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Goddess Durgaa and Udgaana---from Consciousness to physicalityas in

the Vedas. (Revision 2.)

All words in italics and which are not English words are the Sanskrit words
and Itrans version to be found in the dictionary by Sir Monier Williams in the
This article is for everyone. This is not for any propaganda or mission. This is
for sharing the knowledge which everyone can claim as ones own treasure.
This article is written based on the teaching received from RiShi Shri. BijoyKrishna Chattopadhyaaya (year 1875 - 1945) and his principal disciple RiShi
Shri. Tridibnath Bandopadhyaaya (year 1923 1994). RiShi Bijoy-Krishna
taught that this universe is the realization of Universal consciousness. This
world and everything is reality, meaningful and leads to eternity. He taught
how every moment, every event is an extension of divinity characterized by
endless self-revealing consciousness. He preached by the words, he preached
by his life. He himself was a living example of divinity realized in mortality. He
was known as the god of Howrah. Howrah is a place on the western bank of
Ganga at Kolkata. Following his way, worship of the goddess durgaa and
Universal Mother (visva-maataa) is performed every year at his place in
Howrah during the autumn and winter respectively. The divine words those
came out of him spontaneously during these worships were recorded by
Sarala Devi Choudhurani (niece of the poet Ravindranath Thakur {Tagore}).
These were published as printed books and one of such books in Bengali
Language has been published in the Scribd and Slideshare sites. The links are
as below:

His daily sermons delivered to his disciples were recorded by Sarala Devi and
published as veda vaaNI (Message from the Vedas).
He himself wrote a few books like Geetar Yogic Vakhyaa (Yogic explanation of
Geeta), Ritambharaa, Chidamvaraa, Jatavedaa, Satya Samvedana etc.
He decided to remain away from publicity and thus is little known.
If you are interested in his books or teaching or in the history, you may
contact Mr. Chandidas Banerjee, at 28, Kalikundu Lane, Howrah, West
Bengal, India, Pin -711101, mobile : + 91 94 33 013225, e mail:
You may contact me at

1. Three fundamental states of Universal Consciousness: vaak, praaNa and
1.1 naama and rUpa and mind
1.2 viShNu
1.3 praaNa---who is at the beginning
1.4 uShaa
1.5 viShnu and the sun
2.0 mukhya praaNa and evolution
2.1 Universal Couple (mithuna)
2.2 From the physicality to the Consciousness above all duality or the death.
2.2.1 EarthpRithivIthe place for discrete existence

2.2.2 Existing in the past

2.2.3 Water and the earth.
2.2.4 Water and gravitation
2.2.5 The molten and solid earth
2.2.6 varuNaThe god of water
2.2.7 The water that dissolves
2.2.8 Immersion of idols
2.2.8 oShadhi: The fire / vigour within the water
2.2.9 madhyama praaNa
2.2.10 Vegetation and the moon; chandra and angirasa
2.2.11 Moon---chandraPuberty; aa~Ngirasaa the spirit of the limbs or the
2.2.12 aa~Ngirasa
2.2.13 meaning of the word chandra
2.2.14 Olfactory sense, odour or gandha and the breathing
2.2.15. ashvinI-kumaara
2.2.16 aMshu---rays of the moon; chandra, soma and nakShatra
2.2.17 dik-direction and apwater
2.2.18 The southern fire god---- dakShiNaagni
2.2.19 puruSha
2.2.20 vaak
2.2.21 Rik
2.2.22 saama

2.2.23 udgItha
2.2.24 udgaana---the song that lifts us
2.2.25 Dawning and raising, the upward direction.
2.2.27 The physical centre of praaNa
2.2.28 The inner and the outer sun (svara and pratyaasvara)
2.2.29 From the mortality to the eternity
2.2.30 udgItha and praNava and om
2.2.31 The goddess durgaa and navaraatri
2.2.32 Ishitva and mukhya praaNa
2.33 deva---deity and asura
2.2.34 As the praaNa lifts
2.2.35 Mouth and mukhya praaNa
2.2.36 aayasya praaNa
2.2.37 durgaa and mahiShaasura
2.2.38 ashvamedha yaj~na, ashva, mukhya praaNa
2.2.39 nava durgaa, navamI, animal sacrifice and ashvamedha
2.2.40 pashu
2.2.41 Meaning of beheading (shirashCheda)
2.2.42 Throat/ kaNTha
2.2.43 yaj~na and pashu

1. Three fundamental states of Universal Consciousness: vaak, praaNa and


When the Universal Soul / Consciousness becomes (became) active, three

fundamental forms of Consciousness are (were) observed---vaak, praaNa and
manas. vaak is the faculty of the Consciousness by which Consciousness
creates duality. Expressions of Consciousness are the words. Processed words
are called vakya. Where we are expressive with the processed or formed
words, there Consciousness is named as mind (manas). This expressed
physical universe is the formation within the mind of the Universal
consciousness and made up of mind. The slight (IShat) development of this
knowledge of mind (manas) is natural in human beings. This is why human
beings are called manushya (= manas + IShat). The one who knows the
universe as the manifestation of mind (manas) is called manu and men and
women are considered as descendants of the divine personality called manu.
1.1 (naama and rUpa and mind )
What is expressed, formed and defined is vakya or the processed words;
vaak is the root of all processed words. The platform or the common plane or
the state of Consciousness, where all the words are forming into definitions or
names, where everything can acquire a name (naama) and a shape (rUpa) is
the mind.
It is something like this:
vaak is the faculty or the tool, who cuts or shapes the Consciousness from
Oneness into many. The One who cuts or shapes is vaak, the One who is
shaped is called praaNa. In Consciousness, where the shaped or defined
forms are held is called manas or mind.
1.2 (viShNu)
praaNa in us occupies the middle position. This is why always the three are
termed as vaak, praaNa, manas. Middle also means medium. praaNa is there
everywhere, and in us we feel praaNa as our life or life force. The warmth of
praaNa is called uShmaa. The verb vish means to enter. The words vish and
uShmaa together make the word vishNu who is the universal praaNa or
universal Consciousness preserving the creation.

Thus in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad it is stated that:

vacham dhenu iti upasityavam ----vaak to be worshipped, she is like the cow;
tasya praaNah RiShvam------Her bull is praaNa
manah vatsya-----mind is the calf
1.3 (praaNa---who is at the beginning)
The word praaNa consists of the two words pra and ana. ana means
animation or active consciousness. The word pra carries the senses of many
English words starting with pre or pri like principal, prime, previous (or
before others), pristine etc.
The Sanskrit word prathama means the first or what is at the beginning.
This word which also starts with pra carries the meaning of pra in praaNa.
This pra in prathama or in praaNa carries the sense of in the beginning or
before everyone or being the first.
1.4 (uShaa)
Thus praaNa is in the beginning of the creation, in the beginning of every
event. This aspect of praaNa heralding an event is the goddess of dawn or
We have discussed praaNa in an earlier article published in Scribd
( and in
Slideshare (,
where we have also discussed this aspect of praaNa being always first.
Thus the first love, the first child and the thresholds are always loved,
recognized or remembered; thats why the people celebrate inauguration, birth
days, new years and anniversaries; it is a normal tendency of us derived from
the Universal Consciousness.
1.5 viShnu and the sun
Eternal, universal praaNa who has pervaded every entity and

active in us and keeping us lively is called viShNu. The time is cycled from
viShNu and thus He is leading the deities (the divine or revealing personalities
dominating on us) and the life cycle is rotating everywhere. In our planetary
system, the manifested centre of praaNa or vishNu is the sun.
Here is a Vedic hymn on vishNus movement (this results in the movement of
the sun, time and movement of everything):
Atah ((And now) devah (deities) avantu (look after) nah (us)
yata (As) viSnur (viShNu)-vichakramae (circulates)
pRithIvyaa (through the earth) sapta (seven) dhmabhih (abodes)

And now let the deities look after us

As viShNu circulates
Through the earth and the seven abodes ------ (Quote from Rik Veda)
Also, in the hymn to the sun, the radiance of viShNu has been mentioned:
namoh vivasate (I submit to vivasvate {the sun---vivasvana is an aspect of the
sun} vrahmaN (universe) vasvate (is illuminating ) , viShNu tejase (by the
radaiance of viShNu) jagat (universe) savitre (creates the savanna
periods)sUchaye(initiating) sarva (all) karma (work) daainae(donating
I submit to vivasvate the sun who is radiating the universe by the
radiance of viShNu; who is creating the cycles of time (savana) in
everything, who is initiating everything, who is administering all the
2.0 mukhya praaNa and evolution
Eternal, universal praaNa is also taking us above the mortality above the
compulsory cycles of life and death. This results in evolution of every single
individual. This aspect of praaNa is named as mukhya (principal) praaNa.

