‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪http://www.gisclub.net/vb/showthread.php?t=3513‬‬
‫ﺸﺭﺡ ﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻻﻴﺭﺩﺍﺱ )ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ( ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺎ ﻭ ﺃﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺸﻌﺒﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻭﻨﻅﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ERDAS IMAGINE‬‬
‫‪-:Erdas imagine‬‬
‫‪Erdas imagine 8.4‬‬

‫‪program‬‬

‫‪Start‬‬

‫‪-:‬‬
‫‪ERDAS IMAGINE 8.4‬‬
‫‪Help‬‬

‫‪Utility‬‬

‫‪viewer‬‬

‫‪Tool‬‬

‫‪Main‬‬

‫‪Session‬‬

‫‪-:‬‬

‫‪Tools bar:-‬‬

‫‪zoom in‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬

‫‪remove‬‬

‫‪print‬‬

‫ﻟﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺸﻴﺭ‬

‫‪save‬‬

‫‪data‬‬

‫‪Zoom out unzoom tools‬‬

‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪Open close‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺒﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻡ‬

‫‪Help‬‬

‫‪File Edit‬‬
‫‪Set unit‬‬
‫‪Length‬‬
‫‪Areo‬‬

‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻭل ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﻭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪lat‬‬

‫‪lon‬‬

‫‪Lat-lon‬‬

‫‪Projection: utm‬‬
‫‪Sphraid: helmet‬‬
‫‪old Egyptian 1907‬‬

‫‪Date:‬‬

‫*ﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ‪-:‬‬
‫@ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪-:‬‬

‫‪raster layer‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ‬

‫‪OK‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫‪open‬‬

‫‪Select layer to add‬‬
‫‪Raster option‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫‪Look in‬‬

‫‪Reset‬‬
‫‪Cancel‬‬

‫@ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻗﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ ‪Utility:‬‬‫‪1-Inquire cursor‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ‪2-Inquire box‬‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ‪ Lat-Lon‬ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺄﺭﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻭ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺨﻁ ﻁﻭل ﻭ ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﻨﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪Apply‬‬
‫‪3-Inquire color‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻭﻥ ‪ box‬ﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻩ‬
‫‪4-Measure‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ‬

‫ ‪View (from menu bar):‬‬‫ﻹﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺼﻭﺭ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ‪1-Arrange layer‬‬
‫‪File‬‬
‫‪New‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪Vector layer‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬

‫‪OK‬‬
‫‪Double‬‬

‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻑ‬

‫‪Single‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺭﻴﺩ ﻅﻬﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺜﻡ ﺃﻀﻐﻁ ‪ Apply‬ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ ‪.Windows‬‬
‫‪Vector‬‬
‫‪Klon‬‬

‫‪Apply‬‬

‫*ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻤل ‪ over lap‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ‪link‬‬
‫ﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ overlap‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻨﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﺭ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬

‫‪Select to picture 1 Ok‬‬
‫‪Select to picture 2‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬

‫‪Open‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬

‫‪1-File‬‬
‫‪2-File‬‬

‫‪3-Select on raster option‬‬

‫‪File Raster option‬‬

‫ﺃﺯﻴل ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺜﻡ ﺃﻀﻐﻁ ‪ok‬‬

‫‪4-Select on clear display‬‬

‫‪Clear display‬‬

‫‪OK‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻓﺄﺨﺫ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ‪5-‬‬
‫ﺇﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪top‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍل‬
‫‪7‬‬‫ﺇﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻀﻐﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫‪Delete layer‬‬
‫‪Apply‬‬
‫‪8‬‬‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺜﻡ‬
‫‪File New‬‬
‫‪Vector layer Give the new file name Ok‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻭ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺒﺄﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪Arrang layer‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬

‫‪Apply‬‬

‫*ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍل ‪vector‬‬
‫‪Ok‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪Tools‬‬

‫‪Vector‬‬

‫‪6-‬‬

‫*ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫)‪(from menu bar‬‬
‫‪Swip‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫‪horizontal‬‬

‫‪Utility‬‬

‫‪Overtical‬‬

‫ﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺎ ‪.Overtical‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺃﺴﻴﺎ ‪.horizontal‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻡ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻜﻤﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ‪.‬‬

‫*ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‪-:‬‬
‫‪1-File‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬
‫‪Select to picture 1‬‬
‫‪Ok‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺼﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻷﻴﺴﺭ‬
‫‪2-File‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬
‫‪Select to picture 2‬‬
‫‪Ok‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ﻭ ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻘﺎﺒﻠﻴﻥ‬
‫‪3-Go to first picture and open this icon‬‬
‫‪ view‬ﺜﻡ ‪from toolbar‬‬
‫‪link/unlink viewer‬‬
‫‪Geography‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﺫﻫﺏ ﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻀﻐﻁ‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‪/‬ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‬

