvivalism.
Some
peopleseemto enjoyit. (with/ although)
c) He pickedup a knife.He wentout for a walk.(and/ but)
d) He went to a securityshop.You buy burglaralarmsand locks.
(where/ that)
e) He boughthimselfan air-gun.He had beenburgled.
(because
/
therefore)
f) My friendexpressedsome horror.The assistantshrugged.(if /
when)He askedwhatelsehe coulddo.(and/ so)
g) | wasburgled.
I waswritingthisarticle.
(since/ while)
h) He lived in an estatein the north of London.Televisions
are
sometimes
(where/ because)
droppedfromwindows.

| 08

(Bt-pART
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

3) O_RAL
PRODUCTION:
After reoding the text,
discussthe onswersfo fhese quesfionswith your
Tutorond clqssmoles
a) Whyare the Britisharmingthemselves
nowadays?
b) why do youthinkthe writer's
friendwasdismayed
to findhimself
pickingup a knifewhenhe wentoutfora walk?
c) Whydoesthe authoradd in brackets
the words,,often
vainly,,?
d) wouldyousaytheshopassistant
livedin a friendly
neighborhood?
Giveyourreasons.
e) Whywasthe car spattered
withblood?
f) Whatdo youthinkthe authormeansby a ,,fortress
mentality,,?

4> WRITTEN
PRODUCTTON:
Writeo shorf teer
(100 150words)to Mr.Jennings,edilor of o
locql newspoper,comploiningqbout the lqck
of securityin your neighborhood
CANDOs:
a) Writea formalletterof complaint.
b) write straightforward,
connectedtexts on a range of familiar
subjects.
c) Linka seriesof shorterdiscrete
elements
intoa linearsequence.
7/fn, /t t'rg

23, S(Aa",Saa 7.4*"zn


0afu(/,Orca
?/ie"t4en23, 2010

7Vfr. /4r4S,4rUEz'Ktal rno


9, ?a4oeaa
0a^fu//.Orca

Deaz 7Vln, /t4ztzr,


1 aw u*an?. ta qna

f/ p44k tt al ,/<bk/4N
ca ozn t4414//a4iio,

"e//r4r?,

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGER | 09

1/tart rr4r/r(q,
Bqr4arrlie)

D) TACKLING
VOCABULARY
BUILD UP YOUROWN GLOSSARYOF TERMSFOR UN|T4: Look
up the following words in a monolingual (English-English)
dictionary, as well as any others you find difficult to understand in
the text: .
(n)
mainland
weapon(n)
dealer(n) .
issue(v)
startling(adj.)
0 burgle(v)
g) dismay(n)
h) ruefully(adv.)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

i)
j)
k)
t)
m/
n)
o)

mug(v)
trash(v.)
despair(n)
glee(n)
spatter(v)
shrug(v)
beyond(prep.)

t ) Findthe opposifesor neor oppostesof the


following words in the texf

I l0

(Bt-pART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

d) pickup
e) hope
t) weaK
g) easy

2> Findfhe expressonsor phrqsesin the text fhqt


meqn the followng
a) whatthoselivingcanremember
b) in theopinionof
c) dueto
d) in whatevermanner
e) increasingly

3) Complefethesesenlencesusingfhe qpproprqle
verb from those listed below:
mark

observe
issue

develoo
express

a) She

b/
c)
d)
e)

her desirefor privacyby leavingthe


roomandshutting
thedoor.
Overthe lastfew months,this childhas
enormousappetitefor sweets;he neverlikedthembefore.
Thefireworks
thebeginning
of theNewYear
celebrations.
Whenshe arrivedin Spain,she
that the
weatherwascolderthanshe hadexpected.
TheGovernment
hasstarted
leafletsforthe
peoplewhosmoke,warningthemaboutthe riskof lungcancer.

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEB I | |

4> Gompletethesesenfencesusngthe qpproprqte


nounflom thosein the box
dealer
area

Iicence
rate

variety
lock

article
youth

a/ Therewassucha
of clothesto choosefrom
that I couldn'tdecidewhatto buy.
b) The policesaidthat a
with dark hair and a
moustache
wasseencommitting
the crime.
c,) This
of Madridis reallywonderful
to livein;
thereare so manygoodbarsandcafs.
d) Afterhishousewasburgledforthesecondtime,he decidedto put
a stronger
on thedoor.
e/ | recentlyread an
in the newspaper
about
howbadit is for one'shealthto drinkalcohol.
f) He is workingso slowlythat at this
he will
neverfinishthejob in time.
g,) | didn'tknowwhichcar I shouldbuy,so I askedthe
to showme the bestmodelhe had.
h) lf you don't have a
for your hunti ng
weapons,you can be fined a great deal of money by the
Government.

