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OCEAN ENERGY CONVERSION

TYPE OF OCEAN ENERGY


Wave power

Ocean surface water movement

Tidal power

Deep (bulk) water movement

Ocean thermal
energy

Ocean salinitation
energy

Using thermal gradient of ocean temperature


Using osmotic pressure difference between
fresh water and salt water

TIDES ENERGY
Tides occur due to the movement of water in the sea,

caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon and


the sun acting upon the oceans of the rotating earth.
As tides come in and out (flow and ebb), water near the coast is

raised and lowered and the potential energy of this tidal can be
exploited.
It is also possible to harness the kinetic energy of the moving

water in the tidal stream itself to drive turbines.

HOW DO TIDES WORK?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ohDG7RqQ9I

WAVE ENERGY
Waves are formed by winds blowing over the water

surface, which makes the water particles to adopt circular


motions.
This motion carries kinetic energy, the amount of which is

determined by the speed and duration of the wind, the length of sea
it blows over, the water depth, sea bed conditions and also
interactions with the tides.
The extractable form of wave energy is the potential energy of the

water column during wave oscillation.

WAVE VERSUS TIDAL ENERGY


Waves occur only in the

volume of water close to the


water surface, and is caused
mainly by winds blowing over
the water surface
In waves, water does not

undergo a net movement itself,


but acts as a carrier for
energy, oscillating or
moving in some direction

In the case of tides, the entire

water body moves, from the


surface to the seabed;
The tide energy is due to a net

movement of water, and is


caused by the gravitational
attraction of the moon and the
sun acting upon the oceans of
the rotating Earth

TIDAL ENERGY
The relative motions of the sun and moon in relation to earth rotation

cause the surface of the oceans to be raised and lowered periodically,


according to a number of interacting cycles, which include:
a half day cycle, due to the rotation of the earth within the gravitational field

of the moon
a 14.25-day cycle, resulting from the gravitational field of the moon combined

with that of the sun to give alternating spring (maximum) and neap
(minimum) tides
other further complex gravitational interactions occurring over 19 years and

1600 years cycles.

As a result of the above event, two high tides occur simultaneously,

one on the side of the earth facing the moon and the other on the
opposite side.

The period between spring ad neap


tides is approximately 14.25 days,
i.e., half the 29.5 day lunar cycle

INFLUENCE OF MOON AND


SUN ON TIDAL ARRANGEMENT

TYPICAL TIDAL PATTERNS

Use of barrages

Marine current
To capture
and store
and then
release the
water

TECHNOLOGIES FOR
EXPLOITING TIDAL ENERGY

Flow of
water

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXPLOITING TIDAL


ENERGY: USE OF BARRAGES
Barrages are used to create

artificial impoundments that


can be used to control the
natural tidal flow (in shallow
water embankment are used).
Complete closure of estuaries

would be achieved by emplacing


a series of prefabricated sections,
made from concrete or steel
which could be floated and then
sunk into position.

Tidal barrages comprises


of :
sluice/dams to capture
the water,
gates and
turbine generators
similar to hydraulic
turbines

TECHNOLOGIES FOR
EXPLOITING TIDAL ENERGY: USE
OF BARRAGES

TECHNOLOGIES FOR
EXPLOITING TIDAL ENERGY: USE
OF BARRAGES

Tidal power generation station on the Rance


River in Saint-Servan, France.

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXPLOITING TIDAL


ENERGY: MARINE CURRENT
The global tidal/marine current

energy resource is mostly driven


by the tides and to a lesser
extent by thermal gradient and
density effects
They are more predictable

especially when caused by tides.


These use windmill-like

underwater turbines.

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXPLOITING TIDAL


ENERGY: MARINE CURRENT
Ocean current are driven

by numerous forces or
mechanisms including:
Winds
Salinity gradient
Thermal gradients
The rotation of the Earth, and
Mainly by tides

The tides cause water to flow

inwards twice each day (flood


tide) and seawards twice each
day (ebb tide) with a period of
approximately 12 hours and 24
minutes (a semidiurnal tide), or
once both inwards and
seawards in approximately 24
hours and 48 minutes (a
diurnal tide).