‫ ‪In the menu bar:‬‬‫‪View‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪Scale‬‬

‫‪Scale tool‬‬

‫‪1- View‬‬

‫‪Scale‬‬
‫‪0000.000‬‬
‫‪Apply‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻨﻭﻀﺢ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﻨﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻭﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺜﻡ‬
‫‪ Apply‬ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪2-View‬‬

‫‪Rotate‬‬

‫‪Rotation angle‬‬
‫‪Counter‬‬
‫‪Clock‬‬

‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻜﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫‪North arrow‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻟﻠﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ‪Scale bar‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻴﻭﺍﺯﻯ ﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬

‫‪View‬‬

‫‪View‬‬

‫‪200‬‬

‫‪meter‬‬
‫‪0‬‬

‫‪2500‬‬

‫ ‪The raster of tools:‬‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺁل ‪ raster‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‪-:‬‬
‫‪Tool‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ‬

‫)‪Raster (from of menu‬‬
‫‪Arrow‬‬
‫ﻟﻺﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫‪Polygon‬‬

‫ﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ‪Line‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺸﻜل ﻟﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪Reshape‬‬
‫ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺨﻁ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻤﻪ ‪Cut‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺭﺠﻭﻉ ﻟﻠﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ‪Undo‬‬
‫ﻟﻌﻤل ﻨﺴﺦ ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭ ‪Copy‬‬
‫‪Paste‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫ﻟﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ‪Smooth‬‬

‫ﻟﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﺎﺩﺓ ‪Sharp‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻓﻠﺘﺭ ﻴﻁﻤﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻓﻠﺘﺭ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﺘﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻭ ﺘﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﻭﻴﻥ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﻤﺜل ‪line‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﻤل‬

‫‪attribute editor‬‬
‫‪Color‬‬
‫‪Ok‬‬

‫‪ click‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪Edit‬‬

‫‪Forground‬‬

‫‪Color‬‬

‫‪Forground‬‬
‫‪Width‬‬

‫‪Color‬‬

‫‪Background‬‬
‫‪Width‬‬

‫‪Apply‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻟﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻤﻪ ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻩ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻀﻐﻁ ‪.apply‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺘﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺤﺴﻥ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Layer1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪Layer2‬‬

‫‪Red‬‬
‫‪Green‬‬
‫‪Blue‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪Layer3‬‬
‫‪Apply‬‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍل ‪ layer‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺒﻬﺎ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﻻﻓﻀل ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻲ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪histogram‬‬

‫‪histogram equel‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻲ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ )‪.(255-0‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺘﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺎﻤﻕ‬
‫ﻭ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻐﻤﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪apply‬‬

‫ ‪Vector of tools:‬‬‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍل ‪vector‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬

‫‪Vector or layer‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫‪New‬‬
‫‪Point‬‬
‫‪Curser‬‬
‫‪Line‬‬

‫‪To choose any color to line‬‬
‫‪Select‬‬
‫‪Undo‬‬
‫‪Cut‬‬
‫‪Copy‬‬

‫‪Paste‬‬

‫‪٨‬‬

Reshape

*Anlayes of draing battern: format ‫ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺢ ﻀﻭﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﺩﺨﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺏ‬scane ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﻤل‬-١
2-we choose the icon import
from menu bar of erdas
imagen
‫ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬import ‫ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ‬-٣
Import

Export

type
Arc Inter change to cover
media
File
input

output

.‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻪ‬
‫ ﻭ ﻋﻤل‬import ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬-١
.arc inter change to coverage ‫ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬type ‫ﻓﻲ‬-٢
.file ‫ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬media ‫ﻓﻲ‬-٣
-:‫*ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬
1-Open the icon of viewer from menu bar
File New Vector We choose the image with transform
‫ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬Ok
2-Ok
Double
3- ‫ ﻟﻸﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬digitize ‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل‬

٩

‫‪4-Save‬‬
‫‪5-Close this picture‬‬
‫‪6-Open icon of vector from menu bar and choose first (clean)/‬‬
‫‪secand built‬‬
‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ‪ vector‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪.clean‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺎ ‪First Clean‬‬
‫‪Ok Feature Line‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪Ok‬‬
‫) ‪( HHHH‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ clean‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪Ok‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪Line‬‬
‫‪Ok‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪100‬‬