Upanishad has also named mukhya praaNa as the goddess dUra (distance)
because from mukhya praaNa the death keeps a distance.

saa (she) vaa aeShaa(this) devataa(god) dUr(dUra) nama


(name)----She that god has the name dUra

dUram (away) hi asyaa (from Her) mRituh(the death)---The
death is away from Her. (Brihadaranyaka1/3/9)

It may be noted that in the above texts mukhya praaNa has been addressed as
both male (devataa---god) and female {(saaaeShaa----she---this (in female
This goddess is the goddess durgaa (also dUrgaa) of yajur veda and is
celebrated all over India.
praaNa is in us as our senses and activities. Also praaNa has five aspects as
described in the Upanishad as praaNa, vyaana, apaana, samaana and
udaana. But all these are the personalities of a single one and thus named as
the Principal praaNa or mukhya praaNa.
mukhya praaNa is the One, whose presence is everyones existence. Wherever
He goes, we go along with Him. Thus when He departs the body, we depart
along with Him. Like a sturdy robust horse fastened to a post can run away by
uprooting the post, similarly when mukhya praaNa leaves the body we along
with our senses also leave with Him.
2.1 Universal Couple (mithuna)
When 'vaak' is described as faculty of Consciousness, then the Consciousness
is described as praaNa. Consciousness is activated by Consciousness. This is
described by the two terms, vaak and praaNa. Thus praaNa is one who is
activated and vaak is the one who activates. The same ONE or the same
Universal consciousness is addressed as two personalities, vaak and
praaNa---the universal couple creating everyone.
This is how the mithuna or 'conjugation has been described in Chandogya
Upanishad and the creation of the universe including the physicality.

2.2 From the physicality to the Consciousness above all duality or the death.
Seven layers of creation
Chandogya has described the universe as seven stepped, derived from the One
who is the eighth. The eighth state is called udgItha and has been described
as elixir of all the juices, all the spirits, all the vitalities.
Followings are quoted from the first chapter of Chandogya Upanishad.
The essence of the physicality (bhUta) is the earth (pRithivI).
The essence of the earth is the water (ap)
The essence of the water is oShadhi
The essence of oShadhi is puruSha
The essence of puruSha is vaak
The essence of vaak is Rik
The essence of Rik is saama
The essence of saama is udgItha
The personalities and aspects of the Universal Consciousness called
physicality (bhUta), earth (pRithvI), water (ap), oShadhi, puruSha (individual),
vaak and udgItha are described below.

2.2.1 EarthpRithivIthe place for discrete existence

Earth is called pRithivI. pRithivI etymologically means the one who sustains
separate existence of the individuals. The word is connected to pRithak
meaning separate or apart.
2.2.2 (Existing in the past)

Any physical entity is called bhUta. This word is from the root word bhU
meaning to become, to be. The word bhUta means what has already
happened, what has been already executed or done. It denotes freezing or
the end of a state; realization. Thus bhU is also the name of a loka or space
where bhUta or physicality is created. In our consciousness where we feel the
physicality is called bhU. pRithivI is the property or the nature of bhU .
2.2.3 Water and the earth.
The essence of the earth (pRithivI) is the water (ap). Water or liquid does not
have any specific shape. It takes the shape of a container and water freezes
into a shape when it becomes ice. Thus Consciousness, like the ice, is frozen
into the physicality. Every definition, every defined entity is an acquirement
and thus has the aqueous origin. In the earth, we are used to see water as
contained; water is contained in a bottle, in a pitcher, in a lake, in the vast
gorges of the earth as oceans. We also see free flowing and lashing water of the
rivers and falls. We see the waves breaking on the shore and shaping the
beach lines day and night. It is as if this Conscious water is telling us that it
can take all the shapes, it can flow in everything and become a rigid
This is not imagination. If you realize that you are a part of the system called
Universal Consciousness from whose senses your senses are being created,
who is your origin and element as well, you will realize that how Universal
Consciousness is sending the messages. It is a matter of knowing (veda) this
and listening (shruTi) accordingly.
ap also means aapti or achievement. Everything in the creation is the
definition of the Universal Consciousness and is the achievement of the
Consciousness in the form of creatures or created entities.
As Consciousness achieves and takes every form as the created beings,
similarly every creature or created being achieves or acquires its fulfilment in
the individual consciousness and this is also by the activity of consciousness
called ap or water.

Thus it is the water of satisfaction, quenching all the thirsts, keeping cool.
2.2.4 Water and gravitation
Water or liquid aspect of the Universal Consciousness creates Himself/ Herself
as the personality of the Consciousness called earth or pRithivI and holds
every one as separate individual. This is called aadhaara shakti meaning the
faculty that holds or sustains an entity.
(In this context, the reader may note that as per the Hindu mythology, the first
avatara (descendant of the God) is mIna (fish) and also that we start getting
definition when our body is formed in the water bag in mothers womb.)
Here is a hymn from chaNdI, relating to water (ap) and gravity (aadhaara
aadhaara-bhUtA (by becoming the holding power) jagata (in all the one
moving) stvam (you) ekaa(alone)
mahI (mighty world)) svarUpeNa (yourself in the form) yataH (that) sthitaasi
(you exist) .
apaM (water) svarUpa (yourself in the form) sthitayaa (by existing) tvaya (by
you) aetat (this)
aapyaayate(nourishing) kRitsnam(everything) alaN^ghayavIrye (you whom
none can excel)
You alone are the holding power (gravitation) in all
That you are existing yourself as the mighty world
You are existing yourself as the water and by this way
You are nourishing everyone, you whom none can excel!
2.2.5 The molten and solid earth
Thus Brihadaranyaka Upanishad has said that the curdled layer of ap (also
aapa) was killed (solidified) to become the earth. The description resembles

the phenomenon of hot molten mass solidifying into solid crust of the earth.
Here is an extract from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (1/2/2) on the
tat (that) yat (what) sharah(cuddled layers) asIt (was) tat (that) sama
(perfectly) ahanyat (killed > rigor mortis >solidified)----that what was the
cuddled layers that was perfectly killed (solidified).
{ It is interesting to note here that in metallurgy there is a term called Killed
steel or Killed Iron as explained by Wikipedia below:
Killed steel is steel that has been completely deoxidized by the addition of an
agent before casting, so that there is practically no evolution of gas during
solidification. They are characterized by a high degree of chemical
homogeneity and freedom from gas porosity. The steel is said to be "killed"
because it will quietly solidify in the mould, with no gas bubbling out. It is
marked with a "K" for identification purposes. (Quoted from Wikipedia.) }
2.2.6 varuNaThe god of water
This water is the water as we know and it is more than the water we know. It
is the root of our feeling of satisfaction. When we achieve anything that we
desire, we are embraced by praaNa as satisfaction. praaNa embraces us or
covers us with the satisfaction. Thus the god of water is called varuNa. It is
from the root word vRi which means to cover or embrace. Thus we remain
satisfied and covered and that conceals the root or it conceals the one
(Consciousness) who satisfies us. (It is for this reason, though varuNa is a
deity, he is also considered as asura.) Thus in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
(4/3/14), it is said: aaraamasya (it comforts) pashyanti(see), na (no) tam
(that, the one) pashyati (sees) kashchana(ever)-----it (the creature) sees(feels)
the satisfaction but never sees the one who satisfies it . Thus from the water
the solid crust of the earth (who holds us) is formed. The more matured is the
cover, more solid is the crust, more is the physicality. The Consciousness
remains covered by the dressings.
2.2.7 The water that dissolves.

This aspect of Consciousness called water or ap or the water deity, is not

only behind the solid or stable physicality called earth, it also dissolves the
solid or physicality. Thus the Water deity or ap remains as cause or kaaraNa
behind the creation. This means, the physical formation remains in nonphysical or dimensionless form in this divine water and again takes the
physical form from the Water goddess.
2.2.8 Immersion of idols: It is for this reason, the Hindus immerse idols in
water and before immersion the punaraagamana (return again) mantra is
2.2.8 oShadhi: The fire / vigour within the water. Vegetation and medicine.
oShadhi----oSha (vigour, radiance)+ dhi (hold)
The spirit of ap or water is oShadhi, who is holding all the shines. It is the
shine or radiance of animation and serene light of praaNa. praaNa is the active
Universal Consciousness who is taking care of all of us, of all the Universe
from time immemorial. The water, the universal water, is the body of praaNa
and praaNa is the shine within the body. It is the serene lunar shine, the
inner shine. It is the shine of satisfaction of having everything in the self.
Thus Brihadaranyaka (1/5/13) has said:
atha (and now) aetasya (this) praaNasya (praaNas) aapah (water) sharIram (is
the bod) ,jyotirUpam (illuminatd form)) asou chandra---The body of this (divine) praaNa is the water and the moon is His
illumined form. (Brihadaranyaka-----1/5/13)
oShadhi administers and channelizes the flow of Universal Consciousness in
us and oShadhi belongs to the domain of moon.
2.2.9 (madhyama praaNa)
praaNa as Universal Life God or God of animation is called mukhya praaNa
or principal praaNa. The same praaNa, observed in us is called madhyama