5) Find lhe words in lhe text thql meon the


following
a,) principallandof a country
b/ disturbances,
disruption
of normalstate
c) instruments
for fighting
d) devicefor fastening
or securingdoors
e,) allowto fall
f) hopelessness

l12

(Bt-pART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
t)

) Gompletefhe following senfencesusing the


qppfopriofe expressonor phrqsefrom those in
fhe box
sincethen
thanever

if ,not

..

at

a) lf you go to a foreigncountry,you shouldbe able to speak


a fewwordsof the language.
b/ | startedworkingas a teachermanyyearsago,and
I havestayedat the sameschool.
c/ She alwayslooksbeautiful,but last night I thoughtshe looked
morebeautiful
d) Whenhe movedto the new house.h e decidedto join the local
socialclub,and
he madenewfriends.
e) lf you want to be healthy,you shouldtry to take half an hour's
exerciseeveryday,
more.

7> Solvelhe crosswordusngfhe clues below.


Discussthe meqningswith your clqssmotes
DOWN
1. district,
zone.
2. hopelessness.
3. disturbance,
turmoil.
4. stateintention
to hurt.
8. exceeding.

10. be afraidof.
13. strongfastening.
1 5. youngman.
19. businessman,
personwho
sellsgoods.

9. numberof different
things,
assortment.

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEp I l3

ACROSS
2. evolve,grow.
5. defend,guard.
6. statesomething,
make
known.
7. equipwithweapons.
1 1 . official
document
or
permission.
12. pieceof writingfor
magazine,
newspaper.

114

(Bt-PART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
D

14. strong,forceful.
16. r emar k.
17. allowto fall.
18. assault
violently.
20. difficult.
21. instruments
forfighting.

s) Now How'sYouRSPELUNG?

efu
G

: ) Thesound I s / is sl fimes spelled er, os in


writer,qnd olher fimes, or, os in burglar. Fill in
fhe blonk spoceswfh eifher e or d
schol_r
begg_r
coll_r

mast r
flatt_r
particul_r

dscov_r
vineg_r
groc_r

must_rd
muscul_r
wiz_rd
plast r
dang_r

regul_r
peculi_r

2, Add E letfer ln fhe blonk spclces (only when


necessqfy) fo complele lhese wofds fsken from
ihe fext
fir_arms

ptc_tng

hor_or

ac-ording
we_pon

_nife
ste_l
as_istant

rob-ed

de'-ler
Iicen_e
is-ued

thre-ten
hap_en

netgnoo_rs

at-ack
expres_ed

drop_ed
continual_y
blo_d
fortres_

ob

f e r

mid_le

cenitv

ironical v
burg_led
writ-ing
bu_ing
ac-umulate
develop_ing

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGEB | | 5

3)' The word "flue" oppeols in the firsi porogroph of


the lexl. Notice thqf fhis ending, -ue, mqy
somefimes be confused with -ew. wtite either 'ue
ot -ew io complete lhese words. Donnfforget -to
look up the pronunciqtion in your dictionory if
necessqfy

1--

::'-

l;=

f_

purs-

tiss_

::',.-

:1,-

:,-cr

"'_-iss

I=
gr-

F) AND... HOW'SYOURFORMATION
OF WORDS?
ComPound words
GRAMMARCAPSULE:
wordssuchas
of the text,we findcompound
In the firstparagraph
and
Broadwater
Broadwater,'fireirm's,mainland,or shotgun.
while
mainfand are exampiesof the Adi. + Nouncombination,
firearmsand shotgun displaythe Noun+ Nounone'
red'hot;bittersweet
of the Adi.+ AdJ.combination:
Examples
nota noun'
wordis an adjective,
compound
Inthiscasetheresulting
and the syntacticrelations
Thereare variousothercombinations,
as
by paraphrases,
indicated
may
be
elements
of the compounding
can be seenin theseexamPles:
daydreamer -+ X dreamsduringthe day
hardworking -+ X workshard

