IGCSE Shape Space

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IGCSE Shape Space

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You are on page 1of 24

FOR

IGCSE

SHAPE &

SPACE

Dr T J Price, 2011

First, some important words; know what they mean (get someone to test you):

Acute angle: less than 90.

Parallel: two or more lines going in the same direction (with the same gradient).

with straight sides.

all angles equal and all sides equal.

and three equal sides.

and two equal sides.

Page 2

Quadrilateral: a four-sided 2-D shape.

whose corners lie on a circle.

one pair of parallel sides.

two pairs of parallel sides.

all sides the same length (a diamond).

passing through two opposite corners.

inside a corner of a polygon.

through at each corner (the 'turtle' angle).

the horizontal.

the horizontal.

Page 3

ANGLES

Angles are measured in degrees () so that there are 360 degrees in a full circle.

Why 360? Well, it's probably to do with the number of days in a year, combined with

the fact that lots of numbers go into 360 exactly (it has many factors).

Here are some more important angle facts:

Angles on a straight line

add up to 180.

add up to 180.

a

a + b + c = 180

a + b + c = 180

sum of the other two interior angles.

a

b

d

c

a+b=c

Exterior angles in a polygon

add up to 360, always.

a + b + c + d = 360

Interior angles in an n-sided polygon

add up to 180(n 2).

you turn through a total angle of 360.

into n 2 triangles, each 'worth' 180.

with n sides is 360n.

with n sides is 180(n 2)n.

Page 4

Alternate angles are equal.

c

a

a

A and and A joined together, spelling

Alternate Angle.

'F'-ing Corresponding Angles.

(for Vertical), Opposite one another.

the proper names: 'Z angle', 'F angle'

and 'X angle' will score zero marks.

A Bearing is simply an angle measured clockwise from North. Bearings are often

used in navigation where a compass is used to find the direction of North.

The bearing of A from B means we are at B, going towards A.

The bearing of B from A is 180 different from the bearing of A from B.

N

N

072

Page 5

252 = 72 + 180

CONSTRUCTION

a straight line to the nearest mm

an angle to the nearest degree

so bring a sharp pencil, a sharpener, an eraser, a ruler and a protractor.

You will also need a pair of compasses for the following methods:

Set your compasses to a little over half way between the line ends A and B.

Draw arcs with the compass point on A and then on B.

Draw a straight line through the points where these arcs cross one another.

Set your compasses to a fixed radius, just shorter than the lines making the angle.

Put the compass point on the angle corner O and draw an arc cutting each line at A, B.

Then draw arcs with the compass point on A and B in turn to make a rhombus OACB.

Draw a line through OC; this bisects the angle.

A

C

O

B

Page 6

SKILL: Construct triangles and other 2-D shapes (compasses and straightedge).

Equilateral Triangle:

Given a baseline AB, set your compasses to this distance.

Draw two arcs centred on points A and B so that the arcs cross at point C.

ABC then forms an equilateral triangle.

C

Regular Hexagon:

Set your compasses to the required side length.

Draw a circle centre O.

Use the compasses to mark off the side length all around the circumference.

Join the marks to construct the hexagon ABCDEF.

C

Square:

Given a baseline AB, construct a perpendicular line at A (see previous page).

Use your compasses to mark off the distance AB up this line to give C.

Using this same radius, now draw arcs centred on C and B, crossing at D.

C

Page 7

PARTS OF CIRCLES

DIAM

E

RA

DIU

S

TANG

EN T

Just t

ouche

s the

TER

CIRCUMFERENCE

circle

Radius < Diameter < Circumference, just like the length of the words...

Think

gu

te

R

la

O T

IN N oco

M ME

ch .

G

SE rry's e..

e ng

k T ora

in

Th

CHOR

itar st

rings.

..

MAJOR

SEGMENT

ARC

MINOR

SECTOR

Like an arch...

MAJOR

SECTOR

Page 8

CIRCLE THEOREMS

the circumference and one at the centre).

the angle at the circumference.

are equal.

quadrilateral add up to 180. + = 180.

Page 9

B

D

Marked angles are equal.

HB HELPFUL HINT: The lines make

a shape, so we the lengths together.