praaNa. madhyama means middle or medium; it means praaNa in us, life

in us. oShadhi is regulating the madhyama praaNa.
If there is a relaxation in the regulation, the flowing stream of life is affected.
We get the disease or malady if the shine is not held as it is normally held. The
fluidity, the stream of life or water flowing in every nook and corner of our
body is affected It is for this reason the medicines are called
OShadha(pronounced as oushadha) and derived from the word oShadhi.
praaNa and so each of us, in our inside, in consciousness , is always
revealing, shining in numerous forms. At every moment we are different, our
perception, our feelings are changing incessantly. With every perception, with
every sensing, we are getting a formation (body or earth) and a pleasure (or
displeasure) and consequent acquirement (aqua, water). Behind this earth and
water is that aspect of Consciousness by which the shine, revelation is held
and maintained by Consciousness. We are live and content with satisfaction
(ap>aap>aapa>aapti>acquirement>satisfaction) and thus radiant (oSha) by the
2.2.10 (Vegetation and the moon; chandra and angirasa).
This radiant Consciousness (oShadhi), this personality, is working in the earth
through the trees and the herbs which carry the medicines and the
constituents and which sustain the earth. The Consciousness or the life
within, covered under the solid crust of earth or physicality is unveiled by the
vegetation and the plants and they rise above. This is why the vegetation or
plants are also termed as udbhida meaning ud (upward) + vid (break
through); thus it implies that aspect of Consciousness by which it breaks
though and rises above the inertness or physicality; evolution from the
inertness to the living forms.
2.2.11 Moon---chandraPuberty; aa~Ngirasaa (the spirit of the limbs or the
This vegetation and plant in the physical earth are correspondingly exhibited
in the body as the body hair in us. It is like the life fluid or soma or the flowing

praaNa overflowing from inside to the outside and revealing as vegetation or as

the body hairs. Puberty is related to this. The soma or the praaNa flowing in
our body, exhibits the presence and faculties of the Consciousness and also
heralds the faculty of creation or multiplication; this is known as puberty and
start of periodic cycles when we reach the adolescence.
This plant world is controlled by the shine of the Consciousness called moon
or chandra. The moon is not just acting on the water mass or on the oceans
and rivers creating the ebbs and tides, the moon is controlling everything
related to the secretion, flow, absorption, excretion of the water or body fluid.
In a more subtle way the moon is controlling the flow of time or events with
which each of us is associated and in specific way for each individual. The
control or time which is originating from the sun is further processed by moon
in minute and specific ways for each of us. Thus our physical build, our
happening of the life, our destiny is controlled by the lunar plane. Our life in
the earth and our afterlife is totally under the control of the moon god or
chandra. The lunar calendars and astrology find their root here.
2.2.12 aa~Ngirasa
This life god, Consciousness flowing in us is also called aa~Ngirasa in Veda.
aa~Ngirasa has been explained in the Veda(Upanishad) as a~Nganam (of the
body) rasaah (juice, spirit)-----the spirit of life, the Consciousness flowing
through the limbs or the body. This is also called soma and in a general way
we call it our feelings.
The absorption /assimilation of what is coming to us through our senses and
the consequent results are controlled by the center of the Consciousness
whose revelation in the external sky we observe as the moon. The name
chandra of the moon signifies the above aspects of the Consciousness.

2.2.13(meaning of the word chandra)

The word chandra can be broken into its constituents as the following:

chandra = cham + dra. cham = to sip; dra (>draShTi)= observer. It means the
One who is controlling all the things concerned with sipping and consequent
absorption or assimilation, secretion and flow. Thus whatever we are receiving
from Universal Consciousness is getting distributed and administered through
this lunar plane. This administration is specifically implemented through
oShadhi. Thus the Vedas have related chandra with oShadhi. The
Consciousness radiating in the outer sky, through the lunar center is
circulating the spirit or the flow of vitality. This is also happening through the
herbs and trees, through the vegetation, through the rivers and oceans.
aa~Ngirasa or the life god is flowing as the sap. This is responsible for the life
forms and the states of the living creatures. This is also creating the fragrance
of the flowers and the vegetation.
2.2.14 (Olfactory sense, odour or gandha and the breathing)
This fragrance is called gandha which means the personality who holds
everyone in its respective orbit.
gandha= gam (going, movement) +dha (hold); each of us is held in a specific
orbit rotating through the cycles of day and night, cycles of events and that
depicts our life; the way each of us is held is unique and has a different odour
and different styles of breathing, different patterns and rates of pulsing.
Thus after Consciousness creates the senses sound, touch, vision, taste then
the smell is created as the last ingredient to stabilize the creature or the
created entity. The creation is completed and the breathing starts. Thus the
nose is the common organ for smelling and breathing too. In the Vedas, smell
is commonly addressed as praaNa meaning the life or animation. When this
stabilization happens, when the orbit becomes stable, the breathing happens
steadily and the dynamic forms create a static state called body or the
physicality. Thus in the Vedas, earth (and also the body) has been associated
with the smell and also it has been cited that the moon supports the smell or
fragrance in us (somo gandhaaya -----raatri sUktam Rik Veda).
2.2.15. ashvinI-kumaara

The divine twines and the divine physician are called ashvinI-kumaara. They
are also called naasatya meaning who stay in the nose. Thus these two
twins are the divine personalities who are the in and out breathing of every
entity. The continuous vibrations, the pulses of moving from out to in and in
to out are these two divine personalities or the forms of the Universal
Consciousness. Thus they are the divine physician who can cure anyone from
any malady by the regulation of these flows.
2.2.16 (aMshu---rays of the moon); chandra, soma and nakShatra)
chandra is also called aMshu-maana and the rays of the moon is called
aMshu. The word aMshu is connected to the word aMsha which means part
or portion. As the lunar plane controls us and accordingly portions what we
receive from the Universe or Universal Consciousness, so the rays of the moon
are called aMshu and moon is called aMshu-maana (characterized by
aMshu). It is for this reason everyones life is different. Someone is poor,
someone is rich; someone suffers for a cause and someone rises for the same
cause; someone can endure cold, another falls sick; someone enjoys an event
another dislikes the same. The divinity (soma---the flow of Universal
Consciousness) from the centre called aditya (sun) and passing through the
lunar centre or through the moon is flowing outbound to all of us. Then it
(soma) is controlled and proportioned for every individual. This is happening
under the realm of chandra (moon) along with the constellations or the stars
(nakShatra). The constellations and their positions in the horoscope of an
individual are like the baffles and filters which controls the soma or the flow of
Consciousness to the individual in unique way. Thus the moon (chandra)
executes his dominance with the stars (nakShatra).
The word kShetra means a domain or an area with a specific layout. This
kShetra is formed by the constellations or nakShatra. The two words
nakShatra and kShetra are related. nakShtra means the personality who is
constructing the kShetra or the field that will govern the creatures.
2.2.17 (dik-direction and apwater)

In addition to nakShatra, the other two personalities of the Universal

Consciousness who take part in the domination exercised by the lunar plane
or chandra are the directions (dik) and ap (water). The directions are the
inclinations of the flowing Consciousness or praaNa. Based on the directions
or the vectors, the shape or form of a formation is fixed. Something is long,
something is round, someone is sensitive, someone is dull; all these forms are
different due to the actions of dik or directions or tendency of praaNa.
We have already discussed the function of ap earlier. The regulation of the
Consciousness through the moon, constellations and directions are all
embodied in ap (We have mentioned earlier that ap or water is the body of
praaNa.) The creation of physicality happens from ap; physicality at the end
dissolves in ap (water) and is recreated from water.
(We have discussed about the directions in the article published in Slideshare
in the following link
or in the link )
2.2.18 The southern fire god---- dakShiNaagni
These controlling aspect of Universal Consciousness consisting of chandra,
nakShatra, dik and ap are the parts of dakShiNaagni (the agni or fire of the
southern or right side. South or right is the direction along which the work is
discharged. dakShiNaagni has been described in Chandogya Upanishad in
the chapter on the seer named upokoshala.(Chandogya Upanishad, 4 th
Chapter, 10th Part.)
2.2.19 puruSha
The essence of oShadhi is puruSha. The word puruSha stands for individual
and etymologically this word conveys all the fundamental characteristics of an
individual or an entity.

