GASTRO PATHOPHYSIOLOGY | Wellness | Health Sciences

Modifiable

Alcohol consumption Prolonged use of NSAIDS After major surgery Traumatic injury severe infection

Stomach

Helicobacter pylori Colonizes the stomach Inflammation of the lining of the stomach

Signs / Symptoms Diagnostic exam Endoscopy Stomach biopsy
Chronic gastritis Pallor Rapid heart beat Feeling faint or short of breath Severe chest or stomach pain Vomiting large amounts of blood Foul-smelling bowel movements

Laboratory exam
Fecalysis Urinalysis Complete blood count

Treatment
Antacid (cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine) Proton pump inhibitors ( omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole)

Anus
Abnormal development of the fetus Imperforate anus is the absence of a normal anal opening

Non-modifiable Congenital defect

Diagnosis Physical examination Ultrasound of the perineum

Signs / Symptoms
Missing or misplaced opening to the anus No passage of first stool within 24 - 48 hours after birth Stool passes out of the vagina, base of penis, scrotum, or urethra Swollen belly area

Treatment

Surgical treatment: Perineal anoplasty Colostomy

Colon
Lack of nerve cells in part of the intestine Improper muscle movement in the bowel Blockage in the large intestine Abdomen to become swollen

Non-modifiable Congenital defect

Diagnostic exam Abdominal x-ray Rectal biopsy Anal manometry Barium enema

Signs / Symptoms
Newborns and infants include: Difficulty with bowel movements Failure to pass meconium shortly after birth Jaundice Poor feeding Older children: Constipation that gradually gets worse Fecal impaction Malnutrition Slow growth Swollen belly

Treatment Pull-through surgery- surgical removal (resection) of the abnormal section of the colon Colostomy

Name of Drug

Classification and Mechanism of Action

Ranitidine Hydrochloride H 2 receptor antagonist. Competitively inhibits action of histamine on the H2 at receptor sites of parietal cells, decreasing gastric acid secretion.

Indication and Dosage Maintenance therapy for duodenal or gastric ulcer

Contraindication Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug and those with acute porphyria. Use cautiously in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Adjust dosage in patients with impaired renal function.

Side Effects / Adverse Reaction CNS: vertigo, malaise, headache. EENT: blurred vision. Hepatic: jaundice. Other: burning and itching at injection site, anaphylaxis, angioedema.

Nursing Responsibility 1. Assess patient for abdominal pain. Note presence of blood in emesis, stool, or gastric aspirate. 2. Remind patient to take oncedaily prescription drug at bedtime for best results.

3. Instruct patient to take without regard to meals because absorption isn't affected by food. 4. Advise patient to report abdominal pain and blood in stool or emesis.

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