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Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.

3000-GUI-01

EMERGENCY?
Make sure you understood the
cknowledge
A nature of emergency and
acknowledge accordingly.

eparate
S Don’t forget to establish/maintain
separation!

Impose silence on your control frequency if


necessary.
ilence
S Don’t disturb urgent cockpit actions by
unnecessary transmissions!

Inform your supervisor and other


nfnorm
I sectors/units concerned.

Give maximum support to pilot and crew.


upport
S
ime Allow pilots sufficient time to work on
T their problem.

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 25


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Birdstrike

May result in: ¬Broken Windshield / Canopy


¬Engine Failure (Multi-engine)
¬Engine Failure (Single Engine)
¬Hydraulic Problems
¬Precautionary Approach

> Expect
· Aborted take-off
· Immediate return to aerodrome
· Landing next suitable aerodrome
· Restricted visibility

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Is pilot able to control ACFT??
· Allow long final if requested
· Check RWY (if birdstrike after take-off)

> If necessary, inform pilot about


· Alternate aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

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Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Bomb Warning

> Expect
· ACFT may stop climb
· Request for immediate level re-clearance
· Landing next suitable aerodrome??
· ACFT early in landing configuration
- RWY in use, length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Clear airspace in the immediate vicinity
· Ask for flying time needed
· Evacuation after landing??
· Additional stairs required??
· Clear runway according to local instructions,
e.g. ACFT at 20 mile final
· Keep safety strip clear
· Arrange parking away from buildings/other aircraft

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Aerodrome details as soon as possible

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 29


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Brake Problems

> Expect
· Pilots request longest RWY
· Overshooting RWY threshold at far end
· Burst tyre
· RWY blocked after landing

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Inform pilot about RWY length / condition
· Keep safety strip clear
· Towing equipment on stand-by??
· Technical staff required??

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 30 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Communication Failure VMC


Radio Communication Failure

> Expect
· 7600 squawk

VMC
- Continue flight in VMC
- Landing at the nearest suitable aerodrome
- Report termination of flight immediately to the
competent ATC unit
· Airspace ‘D’ (CTR)
- VFR may enter if clearance is received
- IFR does not require a clearance
· Airspace ‘C’
- ACFT outside ð no entry (regardless of
clearance)
- ACFT inside ð below FL 100:
Continue according clearance,
if unable leave on shortest route
ð at or above FL 100: leave on
shortest route

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM supervisor
· Failure of transmitter or receiver only??
· Possible relay by other stations??
· Consider ACFT in radio failure when missing an expected
message within a period of 5 MIN.

A ‘Acknowledge – S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 31


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Communication Failure IMC


Radio Communication Failure

> Expect
IMC
· Departure
- Maintain initial cleared level for 3 MIN before
commencing climb to filed cruising level if initial
cleared level is below Minimum En-route Altitude
(MEA) pilot shall climb to this MEA
- If ACFT is on radar vector without limitation, the pilot
shall return to the previously assigned route on the
shortest possible way (current FPL)
· Arrival
- Proceed to IAF of dest. Aerodrome (current FPL)
- Hold over IAF until EAT last confirmed; if not EAT
confirmed, hold for 5 MIN
- Descend in the holding to initial approach altitude,
follow published instrument approach procedure
and land, if possible, within 30 MIN after
commencing descent
- Fly to alternate aerodrome if landing cannot be
performed (no procedure laid down)

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM supervisor
· Failure of transmitter or receiver only??
· Possible relay by other stations??
· Company freq. / SELCAL / 121.5 MHz / 243.0 MHz
· Use radar hand-off to transfer control
· Consider ACFT in radio failure when missing an
expected message within a period of 5 MIN

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

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Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Electrical Problems
Loss of all generators (alternators) / battery power only
power supply reduced to emergency level

> Expect
· High stress level in the cockpit
· NAV – failure, including compass
· Transponder switched off (save energy)
· Communication failure
· Limited read backs
· Level changes to maintain VMC
· Manual gear extension

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Inform landing aerodrome

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Next suitable aerodrome
· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation
· Suitable vectors and position information
· Save energy
· Avoid IMC

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 33


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Emergency Descent

> Expect
· Descent without warning
· No emergency squawk
· Turn off track
· Poor R/T (oxygen mask)

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Other traffic:
- Avoiding action, traffic information
- If necessary transmit an emergency broadcast
on ATC and FIS frequency

· After emergency descent, request intentions:


- Diversion??
- Injuries??
- ACFT damage??

· Consider ACFT to be still in an emergency situation.

> If needed, inform pilot about


· If possible revise heading,
e.g. 15 to 45 degrees off track.
· Squawk 7700.