puruSha is the individuality in each of us. It is our immaculate and nascent

form. It is nascent but it always exists as our core and immutable form.
On this aspect of Consciousness called puruSha our assertion as I am is
formed. So puruSha is behind our selves and it is our selfless self. puruSha
is the Universal soul fragmented in each of us as our soul. It is the universal
One as many One. It is the Universal Oneness but perceived as the One in
every individual; so it is One but also many as discrete One or fragmented
One. It is something like the results you get when the number 1 is multiplied
by 1 or divided by 1.
This Universal soul as many souls is also termed as anu aatmaan or pratyak
aatmaan in the Vedas and other texts. The Universal soul as the Universal
One is called aKshara aatmaan. aKshara means who does not decay or
immutable. We feel aKshara is us as our soul (anu aatman). Other than the
word aatman for soul there is a word nija in Sanskrit which carries the sense
of anu aatman or puruSha in us. It conveys the sense of assertion less self.
When we feel our self it is always assertive, like I am a man, I am happy etc.
It is the feeling beyond this assertion. There cannot be any feeling, any action
of Consciousness without soul, nija or purusha. If you are not there, who
will see, who will listen? But this nija or puruSha is beyond the self, self
without any assertion or attribution and it is immutable, does not decay or
The word puruSha can be etymologically explained as below:
puruSha = puru (many)+ sha (fragmented) > the One fragmented into many.
puruSha= pu (purifying) + ruSha (urge) > who is purifying or cleaning by the
urge of Oneness
puruSha = purvam (beforehand) + {O()shat} (burnt) > who has burnt the sins
beforehand (this is an explanation from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad).
Thus the Universal One, the Universal soul, who is the central theme
everywhere and in every entity, is as puruSha or individual in each of us. The

same One as many One. So, the sap of oShadhi is puruSha. oshadhi is
carrying the urge of puRuSha.
When we find the puruSha in us, who is our soul, we see the Oneness in us
and all the sins are burnt. The root of the sins is the duality or knowing
everything as different from the self or (more correctly) soul. Every sin is a
form of death. Death is the mother of all sins. Thus the Rishis have said,
..neha(not here) naanasti (difference is) kinchana (not at all); mRitoh (from
the death) sa (he) mRityum(to the death) gachhati(goes) ya(who) iha(here)
naaneva(difference/duality) pashyati(sees)------not here difference is existing
at all ! From the death he goes to death, he who sees the dualities. (Katha
Thumbs measuring ( a~NguShTha maatra) puruSha
purusha has been described as a~NguShTha maatra puruSha meaning the
puruSha whose measure is just as the thumb.
Here are hymns from Upanishad:

a~NguShTha (thumb) maatrah(only) purusho(puruSha) madhya

(inside) atmani (the being) tishthati (is existing)

Ishano (controller) bhUta (of what has been created) bhavyasa (what will be) n
(do not) tato (from HIM/purusha) bijugupsate (shy away).
aetat vai (this is) tat (that)
puruSha, just as much a thumb, is inside the being
(HE) is the controller of the all those have been created and all those
which will be.
Dont shy away from HIM. This is that. (kaTha Upanishad, 2/1/12).

a~NguShTha (thumb) maatrah(only) purusho(puruSha) jyotiriva (like a

iluuminated form)) adhUmaka (smokeless)

Ishano (controller) bhUta (of what has been created) bhavyasa (what will be)

sa aeva (HE is) adya (the present) sa u(also HE is) shva (the future)
aetat vai (this is) tat (that)
puruSha just as much a thumb is like a smokeless flame
(HE) is the controller of the all those have been created and all those
which will be
HE is the present and HE is also the future.
This is that. (kaTha Upanishad, 2/1/13).
2.2.20 vaak
The essence of puruSha is vaak. This is because vaak is the faculty by which
the Universal soul dissects Himself/ Herself into many individuals or multiple
souls or puruSha. Every individual, every creation, every definition of
Consciousness is the creation by vaak.
2.2.21 Rik
The essence of vaak is Rik. When everything and everyone is perceived or
known as made by vaak, collectively or as a whole it is called Rik.
The entire universe, the entire creation, is from the word; it is from the
speaking personality of the Universal Consciousness. This universal orator,
this speaking Consciousness is Rik
Ri = to flow or to flow to become positive. The word Rita and satya both means
the truth. But, there is a difference between the two words. Rita means the
un-manifested truth and satya means what is positive or what is realized. The
alphabet ka is the first consonant of Sanskrit language. Consonants are also
known as vya~njana varNa. The word vya~njana means manifesting and
the word varNa means both alphabet as well as colour. So, Rik means the
personality of Consciousness ready to become manifested and this happens
by the faculty of Consciousness called vaak. Thus the spirit of Rik is vaak.
2.2.22 saama

The essence of Rik is saama. saama is the equality or the sameness. This is
the state before the creation or differentiation from Oneness. In saama,
everything, every entity is there but in sameness. It is from saama
individuals are created by vaak or Rik. This faculty of creating individual is
called vaak. In an individual this faculty is called vaak and as a whole or as
personality of universal consciousness this is called Rik. Like from a piece of
wood parts can be cutoff and shaped into different forms, similarly Rik or
vaak shapes praaNa (or saama) into creation. If the different forms made of
wood, knows that they are wood, then they are perceiving saama. Here every
one can perfectly co-exist!
Thus saama has been addressed as sadhu in Chandogya. sadhu means noble
and etymologically it means who can perform straight away or successfully. If
there is sameness, if there is harmony, there is success.
So, Chandogya has mentioned: vaageva (vaak is) Rik(rik), pranaha(praaNa is)
saama aetat (this) mithunam (couple/conjugation) yat (what is) vaak
cha(and) praaNah(praaNa) cha(and) Rik (Rik) cha (and ) saama cha(and);
vaak is the Rik, praaNa is the saama; this that couple who are vaak
and praaNa or Rik and saama.
2.2.23 udgItha
The essence of saama is udgItha. ud is ut or up. gI means song and is
connected to the word gir meaning word or flowing stream of words. tha
means sthiti or stability or state of rest. Whatever Universal Consciousness
becomes, HE or SHE remains same and above everything. The couple vaak
and praaNa lose the duality in Oneness of udgItha.
In our every moment, in every sense and feeling, we are being created in that
form at that moment by the union of vaak and praaNa, Rik and saama.
Subsequently we change, go to another moment or another form. The previous
form goes back to udgItha. This is always happening in electrifying speed.
They (vaak and praaNa) are singing out of joy.

Upanishad has addressed udgItha also as mukhya praaNa or principal

praaNa, i.e. life of life or the life beyond death. Here there is no blemish of
2.2.24 udgaana---the song that lifts us.
When Consciousness is realized in physicality, it becomes spoken word or
words articulated. This physical universe which we are perceiving is the
articulated words of the Universal Consciousness.
The word gI is the root word of gaana in Sanskrit. gaana means song.
gaa means to call or get something. The sense which the word call conveys
is very much in the word gaana in Sanskrit. It means to call something by
singing, to materialize something by singing; to invoke.
Thus udgItha takes us up, above, beyond the death, beyond the duality by
singing, by calling. (Probably the word call has its root in the word time
(kaala) or call of the Universal Consciousness.
Upanishad has said that the couple saama and Rik or praaNa and vaak
remain attached to udgItha and they are the singers who perform the songs of
udgItha. Such song that takes us beyond death, such a call, is called
udgaana and the singer is called udgaataa. By knowing vaak and praaNa
and udgItha, the seers who were able to sing udgaana were also called
Here are a few quotes on the couple vaak and praaNa or Rik and saama.
vaageva (vaak is) Rik(rik), pranaha(praaNa is) saama om iti (this om) aetat
( this) akShram (akSharawho does not decay; alphabet) udgIthah (is
udgItha); tat vai aetat ( certainly this) mithunam (couple/conjugation) yat
(what is) vaak cha(and) praaNah(praaNa) cha(and) Rik (Rik) cha (and ) saama
vaak is Rik, praaNa is saama, this om who does not decay is udgItha;
certainly this couple are vaak and praaNa or Rik and saama.

tat (that) aetat (this) mithunam (couple) om iti (this om) aetasmin (in this)
akShare (immutable One) samsRijyate (samperfectly; sRijyateattached);
yada (when) vai mithunou (in conjugation) samaagachhata (they enter)
apayato (each enables to achieve) vai tou(together) anyonyasya (each others)
kaamam (desire)
So this couple is perfectly attached to the Immutable One called om; it
is like when two enter into conjugation, one fulfils the others desire.
2.2.25 Dawning and raising, the upward direction.
The nature of mukhya praaNa or udgItha is to take us up, beyond the duality
or the death. mukhya praaNa is characterized by upward direction. As the
eternal Consciousness or the mukhya praaNa sends His/Her response to us,
our lives intersected by the multiple cycles of inevitable births and deaths,
start taking a new course. This dawning of eternity, the dawning of the
realization of endless, independent, totally accomplished state of Conscious
existence directs us to a direction called up or Urdha.
We look up for the heaven.
We look up for the hope.
We look up for the sun.
The external center of praaNa, is the sun in the external sky and is the source
of vision as well as time. Chandogya has cited that by rising the sun removes
the darkness and fear. So, sun is the udgItha.
2.2.26 The sun and the assimilation: aditya and adana
The sun is called aditya meaning who is characterized by the non-duality or
who is characterized by oneness. {(aditya> son of aditi; aditi= a(without) + diti
(duality).} Also the word aditya is from the root word adana or eating. It
implies assimilation or converting all dualities into oneness. This action of

assimilation we experience as time and along the course of time we change

and evolve; we move up, we move toward our source.
The rise of the sun is called udaya. udaya = ut(ud) + ayana (movement)---the movement of ud or the advent of udgItha. The personality of this advent,
the personality of the dawn is the goddess UShaa.
2.2.27 The physical centre of praaNa
The sun who is the lord of our planetary system, is the revelation of praaNa
in the external sky. Thus prashnoponishad has quoted:
aditya(the sun) ha vai(is certainly) bhahya(external) praaNah(praaNa)
udayati hi (by rising) aeShah(hethe sun) aenyam(in this) chaakShuShaM
(eye) praaNam(the praaNa) anugRihanah(takes along with)--prashnopanishad-3/8.
The sun is certainly the praaNa in the external.
As the sun rises he takes along with him the (corresponding) praaNa
who is established in the eyes.