I I

(Bl-PART
oF LANGUAGE
D
STRANDS

C3 Some compound words Eppedr in the firsl


pcrsgroph of the fext: firesrm$! mdnsnd,
shotgun. Put the words that sppeqr in lhe two
columns iogether to form compound words ond
fhe*l include thern under fhe oppropriafe
heading below
table
news
loud

brush
speaker
black

blue

cloth
hand
paper

bitter
short
book
tooth

weight

heavy
pale

case
hot

red
lip

stick
sweet

NOUN+ NOUN

face

ADJ.+ NOUN

ADJ.+ ADJ.

UNI4
T: C R I M A
E N DD A N G E BI l 7

2> On line 3 of the lexl, the negotive prefix -drs hos


been qdded to the word order lo form disordeq
it could qlso be odded to drming lo form
disarming. Add either dis-, un-, irr.,ot im- to fhe
following lerms lo mqke lhem negqlve
intentional
scientific
appropriate
loval

-*L"

credible
obev
reoard

forqettable
-.ui.
-fair
orooer
like
conscious
-favour
pack

APPROPRIATEIY
c) usrNc ENGLISH
IT INTOMOTION
AND PUTTING
I ) Afler reodnglhe grommor cqpsule,do lhe
exefcse below
The Pqst Perfecf tense
GRAMMARCAPSULE:
Thereare manyinstances
of the useof the pastperfectin thetext.
The Past Perfectindicatespast in the past; it goes back to a
remote,previous
time.In thetext,the actionsof beingmugged,being
buying
a gun happenedsometimebeforethe pointin the
trashedand
placesthe mainactionof thestory.Theactions
pastwherethenarrator
Thus,the
in the PastPerfectexpressseveraldegreesof remoteness.
past
further
from
in
the
as
seen
a definite
refers
PastPerfect
to a time
past.
in the
viewpoint

I l8

(Br-eART
r)
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE

Pastsimple/ past perfect


Comparebothtenses:
1)

WasTomtherewhenSusanarrivedat the party?


No,he hadalreadyleft.

But:
WasTomtherewhenSusanarrivedat the party?
Yes,but he didn'tsee her.

simplepastto referto a givenpointof


. Ascanbeseen,yg usgthe
past
perfectrefersto soiething
time in the past,whilethe
that
happened
before
thatpointof time.

Now,join the followingpairsof sentencesusingthe connectorin


bracketsand putting the appropriateverb into the-pastperfect.
E.g.: I saw the firm.I didn't go to the cinemawith them.(so)
I had seenthe film, so I didn't go to the cinemawith them.
a/ | recognized
himat the party.I methimoncebefore.(because)
b) He atea big lunch.He wasn'thungryat suppertime.(so)
c) | spoketo the director.The meetingbegan.(before)
d,) | lookedin my bag.I rearized
someonestoremy purse.(and)
e/ she was ill for a longtime.she wentto the doctor's.
(before)
f) | wentout.He arrived.(bythetime)
g) Theywereat homeail day.Theywantedto go for a wark.(so)
h) we drankthreebotilesof wine.we arrivedat the partyrathertipsy.
(so)

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANeEn I l9

2, In eqch sentenceihere qre fwo verbs in


brqckefs;include one in fhe po$f simpleqnd lhe
oher in lhe palsl prtecf fense:
a) Allthe stores(close)

by the timewe (arrive)


in town.

b) A lady (come)

in with a dog that (justbe)


run overby a bicycle,

c) He (keep)
he (see)
d) They(finish)

(arrive)

staringat me wonderingwhere
me before.
all the drinksby the timeI
at the party.
the bandits(already

e) Whenthepolice(come)
escape)
D He (no finish)
g,) When we (get)
sayingthatthey(go)
h) She (notfinish)
(decide)

eatingwhen we (arrive)
home we found a note
for a walk.
writingthe articlebut she
to stopfor a rest.