D

A

A

C

IGCSE INSIDER INFO: You have to give a reason for each step when finding the

unknown angles in a question. Use the official names above, not 'Star Trek', etc.

Page 10

FORMULAE FOR TRIANGLES

Which formula do I use to find angles or sides? Here's a flow chart to help...

START

Is it a RAT

(Right-Angled Triangle)?

NO

YES

involve only sides

(no angles)?

Do we know an

oppoSite pair (a side

and an angle)?

NO

YES

NO

YES

Use PYTHAGORAS

All these formulae (except for one) are given inside the front cover of your IGCSE paper.

ANATOMY OF A RAT

OT

OPPOSITE

P

HY

E

US

N

E

ADJACENT

The Hypotenuse is always opposite the right angle (Pythagoras and SOHCAHTOA)

and it is the longest side.

The Opposite is opposite the given angle (SOHCAHTOA).

The Adjacent is next to (adjacent to) the given angle (SOHCAHTOA).

Page 11

PYTHAGORAS

If we know two of the three sides of a RAT (Right-Angled Triangle), we can find the

missing side using Pythagoras' Theorem.

c

b

2

Use a b = c

a

TJP TOP TIP: Go ahead and relabel the triangle if you like, to get c in the right place

on the hypotenuse. Just remember to change back to the correct letter at the end.

Q: Find the length of side x in this triangle.

x cm

5 cm

A: Use a 2b2 = c2 substituting to get

5212 2 = x 2

2

25144 = 169 = x

So x =

12 cm

30

b

34

A: b 2302 = 342

2

b 900 = 1156

2

b = 1156900 = 256

So b =

256 = 16 .

5m

hm

2

2

2

2.5 h = 5

6.25h2 = 25

2

h = 256.25 = 18.75

So h =

5m

2.5 m

Page 12

2.5 m

TRIGONOMETRY (SOHCAHTOA)

sin =

Opp

Hyp

cos =

Adj

Hyp

P

HY

tan =

Opp

Adj

OT

E

US

N

E

OPPOSITE

Trigonometry gives the connection between the sides and the angles of a RAT.

ADJACENT

S

A

H

O

H

Decide which SOHCAHTOA triangle to use by seeing which side does not feature

in the question (as either a number or an unknown letter).

Then cover up the letter you are trying to find; the remaining two letters give the

formula you need. For example, to find H in the SOH triangle, we get O S.

Two letters on the bottom line are multiplied; a letter on top is divided by one underneath.

Q: Find the length x .

11

x

27

A: The Adjacent side does not feature in this question, so use SOH (no Adj).

We are finding the Opposite side, so from the SOH triangle, Opp = Sin Hyp.

x = sin 2711 = 4.99 (3 sig figs).

y

Q: Find the length y .

31

8

A: The Hypotenuse does not feature in this question, so use TOA (no Hyp).

We are finding the Adjacent side, so from the TOA triangle, Adj = Opp Tan

y = 8tan 31 = 13.3 (3 sig figs).

Page 13

TJP TOP TIP: Always use the SHIFT button to find an angle.

This gives the inverse sin, cos or tan, written as sin 1 , cos1 , tan1 .

If you get error on your calculator, you have got your numbers the wrong way round.

Q: Find the angle in this triangle.

57

49

A: The Opposite does not feature in this question, so use CAH (no Opp).

We are finding Cos, so from the CAH triangle, Cos = Adj Hyp

1

= cos 4957 = 30.7 (1 dp).

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

We may get a 3-D question which we have to break down into 2-D RATs in order to

find a mystery length or angle.

D

and also angle DAC.

20

AC = 20 6 = 436

20

AD = 4367 = 485

AD =

6

B

D

2

2

A

C

436

To find DAC (the angle at A), we could use SOH, CAH or TOA; we know all the sides.

Here we'll use TOA.

DAC = tan1 7 436 = 18.5 (1 dp).

Page 14

SINE RULE

If we know the values of an opposite pair (a side and the angle opposite it)

in a non right-angled triangle (non-RAT), we use the Sine Rule.

a

b

c

=

=

sin A

sin B

sin C

IGCSE INSIDER INFO: You can flip the printed

formula upside-down to get the unknown quantity

on the top line this makes life much easier.

a

B

angles, and a is opposite A, b opposite B, etc.