2.2.28 The inner and the outer sun

(svara and pratyaasvara)
Our sense of vision is kindled and supported by the sense of vision of the
universal consciousness. In our planetary system, this is the sun as the
revealed centre. The sense of physical existence, sense of existence in formed
and defined version is directly related to this. The sun in the external sky and
eye or the sense of vision in us are the corresponding centres. We have
explained before that in us this formed and defined sense are happening in
the mind. Thus it is quoted as below citing the sun and the mind:

atha (and now) aetasya (this {divine} manaso (minds) douh(divinity) sharIram
(body), jyotIrUpam asou(that) aditya(sun)----Brihadaranyaka
And now, the divinity is the body of this (divine) mind, the illuminated
form is that sun.
Also it is to be noted that we believe when we see. Thus realization in
physicality happens by the sense of vision. It is the vision which takes the
physical form. Mind is called the third eye or the divine eye.
The advent of the knowledge or vedana (feelings) of the Universal, eternal
consciousness, takes us beyond all darkness, all the fears and the dominance
of death. Thus citing this advent, citing this usher (uShaa), this udaya(rise),
the RiShi has said:
ya (the one who) aeava(like this) asou(that) tapati(warming) tam(he) udgItham
(as udgItha) upasIta (to be worshipped)
udyan (by rising) tamoh(obsession/darkness) bhayam (fear) apahanti
apahanta (remover) vai (thus) bhayasya(fear) tamasya (darkness) ya(who)
abeam(like this) veda(knows)----Chaandogya (1/3/1).
The one who is like this, that one who is warming (us) to be worshipped
as udgItha; by rising he removes the darkness and the fear; the one who
knows (udgItha) like this becomes the remover of fear and darkness (in
The above is the description of praaNa /udgItha in the external (sky/space).
(Here, in the above hymn the rising one is the sun and also the rising one is
the Universal Consciousness rising in us; and our life force or madhayama
praaNa who would not stay without air, water or food, takes the form of
mukhya praaNa, eternal life, praaNa above death and fear, above all
dependence as the SUN rises.)

Chandogya again cited the corresponding description in the internal sky, in

the inner sky or in us as below:
samana (same is) u aeva ayam (this praaNa here) cha asou cha (and thatthe
sun; uShNa (warm) ayam (this praaNa) uShNa asou(warm is that praaNathe
sun); svarah (svara) iti (as) imam(here) achakShate (regarded as) pratyaasvara iti (pratyaa-svara) amum (there).;
tasmat vaa(Thats whay) aetam imam(here this praaNa) amum cha (and there
too) udgItham(as udgItha) upaasIta (to be worshipped).
Same is the praaNa here (in us) and the Sun; this praaNa is warm and
the sun is also warm; here he (praaNa) is regarded as svara, there (in
the sun) is regarded as pratyaa-svara.
svara ---sv (savyam=soul, assertion less self)+ ara (spreading from the centre
like the spokes of a wheel). Consciousness who is One as the soul and who is
one but not one as praaNa, is svara. As the One moves, the One remains One
as the centre and becomes dual. As the One moves, the one creates duality
and holds the duality in the One. This is praaNa. Love cant be there unless
there is Oneness, love cant be there unless there is duality!
(This movement into duality or discreetness is exhibited by the quantum
property of the light. This holding duality in Oneness while becoming dual is
exhibited by the wave property of the light.)
svara also means savyam ranjayati-----colouring one by oneself!
svara also means sound or rather the vowel sound. svara varNa means the
alphabets in Sanskrit which are the vowels. Also varNa means both colour and
alphabet. Thus as the Consciousness becomes active, creates duality from the
Oneness, there is this revelation or colour as well as feeling or the sound.
The Consciousness speaks or reveals as well as listens (shruti )or feels what
Consciousness becomes by revealing. This is why we cannot speak without
listening what we speak.

Thus svara is the immutable soul revealing is us as our spirit, our life our
praaNa. svara is svayam (self/ soul) archana (praising hymns) -----the ONE in
us is singing about the ONE. That song is our life transforming into our
sound i.e. into our definitions and names (naama) and forms (rUpa). What is
happening in each of us, in each individual, in micro, is also happening in
macro as a whole. This is pratya(corresponding)-svara. Thus, (as an example),
rise of the sun is pratya-svara; each of us knows or feels this rise in our
specific way----this is svara.
There is a word in Vedas called archi meaning flame or sparks. The word
archana means hymns and in true sense it means self- illuminated hymns or
the song of the soul.
2.2.29 From the mortality to the eternity
praaNa is active in us as our senses. The hearing, touch, vision, taste and
smell are all praaNa revealed in us. As long as we live (or as long as we know
or feel) without knowing the source, our feelings, knowing or our living is finite
and limited. Thus there is limitation to everything in our life. Also, there is a
termination. The senses decay, the breathing stops. Our vision is limited, we
cannot see everything; our hearing is limited, we cannot hear all the sound
and so on. As we become aware of our source, aware of the Universal
consciousness who is the cause and element of all of us, our controller, we go
beyond the mortality. As long as we are not lifted, as long as udgaana is not
sung, we see the duality and the ending, termination and death. Since,
Consciousness is everything, this realization removes the duality or the
realization reveals that the duality is the duality of Oneness. We have stated
that this universal personality, who is dual as well as one is called praaNa.
Death is the form of Consciousness, Oneness and duality are the forms of
Consciousness. Consciousness means the One whose vision creates the eyes
(faculties of vision), the viewer and the view; whose hearing creates the ears,
the listener and the sound and so on. Thus the Rishis have said---pashyan
(by seeing) chakShuh (the eys), shRinvan (by hearing) karNa (the ears),
jighrana (by smelling) ghraNah (the nose), manvaanoh (by thinking) mannah
(the mind)..

Here is the Consciousness who is independent of everything and on whom

everyone depends; here is the Consciousness who knows everyone and
everything, everyone is created in HIS knowledge.
As long as we dont know, we feel that praaNa is leaving us in our last
moments of the earthly life. We do not know that if praaNa leaves the body, we
leave along with praaNa. This leaving by praaNa is termed as utkramaNa in
the Vedas. Thus Rishis, while addressing praaNa, have cited, .maa(dont)
utkraMI (leave me)----prashnopaniShad; it means when you leave , dont
make me feel that you are departing from me !. We feel so because in all our
living we identify ourselves with our bodies, in spite of the fact that each of us
says my body and does not address the body as I.
2.2.30 udgItha and praNava and om
om is before anything, any action. Thus it is called anuj~naa (permitting)
akShara (alphabet or word). (It may be noted that though akShara means the
one who does not decay or the Universal immutable soul, the word akShara
also means alphabet or forms of vaak. When the puruSha (individual)
described above is realized as One single Universal personality as the root and
controller of the universe, then puruSha is called akShara. We have mentioned
about akShara before.
Thus om is the permission behind anything. No event can occur without om.
In the physical body, this centre providing permission is the forehead and
called aaj~naa (permission) chakra (centre of action).
Thus the time flows with this permission. The word om can be broken into
three alphabets as a + u + m (a) In any action there is a beginning (a), an
existence or continuation (u) and an end (m). In om, these three states or
dimensions of time is in a singularity and from om it is revealed in succession
or with a sequence. Action of time is same as the flow (action) of praaNa.
Thus the word breathing is shvaasa in Sanskrit. shvaasa= shva (time) + as
(to throw) ----the throw or the flow of time.
Thus Upanishad has said:

tena (by om) trayI (three) vidya (faculties of the Consciousness) vartate
(remains active); om iti ashrvayati (by om one is made to hear), om iti shaMsati
(by om one is processed /regulated), om iti udgaayati (by om the udgaan
It is by om the three faculties of the Consciousness is active.
It is by om one listens.
It is by om one is regulated or processed.
It is by om one is taken up to the supreme state (udgItha).
Any action in consciousness, or in every moment of our existence, these three
things are happening. Whenever we feel, sense or know anything, it is
basically listening.
As we listen so we are processed in our Consciousness. Every listening or
every feeling shapes us, changes us.
When a feeling or a sensing is over, we enter into another feeling or another
sense in the next moment. Along with the previous feeling we go back to the
past or to the source. This taking away is ud ----taking up, taking back from
where it originated. Thus in every moment we are returning to our supreme
It may be noted that from the final frozen state of physicality or bhUTa to the
supreme state udgItha the count is nine. This implies nava . nava means new
as well as nine.
2.2.31 The goddess durgaa and navaraatri
This udgItha is worshipped as durgaa or nava durgaa in India. As mentioned
above, in Brihaaranaka Upanishad, durgaa is addressed as the deity dUra
and is mentioned as mukhya praaNa , as mukhya praaNa takes us away
from the death. The word dUra also means distance or away. This also
implies that in the reverse, the Consciousness is creating distance or the

expanding universe. (We have discussed the expansion or inflation of the

universe in the article which can be found in the following link:
From the physicality (bhUta) to udgItha there are eight steps and udgItha is
called aShTama or eighth. udgItha is described as rasanaam rasatamah
aShtama-----mother of all the elixirs and the eighth. The word aShTama
(eight) etymologically also means the one or the state that encompasses
everything or that has gone into everything. The word aShTama can be
broken into aSh +tama. aSh= to go , to move, to shine; tama = a term
indicating superlative form. So, aShTama or the eighth means the one who
has pervaded everything. This aspect of the Universal Consciousness
pervading everything is called viShNu . The word is from the root words vish
meaning to enter and UShmaa (warmth or life). (Thus the birthday of kRiShNa
(who is considered as incarnation of viShNu) is on the 8th phase of the moon
during the month of shraavaNa.)
2.2.32 Ishitva and mukhya praaNa
The evolution of us happens through the control of Consciousness. This
control is termed as Ishitva and the Consciousness is called Ishvara. By this
control, Consciousness as mukhya praaNa takes us beyond darkness and
The senses as the vison, touch etc. in us now make us feel both good and evil,
attractive and repulsive, pleasing and tormenting. They are all characterized
by duality. When we know mukhya praaNa, we find mukhya praaNa as the
source of all the senses, all the activities of Consciousness, all the forms of
praaNa; then we find the One in all the duality. Thus no one remains to defeat
us. The death dissolves in Oneness.
2.33 deva---deity and asura

The senses, the feelings which orient us or help to orient us toward divinity
are in the control of devas (deva) or the deities. Divinity is the plane which is
characterized by the aspect of self / soul revelation. There, one does not need
anything else to get, to do or to achieve anything. There, if you want sweet, it
comes to you as your own revelation and made of you! Not only that, it
happens in an endless eternal manner. This is the plane of self-revelation or
revelation of everything from the soul.
asura means asu + ra~njana; asu means praaNa; ra~njana means hue. It is
the hue or shine of praaNa but the shine covers the source emitting the shine.
Thus in Brihadaranyaka (4/3/14), it is said: aaraamasya (it comforts)
pashyanti(see), na (no) tam (that, the one) pashyati (sees) kashchana(ever)----it (the creature) sees(feels) the satisfaction but never sees the one who satisfies
it . We are obsessed by the shine of praaNa and we do not look for the source
or praaNa who is the shine.
So, these are the two aspects; one community (deva) tuned toward the source
and the other community (asura) tuned outward away from the source. Both
are the manifestation of the Universal Consciousness and are known as
children of prajaapati (lord of the creatures).
Thus our vision is controlled by both the deva and asura, so we see what we
like as well as what we dislike; thus the Upanishads have said that as long as
the praaNa in various forms like vision, hearing, touch etc. remain divided or
known as divided, the eye sees both good and evil, the taste in the tongue
could be delicious or unsavoury and so on. The word du (also dU) is used as
preposition of many Sanskrit words to convey the sense of difficulty, sorrow,
evil, unsavoury etc. this preposition has a bearing with the word dUra
explained below in connection with the goddess durgaa.
Thus duHkha means sadness (duaway; khasky/inner sky---away from the
inner sky); dustha (duaway; sthastanding) means badly placed,
durgandha (duaway; gandhafragrance/smell) means foul smell and so on.
Here, this du(dU) means the distance or away from praaNa and Oneness.
Thus on one hand, the Universal Consciousness is differentiating, creating

distance, expanding. This expansion felt in Oneness is eternity and not seen in
Oneness is void or death. (The word brahma is from the root word bRih
meaning to grow or expand, thereby meaning the expanding or growing
Consciousness.) On the other hand, the Universal consciousness is taking us
back through evolution of ourselves. Thus as, stated above, things are
unpleasant, mortal and fleeting when only the distance or duality is prevailing
on the sense. As mukhya praaNa lifts us above the death, the differentiation
takes a different form. Everything becomes praaNa, blissful. Senses do not
remain good or bad as before. They become good above all good and all bad,
because they are all now the streams of the Oneness!
This has been stated like this in Chandogya:
Each sense is a personality or a deity. We are made of the five senses. These
deities of the senses, like deity of speech, deity of vision, deity of taste etc.
wanted to get rid of the asura aspects in them or wanted to defeat the asura
.These deities were knowing themselves as separate individuals and did not
know the common One (mukhya praaNa) in all of them. They thought the
praaNa who is the faculty of speech is the supreme one or mukhya praaNa.
asura came to know this and defeated them; so when one speaks, the one
speaks both good and bad. Then they worshipped the praaNa who is the
faculty of vision as the mukhya praaNa. Knowing this, asura defeated them; so
when one sees, the one sees both beauty and ugly. Thus one by one, all senses
are defeated and each sense is affected with good and bad. But then they
realized that praaNa who is located in the mouth (mukha) is the mukhya
praaNa (i.e. the eternal source of all the praaNa who are divided among the
senses). (We have explained below why mukhya praaNa is stated to be located
in the mukha or mouth.)
When they know this, the asura are defeated. Then the speech goes above
good or bad, the vision goes above beauty and ugly, the smell goes above
fragrance and foul odour and so on. They no longer are affected by the duality.
They find themselves identified with the mukhya praaNa who is all the aspects
of Consciousness or praaNa or senses in different forms.

2.2.34 As the praaNa lifts:

Elsewhere, Upanishad has mentioned, that if any one of the senses leaves a
creature, the creature can live with the remaining senses. Thus if vision leaves
a person, the person continue to live as a blind person. And this in turn is
true for each of the other senses. With each of the senses leaving the entity,
the entity continues to live without that specific sense. But if mukhya praaNa
leaves, then all the senses or the entity itself has to leave the body or has to
leave its existing state of existence. Thus, all other praaNa, senses cannot
exist without mukhya praaNa.
When the praaNa s or the senses realized this, they crossed over the death.
Thus, when the senses cross over the death or when we cross over the death,
we or our senses which were earlier tarnished by limitation and termination
(death), become eternal.
In the eternity, the words or the faculty of speech, becomes agni the fire; agni
is the self-revealing and all revealing personality of Universal Consciousness;
agni leads every one, agni initiates everyone.(agni= ag>agra (ahead) +nI (to
lead)---who leads in the front.) As agni carries all the oblations, all the
offerings to the deities, agni is called vahni (who carries, who conveys); like the
words convey the messages from one to the other. Revealing, initiating, giving
motion, steering to target are the aspects of praaNa or agni (also called
praNagni ). Like, light and communication are the aspects of Electricity,
similarly revelation and communication are the aspects of this Conscious
Electricity or agni.
In the eternity, the vision becomes the sun, the one whose vision brings the
light to everyone.
In the eternity, the ears or the faculty of hearing become the directions. The
directions that direct or decide how the sounds or the feelings will be taken
inside, how the listening will be assimilated.
In the eternity, the smell becomes the air by whom every one breaths..and
so on!

2.2.35 Mouth and mukhya praaNa

The word mukhya is derived from the word mukh. mukhya means

what is related to mouth (mukh);

principal or chief.