3) Notice fhe use ol wherein lhese relqtive clduses


"... homesecurityshopswhereyou buyburglaralarms..."
"... thesortof estatewheretelevisions
aresometimesdroppedfrom..."
Writeother sentenceslike theseby combiningthe followingpair
of clauses using either when, where,or why. Makethe necessary
changesas in the examplebelow:
E.g.: I visitedthe hospital.
My sisterworkedthere.
I visitedthe hospitalwheremy sisterworked.
a) | neverlikedthe house.I wasbornin it.
Theyleftearly.
b/ Thatis the reason.

l2O

(Br-PART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
D

c) | boughtthiscoatlastmonth.I was in Germany.


b/ | met her at the pub.She wasworkingas a waitress.
c) We all lookedat the house.Shakespeare
had livedin it.
d,) | sawhimthismorning.He wasgoingto the office.
e/ YesterdayI wentto a bookshop.I met Elizabeth.
f) Thisis the house.He liveshere.
g) Theyarrivedyesterday.
We hadgoneout for a walk.

4> Ditferenfusesof personolpronouns(subjective,


objecfive,possessiveqnd reflexive)bndpossessive
odjeclivesqppeor in thb pqssqge
subjective:
He livedin NorthLondon
objective:he shothim
reflexive:armingthemselves
he had boughthimself a powerfulairgun
possessiveadjectives: his childrenhavebeen attacked
to his own dismay
Read about the use of pronouns in the grammar capsule
and then choose the appropriateone to compltethe sentences
below:

GRAMMAR
CAPSULE:
Pronouns:subjeclive,
objective, possessive,reflexive. possesive
odjeclives
pronouns:Th:eyreBlacea nounor a nounphrasein a
. P.ersonal.
neighboring
(usuallypreeeding)
clause:
E.g.: Jackwentto the bankbeforehe leftthe town.
the subjective
. Personalpronounshavetwo setsof case-forrns:'a)
formsand b) the objectiv,forrns,

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGER l2l

a) Thesubjectiveforms are usedas subjectsof finiteverbsand


oftenas subjectcomplement:E.g.:She is my friend.(Subject)
b) The objective forms are used as objects and/or as
prepositionalcomplements.E.g.:I saw her walkingin the street.
(object)
Reflexivepronouns:We use the reflexivepronounswhen the
subjectand the objectof an actionare the same, i.e., reflexive
pronounsreplacea co-referential
noun phrase,normallywithinthe
samefiniteverbclause:
E.g.: Suecut herselfwitha cookingknife.
Emphatic Reflexive pronouns: Reflexivepronouns are
placedin apposition
for the sakeof emphasisand/orendsometimes
focus.In thiscase,and fromthe discoursepointof view,theycannot
be saidto be reflexiveproper,for theydo not fulfillthe objectfunction
and convey a differentmeaning.They are used emphaticallyto
This
indicatethat someone,and not someoneelse,did something.
couldbe translatedintoSpanishas uno mismo,en persona.
E.g.: I myselfpaintedthe living-room.
Possessiveadjectivesand possessivepronouns: Possessives
in Englishmay functionas determinersbeforenoun headsor as
independent
nounphrases.The firstfunctioncan be fulfilledby any of
the possessiveadjectives(m your, his,her, its,our, your, theif and
the secondone by the possessivepronouns(mine,yours, his,hers,
ours,yours, theirs)
function,possessive
adjective)
E.g.: Thatis his bike.(Determiner
function,
independent
NP,
Hersis the bag I found. (Subject
possessive
pronoun)

1 . I havegiven(a) my / (b) mineopinionbutthe finaldecisionis (a)

their/ (b)theirs.
2 . Youshouldbe ashamedof (a)yourselves
/ (b)yourownfor making
is sleeping.
so muchnoisewheneveryone
(Br-PART
122 sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
D

3 . (a) My / (b) Mine parentssay they want to take a trip by (a)


themselves
/ (b)theirselves.
4 . My brotherand (a) me / (b) | havealwaysgottenalongverywell
with(a)ourselves
/ (b) eachother.
5 . Wouldyoudo allthistyping(a)yourown/ (b)yourself
if youwere
(a)me/ (b)myselft (c) | ?
6 . l'm surethisdrinkis (a) mine/ (b) my becauseI prepared
it (a)
myself/ (b)my own.
7 . Johnand (a) me / (b) | livedon (a) our own/ (b) ourselves
for a
week.Thenthe restof thefamilyarrived.
8 . (a) He/ (b)Himandhiswifearegoodfriendsof (a)us / (b)ours/
(c)ourselves.
He wantsto writeall the invitations
(a) himself/ (b) his own/ (c)
him,so a) we / (b)ourselves
/ (c)us havenothing
to do.