C

c

b

A

Q: Find the value of side b in this triangle.

17

35

b

67

A: First, label the sides and angles with a , A and B (we don't need c and C here).

17

b

=

sin 67

sin 35

17

sin 35 = b

sin 67

a=17

B=35

A=67

Q: Find the value of angle C in this triangle.

13

19

8

C

Then use the flipped version of the formula to get the angle on the top.

[Note: we could have used b and B instead of a and A.]

sin 19

sin C

=

8

13

sin 19

13 = sin C

8

sin C = 0.529048

c=13

A=19

Page 15

a=8

C

COSINE RULE

If we don't know the values of an opposite pair (a side and the angle opposite it)

in a non right-angled triangle (non-RAT), we use the Cosine Rule.

TJP TOP TIP: No Sine Rule Cosine Rule.

formula. Don't press '=' until the end...

a = b c 2 b c cos A

b

A

TJP TOP TIP: Relabel the triangle so that the side you are finding is called a .

'Cos that's what is on the left hand side of the formula...

Q: Find side y .

y

2.6

35

6.2

It doesn't matter where you put b and c , by the way...

2

2

a = 6.7638.4432.24 cos 35

a=y

b=2.6

a 2 = 18.79

A=35

c=6.2

IGCSE INSIDER INFO: LEARN THIS FORMULA!

It's not given in the front of the exam paper.

cos A =

b2c 2a 2

2 bc

Q: Find angle A.

2

a=12

2

4 13 12

A: cos A =

2413

cos A =

b=4

A

c=13

41

= 0.39423

104

Page 16

AREA OF A TRIANGLE

The area of a triangle is base height, but if we have a non right-angled triangle

the height may not be obvious.

Fortunately, we are given a formula to work out the area.

Area = A =

1

2

a b sin C

TJP TOP TIP: Relabel the triangle so that the angle is called C, sandwiched

between sides a and b .

Q: Calculate the area of this triangle.

66 cm

41 cm

33

59

A: A sneaky question; we first have to fill in the missing angle at the top, which is

sandwiched between the two given sides.

This angle is 180 33 59 = 88.

A =

1

2

a=66 cm

6641sin 88

33

A = 1352.18

So the area is 1350 cm (3 sig fig).

a=x

C=42

b=2x

A: Substitute into the area formula:

A =

1

2

x2 x sin 42 = 132

x 2 sin 42 = 132

x2 =

132

sin 42

= 197.27

Page 17

C=88

b=41 cm

59

PERIMETER AND AREA

The perimeter of a shape is the distance all the way around it (imagine walking round it).

A circle's perimeter is called the circumference; it gets its own special name.

Triangle

Perimeter = sum of the sides

Area = base vertical height

Rectangle

Perimeter = 2 base + 2 height

Area = base height

Parallelogram

Perimeter = 2 base + 2 slope height

Area = base vertical height

Trapezium

Perimeter = sum of the sides

Area = mean width vertical height

Circle

Circumference = 2 r

Area = r

TJP TOP TIP: Area is squarier!

Hint: length of arc = fraction of circle circumference

Perimeter = radius + radius + arc

= 5 + 5 + (130/360) 2 5

130

= 21.3446

5 cm

Hint: area of sector = fraction of circle area of circle

Area = (130/360) 5

130

= 28.3616

= 28.4 cm (3 sig figs)

5 cm

Page 18

SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME

Face a flat side of a 3-D shape.

Edge a line joining two corners of a 3-D shape.

Vertex a corner of a 3-D shape.

The surface area is the total area of the outside of a 3-D shape.

If you are asked for the curved surface area, just leave out any flat faces.

[The formulae you are given include only the curved surface area for cones/cylinders.]

Cuboid

Surface area = 2 abbcca

Volume = abc

c

b

a

Prism

Surface area = sum of rectangles + 2 ends

Volume = area of end length

Cylinder

Surface area = 2 r h2 r 2

Volume = r 2 h

cylinder is lying on its side.

Cone

Surface area = r l r 2

1

2

Volume = 3 r h

l is the slant height and h is the vertical height.