The mouth or face embodies all the sensory organs and is the embodiment of
the five senses. Also, from the mouth the words are coming out, the words
which are being created by the union of praaNa and vaak as mentioned
The word mukha can be broken as mu + kha. The word mu means from
where something sprouts. Thus mukula means a bud.
The word kha means the space, sky or the domain. (Like khaga means who
goes or flies in the skykha (sky) + ga (to go).)
Thus mouth or mukha means the domain or the space of every entity.
Physically it is the hollow inside the mouth. Every entity belongs to a space or
domain in the Consciousness. So, everyone is known by the face. Everyones
senses or sensory organs are situated on the face. How everyone is placed in
the Consciousness can be read from the face.
Thus Mouth is revealing. Universal consciousness speak the words and from
the words universes are created. This revealing aspect is called agni or the
fire. Thus the Vedas have cited: mukhat (from the mouth) agnih (fire)----The
fire was created from the mouth (Rik Veda ,puruSha sUkta). Here below are
some relevant quotes from Upansihad:

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad(1/1/1), on mukhya praaNa ----vyaattam

(from the open mouth) agnih (agni/fire) vaishvaanara.
From the open mouth (of mukhya praaNa) was created the fire
named vaishvaanara.
vaishvaanara = vaishva means related to vishva or the universe.

vishva = vi (in different directions) + shva (time or breathing)---the

time or the breathing or praaNa (life god) pervading in all directions.
vaishvaanara= vaishva + ana (praaNa, animation) + ara (radius or
spoke of a wheel).
vaishvaanara = who is animating every one , spreading from the
centre like the spokes of a wheel.
Thus from the mouth everything is created. The tongue is flickering,
articulating the words and licking and tasting what is being created. The teeth
are surrounding and guarding, as the words are getting articulated. Tooth is
called danta> dam (dam =to subdue; also, dam= abode) + ta (tail or end).
Thus, danta means those who are creating the domain or space (region of
domination) at the final stage during creation. The lips are kissing every word
during articulation. The kiss is called chumbana and the related word
chumbaka means kisser as well as magnet. Thus every word is kissed and
created with a magnetic field while the word is in transition to be articulated
and expressed in physicality. Where the word is condensed as seed in vaak, it
is vajra. vajra is thunder or electricity and as it starts flowing, breaking, into
meaning and form, it is vraja (means movement). Thus the words for
electricity and magnetic field are vajra and vraja respectively. As the
Consciousness creates to become duality, Consciousness attracts every such
dual entity to hold the entity back simultaneously. This attraction field
constitutes vraja (where kRiShNa pastured his cows and roamed with the
Gopees). This vraja is the characteristic of praaNa where oneness and duality
2.2.36 aayasya praaNa
mukhya praaNa is also addressed as aayaasya praaNa. The word aayasya
means related to aasya. ayaasya is an adjective derived from the noun
aasya. aasya also means face or mouth. It is from the root word aas
which means to exist and carries the sense of the English word is. Thus
Chandogya while addressing mukhya praaNa as aayasya praaNa has

explained the meaning of aayasya as aasyat (from the mouth) yat(who) ayate
(moves or comes out). Thus it implies the One whose moving around is
creating the existence of every one. (The word ayate is the verb form of the
word ayana which also means periodical motion or periodicity. Thus is
Chandi, there is a line as below:
vaartaa (message / sense of presence or existence) cha (and) sarva (the
whole / everywhere) jagatam(world) paramaartti (extreme anguish) hantRi

You are the message everywhere around the world

You are the killer of the extreme anguish.


You are the sense of existence in every one in the whole world
You are the killer of the extreme anguish.

2.2.37 durgaa and mahiShaasura

Goddess durgaa kills mahiShaasura. The word mahiSha means mahi +Sha.
mahi = greatness or attribution to a personality; thus mahi is the definition or
characteristics of an individual.
Sha: the Sanskrit alphabet Sha ( ) denotes fragmentation .
Thus the word mahiSha means an individual with his own definition and
fragmented from the Universal ONE.
We have explained the meaning of the word asura earlier. Accordingly,
mahiShasura means,mahiSha + asura= one who is identifying oneself as a
separated individual from the Universal ONE and this individuality has
obscured the Universal One who is the soul of every entity.
Thus killing of the demon mahiShasura means the advent of the Universal
One in us and we start identifying ourselves with the Universal

It may be noted that in the hymns to durgaa, it is mentioned that she is

pressing mahiShaasura by the thumb of her foot (angushTham
mahiShopari---the thumb is on the mahiSh). This thumb is the puruSha
described as thumb like as mentioned in the section 2.2.19 of this article.
This assertion less self or the soul is dominating over the assertive I or I am
(aham). The individual identity finds its root in the purusha and realizes that
this purusha is also the universal soul. Thus mahiShaasura is killed.
2.2.38 ashvamedha yaj~na, ashva, mukhya praaNa
Brihadaranyaka Upanisahd has mentioned that when mukhya praaNa lifts the
human beings above the death, mukhya praaNa assumes the name ashva.
The animal horse is also termed as ashva because it like praaNa has the
habit of running and is extremely dynamic and sturdy. Most of the time a
horse remains on its four feet and ready to move. As praaNa in the form of
senses and sensory organs pulling us and our body, so a horse pulls the cart.
There may be many more subtle things in this animal behind the reason of
naming it as ashva.
Now if you remember, while explaining the word vaishvaanara, we have
explained the word shva which means breathing as well as it means time.
Thus the word shva means breathing or life or praaNa the Consciousness,
who is flowing in us as our life streams and who is clocking in us as our time
or age, who is pulsing in us as our heart beats and flow of blood in our veins.
The praaNa, time is running everywhere as the omniscience time, as life
animating everyone. The periods like day and night, months and seasons,
creation and annihilation are created as a result. praaNa is pulling the chariot
called body; the horses are the sensory organs and other organs which are
created from praaNa and activated by praaNa.
Thus ashva means aya (to move) +shva (praaNa) = the moving praaNa or the
moving (conscious) time.
ashva also means ayam (that or here comes) shva(praaNa). Thus praaNa is
coming, running toward us in every moment!

The word medha is from the root word medh, midh or mith. It means what is
formed as a result of mixing or mithuna (from the root word mith) or
assimilation. It is the knowledge, animation, enhancement of personality or
enhancement of the core due to the assimilation of divinity through the
regulation (shasana) by praaNa.
Every moment whatever we are getting through the senses, through the
sound, touch, light etc. they are part of the Universal Consciousness.
Consciousness, praaNa, veda, flowing from the Universal One to each
individual. This is getting assimilated in us and is becoming our medha.
Thus there is this hymn to durgaa
medhaasi (you are the medhaa) devi (goddess) vidita (known) akhil (all the )
shastrasaaraa (essence of scriptures)
durgaasi (you are durgaa) durga(from the difficulties) bhava-saagara (of the
ocean of the mortalities) nour (navigate) asangaa (immaculate)
You are the medhaa by which the essence of all the scriptures can be known
You durgaa immaculate, navigate us the difficulties in the sea of mortalities
We are running every moment after sound, touch, vision, taste and smell. We
do not know that the source of any sense in us is the Universal Consciousness
who is in us as our Consciousness as our life. What is there outside is also
inside us. Every sense is being felt inside. In the Consciousness inside and
outside are held together. What we perceive as the external universe from
which the stimulations are entering in us as the sound, light etc. is not just
the external universe. It is the Universal Consciousness who is coming in us
as our senses, as vision, as touch etc. in every moment.
As we know the source of all the senses, our running gets tuned to the source.
Whether we move in or move out, we know we are moving in the
Consciousness. Thus the running horses slows down and ultimately stop
running. The source and the senses those are coming out of the source are
the same Consciousness. External world and the inner world (or inside) are

the same and two forms of Consciousness. As the duality goes out, the sense
of external as well as internal are realized as the two forms of the same
Consciousness. This is the killing of the horse in the ritual of ashvamedha. In
Oneness it is running as well as no running. The perceiver looks at the soul to
get anything and does not have to work or strive for anything. The word medh
or mith also means killing. The separate existence no longer exists when the
isolated self merges in mukhya praaNa or the Universal Consciousness.
The word medha means sap as well as skill. It is the sap and the skill we
get as the mukhya praaNa steps in us.
We have mentioned earlier, with the advent of mukhya praaNa, the horses or
the sensory organs becomes divine, the eyes becomes the divine vision or the
sun, the smell becomes the divine life or the air who is breathed by everyone,
the sound or the listening becomes directions and so on.
2.2.39 nava durgaa, navamI, animal sacrifice and ashvamedha
durgaa pUja (worship of the goddess durgaa) is performed in the month of
ashvina which is the month of ashva or praaNa.
This is the month of autumn season in India and the autumn is called sharad
which also means the month of sharaNa or the month of shelter. During this
season, the earth becomes affluent and fertile after being washed by the
monsoon rain. It is as if the sky or the heaven has descended on the earth
making it full of fertility and life. Every season is connected with a state of the
Universal Consciousness. Autumn or sharad belongs to kShiti (abode, earth,
soil) tattva (pure or absolute state) and gandha (odour) tanmaatraa.
(tanmaatraa means maatraa or degree of tattva).
The tanmaatraa of earth or physicality is gandha or smell. This is also
expressed by the earth and the fragrance which the flowers and plants give
out. We have earlier explained gandha and the stability of a living being in the
section titled Olfactory sense, odour or gandha and the breathing.