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 34 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Engine Failure – Multi-engine ACFT

May result in: Aborted Take-off


Pressurisation Problems
Fuel Dumping
Precautionary Approach

> Expect
· Heavy workload in the cockpit
· Deviation from SID
· Intermediate level off
· Descent
· Course deviation
· Pressurisation problems

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Inform landing aerodrome
· Clear RWY according to local instructions,
e.g. at 20 mile final
· Keep safety strip clear
· Offer pilot extended final
· Towing equipment on stand-by??
· In case of emergency landing other than at an
aerodrome, record last known position and time!!

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Next suitable aerodrome
· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies

· WX information of landing aerodrome:


wind, visibility, ceiling, QNH

A ‘Acknowledge – S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 35


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Engine on Fire or APU on Fire

May result in: Aborted Take-off


Engine failure (Multi-engine)
Engine Failure (Single Engine)
Smoke or Fire in the Cockpit
Emergency Landing

> Expect
· Heavy workload in the cockpit
· Engine shutdown / fire extinguishing

ACFT on the Ground


· Hot brakes
· Passenger evacuation
· RWY blocked

ACFT in the Air


· Pressurisation problems
· ACFT losing altitude
· Landing next suitable aerodrome
· Possible emergency landing (single engine ACFT)

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Ask for dangerous goods
· Ask for number of Persons On Board (POB)
· Inform landing aerodrome
· Clear RWY according to local instructions,
e.g. ACFT on 20 mile final
· Keep safety strip clear
· In case of emergency landing, record last known
position and time

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 36 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Engine on Fire or APU on Fire

> If needed, inform all pilots about

· Next suitable aerodrome


· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation
· WX information of landing aerodrome:
wind, visibility, ceiling, QNH
· Observed fire and / or smoke

> If needed, inform private pilots about


· Check fuel selector (off??)
· Check mixture (fuel cut off??)
· Check fuel pump (off??)
· Check cabin heating and venting (off??)

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 37


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Fuel Dumping

> Expect
· Dumping without prior approval in case of engine failure
after take-off to reduce weight

· Possibly no R/T during fuel dumping

· Assignment of fuel dumping area:


- comply with local instructions
- avoid densely populated areas

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· If dumping at or below FL 150, general broadcast as
stipulated in local instructions
· Separation (horizontal and vertical) according to local
instructions
· No dumping below locally-specified heights
· Airspace boundaries as well as upper / lower airspace
· Time needed??
· Amount and type of fuel??

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 38 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Fuel Problems - Critical Fuel Status

May result in: Engine Failure (Multi-engine)


Engine Failure (Single Engine)
Outside Landing

> Expect
· MAYDAY low on fuel emergency with imminent danger
to ACFT
· PAN PAN minimum fuel ACFT needs priority handling
· Improper use of phraseology, verify actual fuel status!!
(low on ..., minimum ... or minimum diversion fuel)

> Remember
· ASSIST
· INFORM Supervisor
· Keep ACFT high (save fuel)
· Avoid ATC-caused GO AROUND
· Inform landing aerodrome
· Ask for dangerous goods
· Ask for number of Persons On Board (POB)
· Clear RWY according to local instructions,
e.g. ACFT 20 miles on final
· Keep safety strip clear
· Towing equipment on stand-by??
· In case of emergency landing, record
last known position and time!!

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Nearest suitable aerodrome
· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies
· WX information of landing aerodrome:
wind, visibility, ceiling, QNH
A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 39


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Gear Problems
Unsafe Indication / No Gear

May result in: need for external advice (engineering)

> Expect
· GO AROUND
· Low pass of tower for gear inspection by
specialist engineering personnel
· Manual gear extension

> If needed, inform pilot about


· ACFT configuration (having consulted with
Company if appropriate)

> Remember
· Inform WL!!
· Prepare for LOW PASS for visual inspection
· Weight reduction necessary (possible fuel dumping)
· Clear RWY according to local intersections,
e.g. when ACFT 20 NM final
· Keep safety strip clear
· Towing equipment on stand-by??

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 40 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Unlawful Interference

> Expect
· Squawk 7500
· Course / level deviations
· R/T problems
· No compliance with given instructions

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Check transponder setting
‘confirm you are squawking assigned code’
· No reply here shall not be taken as an indication
that the squawk was set by mistake
· Any information requested

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform Supervisor
· Do not initiate any further R/T referring to
the hijacking unless confirmed by the pilot
· Comply with pilot’s requests as far as possible
· Transmit pertinent information without expecting
a reply
· Monitor all flight manoeuvres – give room
for manoeuvre
· Collect any necessary information!!
e.g. destination aerodrome, WX situation at
destination, routing, etc.