5) Noticethqf the followingsenlencebeginswth


the prepositionfo
Tohis own dismayhe foundhimselfpickingup a knife ...
Changethe followingsentencesto makethem start in the same
way:
E.g.:
He was amazedthattelevisions
weresometimes
droppedfromhighrisewindows."
To his amazement,
televisions
weresometimes
droppedfromhighrisewindows.
a) Hewasastonished
to seethe increase
in demandforweapons.
the demandfor weaoonshad increased.

b) He was irritated
to seea kid muckingaroundhiscar.
a kidwasmucking
aroundhiscar.
c) He was horrifiedto find the car spatteredwith blood.

withblood.
, the carwasspattered
d) He wassurprised
to seethatthesituation
wasgettingworse.
getting
the
situation
was
worse.
,
UNIT
4: CRIN/E
ANDDANeEn | 23

Hg

WaS qlsgUSteU

tU UEIJ Ftlllvllt/dllD

r''uyrrrV Yveqyvrre'

werebuYingweapons.
Americans

) Reported speech is used in the senlence


... but the assistantshruggedand asked what else he could do to
protecthimselfand his things.
. The direct question would be= what else can I do to prgtect_
.ysf 2nd my iningsZ (Noticethat both the tense and the order of
words change).

Direcl qnd indirecl speecl


GRAMMARCAPSULE:
In the case of direct speech the words of a speaker are
withinthe reportigsentenceand retainthe statusof an
incorporated
indefendentclause.In writing,directspeechis identifiedbetween
quotationmarks.
such as: a)
Direct speech may be introducedby different.verbs,
verbs
of thinking
gasp,
b)
etc-);
cry,
(say,'tetl,
ask,
verbs of saying
etc.).
wonder,
(think,ponder,reflect,
that distinguish
There are a series of formal characteristics
All.deiclicelements
reported(indirect)speechfrom.directspeech'.
thatsignala personor thingto whichtheyare
(i..pointrs:elem'ent-s
related)are shifted,therefore:
to the speaker)arechangedto
a) Firstpersonpronouns(referring
thirdperson,and scondpersonpronbunsare shiftedto firstor third,
on the identityof the listener:
depending
"l don'tlikeher",shesaid-+ She saidshedidn'tlikeher
"Willyoupleaselisten?"-+ Sheaskedif I wouldpleaselisten
well as
b) Deictic adverbs such as here, there o now, as
-generally
by
other
(fhrb,these,etc.) are replaced
demnstratives
more remote- iorms (that, those,there, then),but, again,the shift
dependson whereandwhenthe speakeris reporting:
"Weare fine here"+ She saidtheywerefinethere

124

(BI-PART
oF TANGUAGE
D
STRANDS

c) As can be seen in the above examples,verb tenses


generally
back-shifted,
i.e.theychange,from
presentto past:
Present-+ Past
Past
PresentPerfect
PastPerfect
]
-+
Presentcontinuous

,*, perrect
Pastcontinuous

. After readingmore informationabout direct and indirectspeech


in your grammarbook,do the exercisefollowingthe example:
E.g.: "l willstayat yourhousefor a fewdays',,saidJohn.
Johnsaid (that)he wouldstayat my housefor a fewdays.
a) "l can'lspeakltalianfluently,"
saidmy friend.
"His
b,)
exerciseis fullof spellingmistakes,"
saidthe teacher.
"l
c/ wentskiingyesterday",
saidSusan.
"l
d/ mustgo outto buysomefoodfor the children,"
saidMrs.smith.
"l'll
e)
meetyou at PizzaHutat two o'clock,"said Mary.
"My
f)
friendsarearrivingtomorrow,"
saidllcm.
"l
g) have a reservationat the hotel for my wife and myself,,,
said
Mr.Brown.

7> Look qt lhe following segmenlsfrom lhe text:


... he foundhimself pickingup ...
... he had boughthimselfa powertdair gun.
... to protecthimself...
There isn't an exact correspondencebetween the use of the
reflexiveform in Spanishand English:
E.g.: Me lavel pelo -+ I washedmy hair.
Deberanlevantarse
antes-+ Theyshouldget up earlier.