‫)‪(build‬‬

‫‪Secand‬‬

‫‪Feature‬‬
‫‪(HHHH) %‬‬

‫‪OK‬‬

‫ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬
‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ‪ vector‬ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪Ok‬‬

‫‪Resert‬‬

‫‪Open‬‬

‫‪-File‬‬

‫‬‫‪-Enable editing‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ‪ vector‬ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪ Attribute‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪-Edit column attribute‬‬
‫‪New‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ‪Column‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬
‫‪-Title‬‬
‫‪Order‬‬
‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍل ‪Column‬‬
‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪-Type String‬‬
‫ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ‪-Width 12‬‬
‫*ﻋﻤل ﺘﺭﻗﻴﻡ ﻟﻜل ﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬
‫‪-Vector Tool‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫‬‫ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ select‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺭﻴﺩ ﻋﻤل ﺘﺭﻗﻴﻡ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫*ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ )‪ (order‬ﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪ formal‬ﺜﻡ ﺃﺭﻗﻡ ﻜل ﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ﺜﻡ ‪apply‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬
‫*ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ vector‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪symbology‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪ order‬ﻭ ﻀﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ‪ok‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻻﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻜل ﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻟﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫*ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺃﺒﺩﺍ ﺘﻠﻭﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ‪ other‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ‪.ok‬‬
‫*ﺜﻡ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻑ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻩ ﻤﺜل ‪.zeze.eys‬‬
‫*ﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-١‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺃﻁﻭﺍل ﻜل ﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ‬
‫‪-٢‬ﻋﺩﺩ ﻜل ﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ‬
‫‪-٣‬ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺽ‬
‫‪-٤‬ﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺽ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ‪ order‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪ report‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﺜﻡ ‪.ok‬‬
‫*ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﺴﻡ ‪.editor‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻀﻐﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ symbology‬ﻭ ﻨﻘﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻪ ﻟﻭﻥ ﻭ ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ‪ color‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪ others‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬
‫ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ‪ width‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ‪.color‬‬

‫‪*from erdas imagen choose this icon‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﻜﻔﻼ ﺘﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺭﺅﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﻭ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ‪imagcinterpertir‬‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺘﺭ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﺨﺭ‬

‫‪Spatial erhorcement‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ‬

‫‪Radiometric enhancamert‬‬

‫‪Crisp‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬

‫‪Spectrial erharcememt‬‬

‫‪Principat comp‬‬
‫‪indeces‬‬

‫‪Hyper spcel‬‬

‫*ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺘﺭ ﻭ ﻟﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻭل‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ crisp‬ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪texture‬‬

‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪spatial enhancement‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪Output‬‬

‫‪Input‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬

‫‪OK‬‬

‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ ﻟﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﻘﺎﺌﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ‪ input‬ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺘﻨﻘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺒل ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ‪ output‬ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺃﺨﺭ ﺜﻡ ﺃﻀﻐﻁ ‪.ok‬‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‪-:‬‬
‫‪Viewer‬‬
‫‪From Erdase Imagen File Open Vector layer‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺒل ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺼﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺃﻓﺘﺢ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ viewer‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺒﺘﺼﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪File‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬
‫‪Resert‬‬

‫*ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻜل ﻓﻠﺘﺭ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‬
‫ﻨﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ‬

‫‪Geometry correction point: -‬‬

‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁ ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ‪-:‬‬
‫‪1-From image to image‬‬
‫‪2-From keyboard‬‬
‫‪3-From image to image‬‬
‫ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺘﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ overlap‬ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫*ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺘﻴﻥ ﻭ ﻨﺭﻴﺩ ﺠﻌل ﺇﺤﺩﺍﻫﻡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ‪ information‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬
‫‪-١‬ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻬﺎ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻨﻔﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ‪ delete map model‬ﺜﻡ ‪ edit‬ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺜﻡ‬
‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍل ‪ ERDAS‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-٢‬ﻨﻔﺘﺢ ‪ raster‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪.Geometric Correction‬‬
‫‪.ok‬‬
‫‪-٣‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪location‬‬
‫‪-٤‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺘﻴﻥ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ close‬ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪.ok‬‬
‫‪-٥‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪Excting viewer‬‬
‫‪.ok‬‬
‫‪-٦‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﻤل ‪ click‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬
‫‪-٧‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬

