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Alloplastic Adaptation

Form of adjustment results from change in


the environment surrounding an
individual

Antisocial personality

Term used to describe individuals who are


basically unsocialized and whose behavior patterns
bring them repeatedly into conflict with society

Autoplastic Adaptation

Form of adjustment resulting from


changes within an individual

Beccaria

Claimed that punishment should be based on the degree of injury


caused by the offender. The purpose of punishment should be
deterrence rather than retribution and punishment should be
imposed to prevent offenders from committing new crimes

Behavioral Conditioning

The frequency of any behavior can be


increased or decreased through reward or
punishment

Behavioral Genetics

The study of genetic and environmental


contributions to individual variations in
human behavior

Bentham

Pain associated with crime must outweigh


derived from the criminal activity

Biological Theories

Focus on the mind as the center of the


personality and the major determinant in
controlling human behavior

Biopsychology Criminology

Examines how brain chemistry influences


our thoughts, behaviors, and feelings.

Biosocial Criminality

Emphasizes the interaction of biology and


the environment in the formation of
behavioral responses to given situations.

Broken Windows Thesis

Physical deterioration in an area leads to increased


concerns for personal safety among area residents
and to higher crime rates in that area.

Burglary

Unlawful entry into a structure for the


purpose of felony commission, generally a
theft.

Criminal Anthropology

Scientific Study of the Relationship


between human physical characteristics
and criminality

Criminalist

One who is a specialist in the collection


and examination of the physical evidence
of a crime

Criminal Justice Professional

Police officers, corrections professionals, probation and


parole officers, criminal defense attorneys, and others
whose day to day work is within the criminal justice
system.

Criminaloids

A term used to describe occasional


criminals who were pulled into criminality
by environment factors

Criminologist

One Who studies crime, criminals, and


criminal behavior- reserved for academics,
researchers, and policy analysts

Culture Conflict Theory

Suggests that the root cause of criminality can be


found in clash of values between variously socialized
groups over what is acceptable or proper behavior

Dark Figure of Crime

Refers to the large number of unreported


crimes that never make it into official
crime statistics

Delinquency

Violation of criminal law


committed by young people

Deviant Behavior

Human Activity that violates


social norms

Environmental Pollution

Brain chemistry is altered by exposure to heavy


metals and other toxins make people lose the natural
restraint that holds their violent tendencies in check

Five Factors for Biosocial


Theory

Gender- male, age-younger, body typemesomorphic, intelligence- low, personalityaggressive, impulsive and cruel

Four types of self control

Impulse control, control over contends of


mind, control over emotions and moods,
control over performance

Frontal Brain Hypothesis

People who suffer damage to the prefrontal cortex


of the brain tend to be more aggressive than others,
impulsive, and uninhibited

Frustration Aggression Theory

Everyone suffers from frustration in life,


bug aggression can be manifested in
socially acceptable and unacceptable ways

Gall

Phrenology- Hypothesizes that the shape of the


human skull was indicative of the personality and
could be used to predict criminality

Gender Differences in
Criminality

Men crimes are far higher than women, when


women commit crime, they are far more likely to
assume the role of followers than leaders.

Genetics and Crime

Argument that the tendency to commit


crime may be inherited and that criminal
tendencies are genetically based

Guility but Mentally Ill

Held responsible for a specific act, even


though a degree of mental incompetence
may be present

Hedonistic Calculus

Behavior holds value to any individual undertaking


it and according to the amount of pleasure or pain
that it can produce for that person

Homicide vs. Murder

Murder- unlawful homicide, homicidewillful killing of one human being by


another

Hormones and Criminality

High testosterone can produce


aggressive behavior

Hypoglycemia and Diet

Low Blood sugar, hyperglycemiahigh blood sugar

Identity Theft

The misuse of another individual's


personal information to commit fraud.

Irresistible Impulse Test

Not guilty by virtue of mental state, was


not able to resist committing the crime

Just Deserts

People deserve the punishment they receive at the hands


of the law and that punishment should be appropriate to
the type of severity of the crime committed.

Labeling Theory

When someone becomes labeled, they


start to act in that "labeled" manner

Larceny

Unlawful ta`king of someone's property.


Most frequent occurring property offense.

Lombroso

Atavism- Suggests that criminals are


physiological throwbacks to early stages in
evolution. Father of modern criminology

M'Naughten Rule

Standard for judging legal insanity that requires


that offenders did not know what they were doing,
or if they did, didn't know it was wrong

Modeling Theory

Social learning theory that asserts that


people learn how to act by observing
others and by imitating their behavior

Neoclassical Criminology

Focuses on the importance of character, the dynamics of


character development, and the rational choices that
people make as they are faced with opportunities for
crime

NVCS

National Crime Victimization Survey. Regarded as


more accurate measure of crime than
UCR/NIBRS. More inclusive than police reports

Positivism

Based upon the belief that much of human


behavior, and therefore crime, results from forces
that are beyond the control of the individual

Psychopathy

Individuals who have a personality disorder,


especially one manifested in aggressive antisocial
behavior, and who are lacking in empathy

Psychosocial Theory

Psychoticism

Rape

Rational Choice Theory

Explains crime as the result of the


relationship between fundamental
personality dimensions and social factors.
Most likely to be criminals because they combine high
degrees of emotionalism with similar high levels of
extroversion. Difficult to socialize and train and do not
respond well to the external environment.
The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or
anus with anybody part of object, or oral penetration by a
sex organ of another person with out consent of the victim

Mirrors many principles of Classical Criminology. Holds


that criminals make a conscious, rational, and at least
partially informed choice to commit crime. benefit of the
crime outweighs the costs of disobeying the law

Recidivism

Offender reoffending

Robbery

The taking or attempt to take anything of value by


putting the victim in fear of immediate harm. Fire
arm is the weapon most often used in robbery

Routine Activities Theory

Motivated Offender, Lack of a Capable


Guardian, and also a Suitable Target

Schzoid

Allot, withdrawn, unresponsive, dull,


solitary to an abnormal degree

Seduction of Crime

The idea that crime is often pleasurable for those


committing it and pleasure of one sort or another is
the major motivation behind crime

Situational Choice Theory

View Criminal Behavior as a function of choices and


decisions made within a context of situation
constraints and opportunities (Anomie and Strain?)

Social Conflict Theory

Theory with clashes of classes that


forces crime

Social Disorganization Theory

Breakdown of social institutions such as


the family, economy, education, and
religion force crime

Social Learning/ Differential


Association Theory

All behavior, including crime, is


learned

Sociobiology

The systematic study of biological basis of all social


behavior, Territorially explains much of the human
conflict among human. Also for survival. Stupid theory.

Sociopath

Specific, General Deterrence

Personality disorder results more from


environmental factors than from innate
personality characteristics
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a
particular offender from engaging in criminality. Goal
that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes
similar to the one that was just committed

Strain Theory

Disjuncture between socially and subculturally sanction


means and goals as the cause of criminal behavior. Can be
thought to pressure individuals to reach socially
determined goals

UCR- Uniform Crime Report

Based on goal on developing a set of


uniform crime statistics for use by police
agencies and policy makers

Violent Crimes

Murder, Rape, Robbery,


Aggravated Assault

What is a crime

Why prison population are


rising

Human conduct that violates the criminal laws of a


state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction
that has the power to make and enforce the laws.

Determinate Sentencing, Truth in


sentencing, Three Strikes Law