Thus autumn is the ideal time that is conducive to realize how the absolute
Consciousness can become stark physicality. Thus during this time, the idol of
the goddess durgaa made out of clay is worshipped.
The festival of nava (nine/new) raatri (nights) and the durgaa pUja commence
after the new moon of the month of ashvina.
During the ninth phase of the waxing moon, on the titithi (phase) of navamI
(ninth), the goddess durgaa is offered with sacrifice. In this sacrifice, the
animal /human instincts are sacrificed. (Human beings have been stated in
the Upanishad as the animals under the control of the deities.) As a result the
instincts of the one who is sacrificed are converted into divine instincts. The
sacrificed being or the sacrificed animal no longer lives driven by the instincts
of the duality, decay, want and death.
Thus during the ritual of the sacrifice, the mantras, which are chanted,
mention that the Sun, Water, Air which are now deities, they were earlier
animals. They have become deity by performing the sacrifice. The word for
sacrifice is yaj. yaj means to sacrifice, to worship, to consecrate etc. It
actually means, ya + ja.
ya is an antashta { (anta = inside) + stha (situated) } consonant; it is inbound;
it is classified as semi vowel and aprroximant consonant. The yama derived
from the word ya means the act of controlling or restraining.
The alphabet ja is similar to ya but it is outbound.
ja implies janma or generation or birth.
Thus yaja means action which reveals the connection between ya and ja. It
reveals the connection between the creature (ja) and the regulation (ya) that
controls the creature. The one who is generated or created is controlled by the
divinity. The creature is the expression of divinity. Divinity is characterized by
the self-revealing Consciousness. As Consciousness creates, the creature is
separated as an individual, at the same time Consciousness controls or
regulates the creature. This regulation is the divinity and by this regulation
one day the creature finds itself back in the divinity. Thus the by the acts of

yaja those one who were having animal or human instincts are transformed
into divine beings. They no longer live within the boundary of mortality. They
no longer live with limited life, with limited senses, with an identity isolated
form the source who is eternal.
Thus when during the navamI pUjaa, the followings are some of the mantras
chanted addressing the animal to be sacrificed:
agni (agni) pashuraasIt (was an animal)
tena (by him) ayajanta (sacrifice was performed)
sa (he) aetam(this) lokam(plane or abode) ajayat(conquered / gained) yasmin
agnih(where agni is located)
sa (that) te(yours) lokoh (abode) bahabishati (will be)
agni (the divine fire) was an animal
The yajana (noun form of yaja) or sacrifice was performed by him
(Thus) he gained this abode where is located the divine fire
That will be your abode too
sUrya (the sun) pashuraasIt (was an animal)
tena (by him) ayajanta (sacrifice was performed)
sa (he) aetam(this) lokam(plane or abode) ajayat(conquered / gained) yasmin
sUrya (where the sun is located)
sa (that) te(yours) lokoh (abode) bahabishati (will be)
sUrya (the sun) was an animal
The yajana (noun form of yaja) or sacrifice was performed by him
(Thus) he gained this abode where is located the sun
That will be your abode too

vaayu (the god of air) pashuraasIt (was an animal)

tena (by him) ayajanta (sacrifice was performed)
sa (he) aetam(this) lokam(plane or abode) ajayat(conquered / gained) yasmin
vaayu (where the god of air is located)
sa (that) te(yours) lokoh (abode) bahabishati (will be)
vaayu (the god of air) was an animal
The yajana (noun form of yaja) or sacrifice was performed by him
(Thus) he gained this abode where is located vaayu (the god of air)
That will be your abode too
Thus the animal is raised to the divine plane.
We the human beings are considered as pashu or animals (cattles) of the
We are lifted to the divinity by mukhya praaNa and this is the significance of
sacrifice or valI. It does not require the slaughter of an animal.
Thus Guru has said: valaaya (for the strength) valIr(valI) uchyate(it is said)----It is said that the valI is for vala (strength). Once you are elevated to
divinity, you gain the control over the physical world. You yourself is no longer
subjected to compulsory cycles of birth and death and you get emancipation
from the dependence on others (duality) for your survival.
2.2.40 pashu
The word pashu is from the root word pash meaning to see and also to
fasten or to bind. Thus we are bound and controlled by the observation of the
divinity. You may remember, that earlier we explained that the source of
vision and time (regulation) is same and is the sun in our planetary system.
Thus pashu means those who are controlled by the surveillance of the divinity.

Nobody has the right to slaughter an animal unless the one has the knowledge
and consequent power to lift the animal to the divine plane. Only the
udgaataa who can sing like mukhya praaNa can do it. If anybody else
slaughters the animal, the animal may slaughter the killer as per the laws of
2.2.41 Meaning of beheading (shirashCheda)
The word shira means head as well as root. As in a tree the root is below and
the tree stems up from the root, in us, the head is the root and the senses flow
down all the way. Thus beheading means, to dissect or separate the
physicality from the root which is omniscient, omnipotent, self-revealing
Consciousness. The physicality, as per the physiology or the way the body is
structured, is from the neck (kanTha) downward. The head including the neck
is the seat of Consciousness and located above physicality. (It is interesting to
note here that in Japanese language head is the word pronounced as atama
which is very similar to the word aatman meaning soul.)
2.2.42 Throat/ kaNTha
The throat is called kaNTha. It means, kaN + Tha. kaN means to become
small or to fragment. Tha is the aspirated consonant. Consciousness creates
from Consciousness and thus from ONE the fraction is created. This creation
is physicalized or articulated as spoken words. From our throats, the words
are sounded. From the throat of the Universal Consciousness the defined and
formed entities are being created.
Thus above is the significance of shirashCheda or sacrifice by decapitation.
Thus in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, RiShi has cited:
om uShaa (uShaa ) vaa asvasya (of the horse) medhyasya (who is our sap)
shirah (the head). (Brihadaranyaka, 1st chapter)------om, UShaa is the head of
the sacrificial horse!

Thus the rising dawn, the rising uShaa, bringing the eternal light, heralding
the eternity above the death and limitation, is the head of the horse or the
mukhya praaNa who is our sap, who is our core.
2.2.43 yaj~na and pashu
The word yaj~na is related to the word yajana. yaj~na also normally means
sacrifice , worship etc. etymologically it means,
ya (control)+ j~na (knowing, knower). The word j~na ( ) sounds like know.
It means the knower or the one who is knowing. Action of the Consciousness
means to know. Any action in Consciousness is an act of knowing.
Consciousness remains immutable, unchanged in the core and
simultaneously is becoming everything by being active. This remaining still in
the core is j~na and being active is ana or praaNa. Thus the knowledge is
called j~naana i.e. j~na (, knower/the immutable soul/puruSha) + ana
(praaNa, animation, flow of shakti ).
In this context, yaj~na means the control or regulation by knowing. Thus
the motion of the earth, the periodicity of the time, the events of the universe
are all held in the knowledge of the Universal consciousness and being
regulated by the process of knowing. We in tur are living in our knowledge.
Thus a question was answered by the great sage named yaaj~navalkya as
Question (by shaakalya): katamah (what is) yaj~nah (yaj~na)?
(Question) What is yaj~na?
Answer (by yaaj~navalkya): pashavah(the animals) iti.
(Answer) The animals. (the word pashavah is the plural form of the word
pashu ).
So, the yajana or the yaj~na without pashu or without the animals cannot
exist. In every action mukhya praaNa is lifting everyone who is in the realm of
duality to the Oneness, to the state above duality.

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (1/1/2) has said, when mukhya praaNa lifts:


mukhya praaNa is called haya when he lifts the deities above the


mukhya praaNa is called vaajI when he lifts the gandharva s above
the death;


mukhya praaNa is called arvaa when he lifts the asura s above the
death. (In this context it is interesting to note that the name Assyria is
originated from the word asura and the name Arab seems to be from


mukhya praaNa is called ashva when he lifts the human beings above
the death

And, so these are the mantras addressed to the sacrificial animal:

yaj~naarthe (for the sake of yaj~na) pashavah (animals ) sRishtvaa (are
yaj~naarthe (for the sake of yaj~na) pashu (an animal) ghaatanam (is
atohstam (now you) ghaatayaShyami (I will slaughter)
tasmaat (thats why) yaj~ne (in the yaj~na) badhah (slaughter) abadhah (is not
the slaughter).
Animals are created for the sake of yaj~na
An animal is slaughtered for the sake of yaj~na
And now I will kill you
Thats why in yaj~na slaughter turns out to be not a slaughter.

mahishaasura is killed during the pUjaa (worship) of navamI. This is becoming

new, ever new; no more decay, no more obsession, no more want.
Consciousness gets Consciousness in ever newness.
Thus udgItha is addressed by the single word om and om is also called
praNava meaning who makes us perfectly (pra) new (nava).
In this newness nothing decays. Nothing becomes worn and fade. Thus the
acknowledgement to this is addressed to the Mother Consciousness in the
following hymns of the veda.
jaatavedase (for the jataveda) sunavama (perfectly new) somam (soma)
araati (the adversities) atoh(these) ni (completely) dahati (burn) veda(the
sah (she) nah(us) parShadati(navigate) dUrgaani(difficulties) vishvaa(world)
naavebha (like the ship) sindhum(across the sea) duritaatyagni (from what is
difficult to reach, oh agni)
For jaata-veda (who generates by knowing and who knows what is
generated) we have made the soma perfectly new
Let she completely burn the knowledge that creates adversities
Let she sail us across the difficulties of the world
Like a ship is navigated over the sea, let agni take us away from all the