‫*ﻭ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺨﻤﺱ ﻨﻘﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫*ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‪.‬‬
‫*ﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﻨﻘﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ‪ (R.M.S) column‬ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬
‫ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ CLICK‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﻭ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻻ‬
‫ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﻋﻥ ‪ pixel ٤-٣‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻻﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍل ‪ pixel‬ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﺭ‬
‫‪ 30+30 landsat‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﻋﻥ ‪ pixel ٤‬ﻓﺄﺼﺒﺢ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺨﻁﺄ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺒﻌﺩ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﻤﺘﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫‪2-keyboard:‬‬‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍل ‪ keyboard‬ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻭ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-١‬ﺇﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪tool‬‬
‫‪coordinate caulcation‬‬
‫‪-٢‬ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪.ok‬‬
‫‪projection‬‬
‫‪set input pixel unit‬‬
‫‪-٣‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪custom‬‬

‫*ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ click‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ custom‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ‪.‬‬
‫‪-Projection: lat/lon‬‬
‫‪-Sphroid:‬‬
‫‪helemt‬‬
‫‪-Date:‬‬
‫‪old Egyptian 1907‬‬
‫‪OK‬‬

‫‪-Projection‬‬
‫‪set output‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ custom‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪Projection‬‬
‫‪utm‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻏﻴﺭﺘﻪ‬
‫‪Sphroid‬‬
‫‪helmt‬‬
‫‪Date‬‬
‫‪old Egyptian 1907‬‬
‫‪Zone‬‬
‫‪36‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫*ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻜل ﺭﻜﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪scorcoll‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺭﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ( ‪-Raster‬‬
‫‪Gometrac correction‬‬
‫‪landsat‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫‪keyboard‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‪-:‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل )‪ (copy‬ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ output‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ select‬ﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (x/y‬ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻴﻤﻥ ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ‪ copy‬ﺜﻡ ‪. paste‬‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫*ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻟﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‪/‬ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪1-choose this icon‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪2-edit‬‬
‫‪change projection‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻩ‬
‫‪3-edit‬‬
‫‪add change projection‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺜﻡ ‪. ok‬‬

‫ ‪Subset:‬‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍل ‪ subset‬ﻟﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ ﻭ ﻋﻤل ‪ link‬ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬
‫‪Viewer‬‬
‫‪1-File‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪2-From menu bar choose (AOI‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫‪tool‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺭﻴﺩ ﻗﻁﻌﻪ ﻭ ﻟﻴﻜﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‪3- -:‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬

‫‪ok‬‬

‫‪4-File Save‬‬
‫‪AOI layer as‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪5-From “ERDAS IMAGIN” choose this icon‬‬
‫‪utilities‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺜﻡ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪-:‬‬

‫‪Output‬‬

‫”‪“Image interpreter‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫‪subset‬‬
‫‪Input‬‬

‫ﺍﺩﺨل ﺃﻱ ﺍﺴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﺩﺨل ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬

‫‪AOI‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ‪ input‬ﺃﻀﻊ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ‪ output‬ﺍﺩﺨل ﺃﻱ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﻔل ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ‪AOI‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪file‬‬
‫‪Onone‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﺩﺨل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ sayer‬ﻟﻬـﺎ ﻴﻅﻬـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪%‬‬

‫‪100‬‬
‫‪OK‬‬

‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍل ‪image‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬

‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪From resert‬‬

‫‪Open‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﻗﻁﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﻭ ﻫﻭ ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻘﻁﻌﻪ ﻨﺄﺨﺫ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‪-:‬‬

‫ﺃ‬

‫ﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫*ﻭ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‪-:‬‬

‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ‪ link‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‪-:‬‬
‫‪1-choose this icon‬‬
‫‪from any picture‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺫﻫﺏ ﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﻔل ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪2-view link/unlink‬‬
‫‪geography‬‬
‫ﺃﻀﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺒﻬـﺫﺍ ﻴﺤـﺩﺙ‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫‪ link‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ ‪How to make mosic:‬‬‫‪ ok‬ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ‪rasrer option‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫‪Open‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬

‫‪1-File‬‬
‫‪2-File‬‬
‫‪3-‬‬

‫ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬

‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻨﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻀﻐﻁ ‪ok‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ ‪4-View arrang layer‬‬
‫‪apply‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﻁﻊ ﻭ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻊ ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪5-Raster‬‬
‫‪pixel transparting‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫‪6-Raster‬‬
‫‪contrast‬‬
‫‪standerdevion‬‬
‫‪7-Apply‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺍﺩﺨل ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ arrange layer‬ﻭ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ‬
‫‪8-Raster‬‬
‫‪contrast‬‬
‫‪standerdevion‬‬
‫‪9-Erdas‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻨﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪10-choose this icon‬‬
‫”‪“dataproper‬‬
‫‪dataproper‬‬
‫‪clear display‬‬
‫‪background‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪mosaic image‬‬
‫‪11-Edit‬‬
‫‪addimage‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺜﻡ ‪ add‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ‪add‬‬
‫‪Edit‬‬
‫‪motching options‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻭﺤﺔ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪For all image‬‬