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXPLOITING TIDAL


ENERGY: MARINE CURRENT
Marine current turbines are, in principle, much like

submerged windmills.
They are installed in the sea at places with high

tidal current velocities, to take out energy from


the huge volumes of flowing water.
The basic requirements for cost-effective power

generation from tidal streams using Marine


current turbines (MCT's) technology are:
mean spring peak velocity of about 2.5m/s.
a depth of water of 20 to 30m.

Water turbines work on the


same principle as wind
turbines by using the kinetic
energy of moving fluid and
transferring it into useful
rotational and then electrical
energy.
The velocities of the currents
are lower than those of the
wind, however owing to the
higher density of water (835
times that of air) water
turbines are smaller than
their wind counterparts
for the same installed
capacity.
TECHNOLOGIES FOR
EXPLOITING TIDAL ENERGY:
MARINE CURRENT

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXPLOITING TIDAL


ENERGY: MARINE CURRENT
Horizontal axis

Vertical axis

ADVANTAGES OF MARINE CURRENT

With increased conflicts over land use, water turbines offer a solution

that will not occupy land and has minimal or zero visual impact;
The greatest resource is in close proximity to coastlines and many areas

with high population densities;


The technology is potentially modular and avoids the need for large civil

engineering works, which are required for offshore wind turbines.


Power density reaching 10 kW/m2, about one order magnitude of the

wind.

ADVANTAGES OF MARINE CURRENT


The global marine current energy resource is very large, the resource

has better energy density compared to wind site, so the diameter of


water turbines can be less than that of a wind turbine for the same
energy output;
The water velocities and therefore power outputs are completely

predictable, once accurate site measurements have been taken;


Water turbines will not need to be designed for extreme atmospheric

fluctuations as required with wind turbines, meaning that the design can
be better cost-optimised;

WAVE POWER

WAVE ENERGY
Wave power is determined by

wave height, wave speed, wave


length, and water density.
Wave size is determined by wind

speed, water depth and


topography of the seafloor
(which can focus or disperse the
energy of the waves).
Wave motion is highest at the

surface and diminishes


exponentially with depth.

WAVE ENERGY

Wave power technologies are based on a range of device

including:
Oscillating or Assisted Water Columns (OWC),
Heaving buoys and pontoons (the Hosepump)

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter


Other types include overtopping, flaps and tapered channels (the

Pendulor), etc.

OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC)


This comprises a partly submerged

structure (collector) which is open to


the sea below the water surface so
that it contains a column of water.

Air is trapped above the surface of the

water column.

As waves enter and exit the collector,

the water column moves up and down


and acts like a piston on the air,
pushing it back and forth.

The air is channeled towards a turbine

and forces it to turn.

The turbine is coupled to a generator

to produce electricity

HEAVING BUOY DEVICE (THE HOSE PUMP)


When wave lift the device, water in

the pipes is accelerated upward as it


cannot escape through the check
valve.
As the wave recedes, the pipe

accelerates downward against the


movement of the internal water
creating a hydraulic pressure.
The water can be allowed to escape

through the top or bottom to drive


a turbine, and simultaneously more
water enters through the check
valve.

THE PELAMIS WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER

The pelamis (named after a sea-snake), by Ocean Power Delivery Ltd in

Scotland.
It consists of a series of semi-submerged cylindrical segments connected by

hinged joints.

THE PELAMIS WAVE ENERGY


CONVERTER

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0mzrbfzUpM

THE WAVE DRAGON

The Wave Dragon - is a floating tap channel but using a pair of curved

reflectors to gather waves to overtop a ramped trough-like where water


is released though a low-head turbine.

Power generation on the Wave Dragon is based on the potential


energy in the water that has overtopped the ramp and is
temporarily stored in the reservoir.

THE WAVE DRAGON