Sphere

Surface area = 4 r 2

4

3

Volume = 3 r

r

simply work it out for a whole sphere and then halve your answer.

Page 19

SIMILARITY AND ENLARGEMENT

Shapes are similar if one is an enlargement of the other (so that all its lengths are

multiplied by the same amount). The scale factor = new length old length.

Shapes are congruent if they are the same shape and size

(so that you could fit one on top of the other).

If we enlarge a shape on a special 3-D photocopier, what happens to the lengths, the

areas and the volumes?

Here is a clue: set the enlargement to double all lengths, and then see what happens.

(area is squarier)

But the angles in the corners stay at 90

(This stands for Length Area Volume)

Always start by finding the scale factor N.

L: N

A: N

V: N

Q: Two shapes are similar; find the missing lengths a and b.

12.5 cm

b cm

2 cm

a cm

4 cm

10 cm

Now use it to find a = 2 2.5 = 5 cm and b = 12.5 2.5 = 5 cm.

Q: A cylinder is enlarged by scale factor 3. Find the new length, area and volume.

L = 7cm

A = 40cm

V = 100cm

A: New L = 7 3

= 21 cm

New A = 40 3 = 40 9

= 360 cm

New V = 100 3 = 100 27 = 2700 cm

Page 20

METRIC UNITS

You need to know all these common units of length and volume.

10 mm = 1 cm

1000 mm = 1 metre

100 cm = 1 metre

1000 m = 1 km

milli = 1 thousandth

centi = 1 hundredth

Q: Convert 3 m to cm.

A: Each square metre has 100100 = 100 square centimetres in it (not just 100).

100 squares

100 squares

A: Along one edge of this giant cube, there are 10001000 = 106 millimetres in a kilometre.

1 million

ill

io

n

1 million

1000 ml = 1 litre

1 ml = 1 cm

1 litre = 1000 cm

Q: How many litres of fruit juice would it take to fill a swimming pool 10m by 50m by 3m?

A: The pool has a volume of 10 50 3 = 1500 m.

Since 1 litre = 1000 cm, the pool will hold 1,500,000 litres of juice.

Page 21

VECTORS

A scalar has size (an ordinary number), e.g. time, mass, speed, distance.

A vector has size and direction, e.g. force, weight, velocity, displacement.

The size (or length) of a vector is called its magnitude or modulus.

A vector quantity is shown by a bold letter a (in print), or underlined a if handwritten.

The same letter 'a' written normally means the modulus or length of the vector a.

If we have a vector going from A to B, we can write this as

AB .

We can show the direction of a vector in several different ways:

a

by drawing a diagram:

by giving the x and y amounts in brackets (a column vector): c =

68 .

If you multiply a vector by a scalar (ordinary number) you just make the vector longer

or shorter. For example, doubling a vector makes it twice as long (in the same direction).

The resultant is the result of adding or subtracting two or more vectors.

Use Pythagoras to find the modulus of a column vector.

2

6

2

7

5

A: (i) 3 a = 3 =

(ii) ab = =

5

15

5

7

12

2

Q: If a =

5

(iii) modulus of a =

2 252

Q: Use the grid below to write vector expressions for (i)

AC (ii)

HG (iii)

KF (iv)

DI

Hint: you can only move in the a and b directions, and backwards is negative.

A

E

B

F

C

G

D

H

b

I

A: (i)

AC = 2 a

(ii)

HG = a

(iii)

KF = ab (iv)

DI = 3 a2 b

Page 22

TJP TOP TIP: Two vectors are parallel if one is a multiple of the other.

Q: If M is the midpoint of AB and N is the midpoint of AC, find

BC and hence

MN and

state two facts about these vectors.

A

b

a

N

M

C

B

A:

BC = 2 a2 b .

MN = ab and

Therefore

BC = 2

MN , so:

MN ,

(ii) BC is parallel to MN .

Page 23

CONTENTS

Page

Topic

2-3

4-5

6-7

Construction

Parts of Circles

9-10

Circle Theorems

11

12

Pythagoras

13-14

Trigonometry (SOHCAHTOA)

14

3-D Problems

15

Sine Rule

16

Cosine Rule

17

Area of a Triangle

18

19

20

21

Metric Units

22-23

Vectors

Page 24

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