‫‪ok‬‬

‫‪Process‬‬
‫‪runmosic‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻭﺤﺔ ﺃﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻀﻐﻁ ‪) ok‬ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ(‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻭ ﺃﺒﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻴﻙ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﻗﻁﻌﻬﺎ‬

‫‪tool‬‬

‫‪AOI‬‬

‫‪AOI layers‬‬

‫‪Swip‬‬

‫ ‪Unsupervised:‬‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ unsupervised‬ﻋﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ‪ unsuper‬ﻨﺄﺨﺫﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫‪ field‬ﻭ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪From ERDAS choose this icon‬‬
‫”‪“classficat‬‬
‫‪Classification‬‬

‫‪unsupervised‬‬
‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬

‫ﺃﻟﻐﻰ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬

‫‪Input‬‬
‫‪Output‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺍﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪Number of class‬‬
‫‪OK‬‬

‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪raster option‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ok‬‬

‫‪apply‬‬

‫ﻨﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ‬

‫‪color‬‬

‫‪Open‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫‪Raster option‬‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫‪Raster‬‬
‫‪attribute‬‬

‫‪How to make signelure: -‬‬

‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫‪1-File‬‬
‫‪Open‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪2-from menubar choose AOI‬‬
‫‪AOI‬‬
‫‪tool‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫‪From ERDAS choose this icon‬‬

‫”‪“classification‬‬

‫‪signture editor‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬

‫‪Classification‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬

‫‪add‬‬

‫‪Edit‬‬

‫‪Signture color‬‬
‫‪Class1 red‬‬
‫‪Class2 blue‬‬

‫*ﺃﺒﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍل ‪ class‬ﻭ ﻋﻤل ‪ link‬ﺜﻡ ‪ 0‬ﺜﻡ ‪ keyboard‬ﺜﻡ ﺃﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺭﻴﺩﻩ‪.‬‬
‫*ﺍﺩﺨل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫*ﻤﻥ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ‪ signture editor‬ﺜﻡ ‪ edit‬ﺜﻡ ﻋﻤل ‪link‬‬
‫*ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍل ‪ class‬ﻭ ﺃﻟﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫*ﻋﻤل ﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‪-:‬‬
‫‪File‬‬
‫‪save‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ok‬‬
‫‪close‬‬
‫*ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍل ‪ ERDAS‬ﻭ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪classification‬‬
‫‪classification‬‬
‫‪supervised‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬
‫‪Input raster file‬‬

‫‪Output raster file‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬

‫‪Output classification file‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪OK‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل‬
‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫‪%‬‬

‫‪OK‬‬

‫*ﻨﺩﺨل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍل ‪ERADS‬‬
‫‪raster‬‬

‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫‪Open‬‬

‫‪File‬‬

‫‪Spatial modeler‬‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ‪spatial molder‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺍل‬
‫‪. bands‬‬

‫‪١٩‬‬

‫‪From ERDAS image choose this icon‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻓﻼﺘﺭ‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪Spatial enalap‬‬

‫‪Spatial molder‬‬
‫‪Model‬‬
‫‪Model‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺘﺭ ﻭ ﻟﻴﻜﻥ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪Model maken‬‬
‫‪New model‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬

‫*ﻜل ﺸﻜل ﻟﻪ ﻤﺩﻟﻭل ﻤﺜل ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬

‫‪input‬‬
‫‪output‬‬
‫*ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻘل ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﻤل ‪ double click‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺸﻜل ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻜل ﺸﻜل ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪Available input‬‬
‫‪/‬‬

‫= ‪X +‬‬
‫‪1234‬‬
‫‪56789‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

RADAR

*From ERDAS choose this icon
Radar
‫ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬interperter
Edge enhmemol
Input

‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
-:‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

Output
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬

Filter

Direction

ok
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﻬﺎ‬
Processing
%

١٠٠
ok

File

Open

‫ﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬

raster
.‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺘﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ‬

Marge
image interpreter ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻴﻘﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ‬
from ERDAS imagen choose this icon :Image interpreter
spatial
resolution merge
-:‫ﻭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‬

٢١

High resolution
Input

Multispectral
Input

Output

*number of multispectral input layers:select layer:
layer ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍل‬
ok

٢٢

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