UNIT
4: CRIMEAND DANcEn | 25

Se pusoel abilgo-+ He put on hiscoat.


Se resfri+ He got a cold.
Translate
the followingsentencesfrom Spanishinto English:
a) (Ella)Se pusolosguantes.
b) 1tSe miren el espejo.
c) Pinate
antesde salir.
d) Hacemos
todoel trabajode la oficinanosotrosmismos.
e) 1tSe hizodaoen la pierna.
f) Marase comitodoel pan.

s) Se hacetodoslosvestidosellamisma.
h) (Ella)Se divierte
mucho.
t)

1tSiemprehablasolo.
TIMETO RELAX:Now,let'srelax,sit down,andwatchsome
withthetopicof thisunit:
interesting
videosin connection

youtube.com/watch?v=08W
RuGZja2E
http:/iwww.
youtube.comiwatch
?v=4s4M9-J
kako&featu
re=related
http://www.

126

(Br-pART
r)
sTRANDS
oF LANGUAGE

Self-EvqluotionUnit 4
Do the following
exercises
andthencheckyouranswersin the KEy
TO EXERCISES
ANDTASKS
at the endof the book:

1) Choose the besf oplion lo complete fhe


meonng of fhe following senlences
1 . I l i v ei n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d
burgled.

housesare often

a) when

b) because c) where

a) if

thepolicefinallyarrivedtheywererelieved.
b) so
c) although d) when

3 . H e h a da g u n
a) but

he wasscaredto shootit.
b) then

c) because

4. Marywalkedhomeby herself,
thatit wasdangerous.
a) if

d) where
she knew

b) although c) so

5. I have been attackedtwice


neighbourhood.
a) while

d) although

d) that
l i v i n gi n t h i s

b) since

c) where

d) therefore

2> Choosethe opposleor neor opposifeof the words


in the left column from those in fhe right one
1. weak
2 . p i c ku p
3. hope
4 . p e n s i on e r
5. easy

a) youth
b) elderly
c) drop
d)
e)
f)
g)

despair
powerful
weakless
hard

UNIT
4: CRIME
ANDDANGE? 127

3) Choosethe correct negofive prefix for eoch of


these words
1. air
b) un-

c) in

d) im-

a) dis-

b) un-

c) in-

d) im-

3. regard
a) dis-

b) un-

c) in-

d) im-

b) un

c) in-

d) im-

b) un-

c) in-

d) im-

a) dis2. appropriate

4. pack
a) dis5. polite
a) dis-

4> Ghoosefhe correct option to complele the


meqningof lhese senlences
1. Thisis notmy coat,it mustbe
b) them
a) your

b) his

c) him

b) them

untiltheyarrive.
d) theirown
c) themselves

3. I willwaitherefor
a) they
4. Justhelp
a) yours

d) yourself

withthebigknifehe hadjustbought.

2. Hecut
a) his own

c) yours

d) himself

restaurant.
:thisis a self-service
b) yourself c) yourown d) you

aregoodfriendsof
5. Ourneighbours
b) us
c) ourselves d) ourown
a) ours

128

(Br-pART
r)
oF LANGUAGE
STRANDS

w' ' "


I

,, r;,1,'

't.i)i,;ffi}trffiFe$#ii

A) WARMINGUP
1) Wouldyou liketo livein the countryside?
2) Areyoukeenon wildanimals?
3) Have you had any wildlife experiences?lf so, tell your
tutor/classmates
aboutit.
4) wouldyougo on a safariif youhadthechance,or is thatreallynot
"yourcup of tea"?

B) ORALDISCOURSE:
Nqrrqtionqboul
wildlife experences
CAN DOs: 1) Narratea story.
2) Write/givean oraldescriptionof an eventand/ora
recenttrp (realor imagined)relatedto wild life.