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 41


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Hydraulic Problems
Complete or partial failure of flight controls, gear
extension, brakes, flaps, nose wheel steering

May result in: Fuel Dumping


Gear Problems
Brake Problems
Relatively high-speed
Approach and landing

> Expect
· Limited manoeuvrability
· Limited flap setting
· Limited bank angle
· Manual gear extension, no retraction possible
· Holding pattern for necessary checks
· Extended final
· Higher approach speed on final
(up to 220 Kt IAS on flapless approach)
· Limited braking capability
· Possible overrun
· RWY blocked after landing

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Next suitable aerodrome
· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use (longest RWY), length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies
· WX information of landing aerodrome:
wind, crosswind component, visibility, ceiling, QNH
· Fire or smoke at brakes
A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 42 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Hydraulic Problems
Complete or partial failure of flight controls, gear
extension, brakes, flaps, nose wheel steering

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform supervisor
· Assign level blocks (at least two levels)
· Ask for dangerous goods
· Ask for Persons on Board (POB)
· Avoid ATC-caused GO AROUND
· Clear RWY according to local instructions,
e.g. when ACFT 20 NM final
· Keep safety strip clear
· Towing equipment on stand-by??

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 43


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Icing

> Expect
· Immediate change of level and/or heading
· Limitation in rate of climb/descent
· Higher speed

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform Supervisor
· Avoid holding
· Enable continuous climb after departure
· Keep safety strip clear
· AIREP to other ACFT, other units and MET

> If needed, (generally for non-commercial


operators) inform pilot about
· Check anti-icing and de-icing systems (on??)
· Pilot heating
· Stall heating
· Carburettor heating
· Prop heating
· Air frame anti-ice (jets)
· Alternate air supply
· Windshield heating
· Descent with higher power setting to increase bleed air
supply
· Higher approach/landing speed due to increase of
stalling speed

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 44 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Lightning Strike

May result in: Communication Failure


Electrical Problems
Precautionary Approach

> Expect

· Pilot might be dazzled


· Navigational problems

> Remember

· ASSIST
· Inform supervisor
· Is pilot able to control ACFT??

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 45


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Low Oil Pressure

May result in: Engine Failure


(Multi-engine)
Engine Failure
(Single Engine)
Outside Landing

> Expect
· Immediate landing on nearest aerodrome (single engine)
· Precautionary engine shutdown
· Diversion to next suitable aerodrome
· Request for opposite landing

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Nearest aerodrome
· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies
· WX information of landing aerodrome:
wind, visibility, ceiling, QNH

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform supervisor
· Inform landing aerodrome
· Maintain altitude as long as practicable
· Clear RWY according to local instructions,
e.g. when ACFT 20 NM final
· Keep safety strip clear
· Ask for dangerous goods
· Ask for number of Persons on Board (POB)
· In case of outside landing, record last known
position and time!!

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 46 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Emergency, External, Landing

> Expect
· Loss of R/T shortly prior landing

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform Supervisor
· Record last known position and time
· Use other airborne stations for relay (R/T) or
observation of landing area

> If needed, inform pilot about


· known obstacles
· To check wind
· To switch on ELT

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 47


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Pressurisation Problems

May result in: Emergency Descent

> Expect
· ACFT will stop climb
· Request for immediate descent
· Emergency descent without warning
· No emergency squawk
· Turn off track
· Poor R/T (oxygen mask)
· Altitude

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform Supervisor
· Clear airspace directly beneath the aircraft

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 48 Released Issue Edition : 1.0


Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01

Smoke or Fire in the Cockpit


Smoke or Fire in the Cabin

> Expect
· High stress level in the cockpit
· Shortest high-speed vector to land – nearest
suitable aerodrome
· Poor R/T (oxygen mask) or loss of R/T
Define appropriate communication failure
procedure in due time
· Passenger evacuation
· RWY blocked

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform Supervisor
· Ask for dangerous goods
· Ask for number of Persons On Board (POB)
· Inform landing aerodrome
· Clear RWY according to local instructions,
e.g. when ACFT 20 NM final
· keep safety strip clear
· APP-/ RWY lighting system 100%

> If needed, inform pilot about

· Track miles to touchdown of next suitable aerodrome


· Availability of automatic approach low visibility procedure
· Aerodrome details as soon as possible:
RWY in use, length, surface, elevation,
ILS- and NAV-frequencies
· WX information of landing aerodrome:
wind, visibility, ceiling, QNH

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Edition : 1.0 Released Issue Page 49


HUM.ET1.ST12.3000-GUI-01 Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual Incidents

Take-off Abort
Rejected Take-off

> Expect
· Overshooting RWY
· Hot brakes
· Burst tyre
· Wheel fire
· Passenger evacuation
· RWY blocked or ACFT continues taxi
· Go-around for approaching traffic

> Remember
· ASSIST
· Inform Supervisor
· Additional stairs required??
· Technical staff required??
· Towing equipment required??

> If needed, inform pilot about


· Detailed observation of smoke and/or fire

A ‘Acknowledge - S ‘Separate - S ‘Silence - I ‘Inform - S ‘Support - T ‘Time

Page 50 Released Issue Edition : 1.0