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Alloplastic Adaptation

Form of adjustment results from change in

the environment surrounding an

Antisocial personality

Term used to describe individuals who are

basically unsocialized and whose behavior patterns
bring them repeatedly into conflict with society

Autoplastic Adaptation

Form of adjustment resulting from

changes within an individual


Claimed that punishment should be based on the degree of injury

caused by the offender. The purpose of punishment should be
deterrence rather than retribution and punishment should be
imposed to prevent offenders from committing new crimes

Behavioral Conditioning

The frequency of any behavior can be

increased or decreased through reward or

Behavioral Genetics

The study of genetic and environmental

contributions to individual variations in
human behavior


Pain associated with crime must outweigh

derived from the criminal activity

Biological Theories

Focus on the mind as the center of the

personality and the major determinant in
controlling human behavior

Biopsychology Criminology

Examines how brain chemistry influences

our thoughts, behaviors, and feelings.

Biosocial Criminality

Emphasizes the interaction of biology and

the environment in the formation of
behavioral responses to given situations.

Broken Windows Thesis

Physical deterioration in an area leads to increased

concerns for personal safety among area residents
and to higher crime rates in that area.


Unlawful entry into a structure for the

purpose of felony commission, generally a

Criminal Anthropology

Scientific Study of the Relationship

between human physical characteristics
and criminality


One who is a specialist in the collection

and examination of the physical evidence
of a crime

Criminal Justice Professional

Police officers, corrections professionals, probation and

parole officers, criminal defense attorneys, and others
whose day to day work is within the criminal justice


A term used to describe occasional

criminals who were pulled into criminality
by environment factors


One Who studies crime, criminals, and

criminal behavior- reserved for academics,
researchers, and policy analysts

Culture Conflict Theory

Suggests that the root cause of criminality can be

found in clash of values between variously socialized
groups over what is acceptable or proper behavior

Dark Figure of Crime

Refers to the large number of unreported

crimes that never make it into official
crime statistics


Violation of criminal law

committed by young people

Deviant Behavior

Human Activity that violates

social norms

Environmental Pollution

Brain chemistry is altered by exposure to heavy

metals and other toxins make people lose the natural
restraint that holds their violent tendencies in check

Five Factors for Biosocial


Gender- male, age-younger, body typemesomorphic, intelligence- low, personalityaggressive, impulsive and cruel

Four types of self control

Impulse control, control over contends of

mind, control over emotions and moods,
control over performance

Frontal Brain Hypothesis

People who suffer damage to the prefrontal cortex

of the brain tend to be more aggressive than others,
impulsive, and uninhibited

Frustration Aggression Theory

Everyone suffers from frustration in life,

bug aggression can be manifested in
socially acceptable and unacceptable ways


Phrenology- Hypothesizes that the shape of the

human skull was indicative of the personality and
could be used to predict criminality

Gender Differences in

Men crimes are far higher than women, when

women commit crime, they are far more likely to
assume the role of followers than leaders.

Genetics and Crime

Argument that the tendency to commit

crime may be inherited and that criminal
tendencies are genetically based

Guility but Mentally Ill

Held responsible for a specific act, even

though a degree of mental incompetence
may be present

Hedonistic Calculus

Behavior holds value to any individual undertaking

it and according to the amount of pleasure or pain
that it can produce for that person

Homicide vs. Murder

Murder- unlawful homicide, homicidewillful killing of one human being by


Hormones and Criminality

High testosterone can produce

aggressive behavior

Hypoglycemia and Diet

Low Blood sugar, hyperglycemiahigh blood sugar

Identity Theft

The misuse of another individual's

personal information to commit fraud.

Irresistible Impulse Test

Not guilty by virtue of mental state, was

not able to resist committing the crime

Just Deserts

People deserve the punishment they receive at the hands

of the law and that punishment should be appropriate to
the type of severity of the crime committed.

Labeling Theory

When someone becomes labeled, they

start to act in that "labeled" manner


Unlawful ta`king of someone's property.

Most frequent occurring property offense.


Atavism- Suggests that criminals are

physiological throwbacks to early stages in
evolution. Father of modern criminology

M'Naughten Rule

Standard for judging legal insanity that requires

that offenders did not know what they were doing,
or if they did, didn't know it was wrong

Modeling Theory

Social learning theory that asserts that

people learn how to act by observing
others and by imitating their behavior

Neoclassical Criminology

Focuses on the importance of character, the dynamics of

character development, and the rational choices that
people make as they are faced with opportunities for


National Crime Victimization Survey. Regarded as

more accurate measure of crime than
UCR/NIBRS. More inclusive than police reports


Based upon the belief that much of human

behavior, and therefore crime, results from forces
that are beyond the control of the individual


Individuals who have a personality disorder,

especially one manifested in aggressive antisocial
behavior, and who are lacking in empathy

Psychosocial Theory



Rational Choice Theory

Explains crime as the result of the

relationship between fundamental
personality dimensions and social factors.
Most likely to be criminals because they combine high
degrees of emotionalism with similar high levels of
extroversion. Difficult to socialize and train and do not
respond well to the external environment.
The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or
anus with anybody part of object, or oral penetration by a
sex organ of another person with out consent of the victim

Mirrors many principles of Classical Criminology. Holds

that criminals make a conscious, rational, and at least
partially informed choice to commit crime. benefit of the
crime outweighs the costs of disobeying the law


Offender reoffending


The taking or attempt to take anything of value by

putting the victim in fear of immediate harm. Fire
arm is the weapon most often used in robbery

Routine Activities Theory

Motivated Offender, Lack of a Capable

Guardian, and also a Suitable Target


Allot, withdrawn, unresponsive, dull,

solitary to an abnormal degree

Seduction of Crime

The idea that crime is often pleasurable for those

committing it and pleasure of one sort or another is
the major motivation behind crime

Situational Choice Theory

View Criminal Behavior as a function of choices and

decisions made within a context of situation
constraints and opportunities (Anomie and Strain?)

Social Conflict Theory

Theory with clashes of classes that

forces crime

Social Disorganization Theory

Breakdown of social institutions such as

the family, economy, education, and
religion force crime

Social Learning/ Differential

Association Theory

All behavior, including crime, is



The systematic study of biological basis of all social

behavior, Territorially explains much of the human
conflict among human. Also for survival. Stupid theory.


Specific, General Deterrence

Personality disorder results more from

environmental factors than from innate
personality characteristics
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a
particular offender from engaging in criminality. Goal
that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes
similar to the one that was just committed

Strain Theory

Disjuncture between socially and subculturally sanction

means and goals as the cause of criminal behavior. Can be
thought to pressure individuals to reach socially
determined goals

UCR- Uniform Crime Report

Based on goal on developing a set of

uniform crime statistics for use by police
agencies and policy makers

Violent Crimes

Murder, Rape, Robbery,

Aggravated Assault

What is a crime

Why prison population are


Human conduct that violates the criminal laws of a

state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction
that has the power to make and enforce the laws.

Determinate Sentencing, Truth in

sentencing, Three Strikes Law