<r) Lislento Kevinqnd Tom,sconversqtion:

(Thomashasjust returnedfroma safariexperience


in Africaand
comesacrosshisfriendKevinat the club)

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
l3l

Kevin:Lookwho'sthere!Tom!Howniceto seeyou'reback,man.
HowwasyourAfricanadventure?
Tom:Woo,fantastic,man,FANTASTIC!
lt was a totallynew and
-literallyWILD-experience...
Youcertainlyrealizehowinferiorwe are
in manyrespects
to the restof the animalworld...
howdetached
we
havebecomefromthe wiselessonsof nature,and howbadthiscan
beforthefutureof thehumanrace...
Wearedeafto nature's
warninqs.
butironically
we thinkwe'reveryclever...
K: Yeah,you'reright...lt's ironicto see that we thinkwe'reso
superiorand intelligent
whenall we are doingis destroyour planet
littleby little,in sucha pitifulway...
T: Yeah,true.Nexttime you shouldcomewith me to Africa,I
assureyouit willchangeyourperspective
of lifeand it willmakeyou
a betterperson...
K: No doubtaboutthat,but no,man,no.I lovenaturebut I don't
havethe gutsto get intothe jungle,wherea lionor any otherwild
a n i malcouldtur n me intotheirlunchor dinner ...
Not for m eee!!lI
preferto watchwildlife
documentary
filmsinstead...
T:Yeah,
butit'snotthesame,bigguy.Therealexperience
is much
yourveins...
moreexciting
andit makestonsof adrenaline
runthrough
K: I see,butI stillpreferto be sittingcomfortably
in mycouchwhile
I contemplate
all thesemagnificent
animalson the screen.Haveyou
seenlhe T.V.seriesentitledPlanetEarth?lt is narratedby Richard
Attenborough,
masterof masters...
whata greatguy!
T: No,as a matterof fact,I haven't...
K :Andthisotherone....uhm m
what'
.. sitsname....
Ah,y es !M ar c h
of the Penguinsl
lt wassooootouchingto seewhatthe penguinsare
capableof doingjust for the sakeof protecting
theiroffspring...
You
shouldseethisfilm,man.Antarctica
is alsoa wildterritory...
if you've
gotthecomplete
picture....
onlyseenAfrica,youhaven't
T: Oh,well,let'smakeour nexttripto Antarctica,
then!Youknow
l'm a sportfor everything!
K: Yes,but I am NOT!!...I told you, I preferthe documentary
films....Sorry...
HAVEA GOODTRIPTO ANTARCTICA,
TOM!!

132

(Br-pART
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
r)

b) Now discussfhe followngwth your fulor or


clossmqfesin the forum/virtuolcloss
1) Wouldyousaythetripto Africahaschanged
Tom?lf so,howhas
i t c h a n ge hd i m?
2) Do you thinkhe has enjoyedthe ',African
experience,,?
Explain
whatmakesyouthinkso.
3) Whydoesn'tKevinwantto go to Africa?
4) ls Kevinnotas interested
in natureas Tomis?
"l
,,1'ma sport
5) Whatdo the expressionsdon'thavethe guts,'and
foreverything"
mean?

c) MUITI-TASKING
ACTIVIT|ES
WATCH,
WRITE,READ,LTSTEN
and STUDy
step 1' wRlrrEN PRoDUcloN: Go on the internetand wATCHany
of the wildlifevideos availableon the following you Tubewebpag
andthenwRlrE a summary(100-120
wordsapprox.)of whatyou sa:
www.youtu
be.com/resu
lts?search*Quer!=ryi
ldlife&search*type=&aq=
0s&oq=!i/lD+LIFE
SUMMARY:

step2. READthe relatedtextandLlsrEN to itsspokenversionin thecD


to makesureyouknowhowto pronounce
andgivethe correctintonation
to it.

UNIT
5: WILDLIFE
EXPERTENCE
133

;; ";o t*goi,
*' 0". rir;;;;,,

u,."i n t r e p i d ,i n g e n i o u s ,

resourceful
and patient-allqualities
thatare regularly
testedby the
locations
thattheyhaveto operatein andthewildlife
thattheytry to
photograph.
Sincethe firstwildlifefilm was made,a successio
of
cameramen
havesoughtto getthemselves
or theircamerasintothe
mostunlikely
situations,
and in doingso, theyhaveinevitably
come
across(and,withluck,filmed)behaviour
andevenspeciesthatwere
previously
unknownto science.Manyanimalsseem to spendan
inconveniently
largeproportion
of theirtime hiddenin setts,earths,
dens,holts,lairsandotherassorted
holes.Sincewhattheydo in their
va ri oushomes can be of key im por tancein a wi l dl i fefi l m ,
photographers
havehadto devisewaysof gettingtheircamerasinto
theseplaces,
andwhentheyhavesucceeded,
filmsoften
theresulting
containnewbiological
insights.
In 1953,HeinzSielmann
persuaded
a
pairof woodpeckers
to accepta nestholewhichhada glassplateat
the back,and throughthis he witnessedfor the first time their
in the nest.At the time,it was certainlyfascinating
behaviour
for
-an hour
ornithologists,
but it alsogrippedthe public's
imagination
aftertransmission
the switchboard
of the BBCwasstilliammedwith
ca l l s.
Sincethen,similartechniques
havebeenusedmanytimes,with
different
in different
species
situations,
andeachtimetherehavebeen
newglimpses
intoanimalbehaviour.
The privatelifeof the kingfisher
becamea littlemorepublicwhenRonEastman
contrived
to installa
cameraat theendof a nesting
tunnel,andshotthefirstfilmevermade
of kingfisher
chicksbeingfed.lt had alwaysbeenassumedthatthe
parents
mustfeedtheirchicksonfishthathadbeenbrokenintopieces
or was partially
digested,
but the film revealed
thatthe youngbirds
weregiventhe impossible-looking
taskof swallowing
the fishwhole.
Foxeshavealsorevealed
a fewof theirfamilysecrets,and notjustto
a singlecameraman.
In this case,millionsof viewersacrossthe
countrywitnessed
intimate
moments
of an urbanvixenwithhercubs
in the liveseriesFoxwatch,
Thevixen'searth,an oldcellarln Bristol,
wasbuggedwithmicrophones
andinfrared
cameras,
andsoundand
picturewere transmitted
back to a mobilestudio,wherezoologist
StephenHarriswaswaitingto describe
andinterpret
whatwasbeing
seen,including
theactualbirthof thecubs.Sincesuchyoungcubsare
notableto regulate
theirbodytemperatures,
it wasassumed
thatthe
vixenwouldstaycloseto themat thisstage,andthecontinuous
watch

134

(Br-pARi
STRANDS
oF LANGUAGE
r)

Step3. DO the following


exercises:

I ) Choosefhe correcf qnswerfollowing the


contenls of the texl
1. Wildlife
filmmakers
musthavespecialqualities
because...
a) Iheyare ingenious,
resourceful,
and patient.
b) theyhaveto workin difficultlocations.
c/ animalsdon'tliketo be photographed.
2. Whencameramen
havegot theircamerasintounlikelysituations
they...
previously
a) havemadediscoveries
unknownto science.
b) havebeenunableto get out.
c) haveusedtoo muchtapefilmingthe animals.
3. Thetimeanimals
spendin theirhomesis inconvenient
because
...
a) theirhomesare uncomfortable.
b) theirhomesaretoo dangerous
for cameramen.
c) it is difficultfor cameramen
to filmthemthere.

UNIT5: WILDLIFE
EXPERIENCE
| 35

4 . HeinzSeilman
witnessed
thewoodpecker's
behaviour
by...

a) livingwiththemin theirnests.
b/ persuading
themto accepta specialnest.
c,) givingthemthefoodon a glassplate.
5 . We knowthe publicwasinterested
in thisdiscovery
because...

a) agreatnumberof peoplecalledthe BBC.


b) lheywerefascinated
by ornithologists.
c) theyjammedthetransmitter
of the programme.
publicised
6 . RonEastman
the lifeof the kingfisher
by...
a/ shooting
the kingfisher's
chickswhiletheywereeating.
b) introducing
foodat theendof thefilm.
c) puttinga camerain its nesting
tunnel.
7 . Thefilmrevealed
that...

a) the parentsfed smallfishto theirchicks.


b/ thechickshadto swallow
thefishin onepiece.
c,) thefishwasonlypartially
digested.
8 . Thevixen's
earthfilmedby Foxwafch
wasin...

a) an oldcellarin the middleof a town.


b,) a mobilestudio.
c) an oldcellarin thecountry.
9 . The Foxwatch
camerasdiscovered
thatthe doo fox...

a/ keptawayfromthe earthand cubs.


b) wenthungryuntilthevixenleftthecubs.
c/ occasionally
leftfoodfor the vixenandcubs.

l3

(Bt-eART
sTRANDS
oF LANcUAGE
i)