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POL 201 Final Exam Study Guide

Question 1

The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that there would be a world
population crisis because the:

Question 2

In the United States, school children are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on
them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning
experience is referred to as:

Question 3

When leaders imprison or even execute political dissidents, they are applying:

Question 4

According to which sociological perspective did the media begin expressing concern
about downsizing only when it began to impact managers and white-collar workers?

Question 5

In a public high school, certain teachers are assigned to work with college preparatory
students, while others work with students who plan to go directly into the business
world. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of:

Question 6

Which of the following groups currently has the highest infant mortality rate in the United

Question 7

In comparison with men, women have lower rates of:

Question 8

According to Dalton Conley, Ph.D. of New York University, __________ is one way
social inequality is exemplified in health.

Question 9

Medicine serves as an agent of social control. It has even attempted to guard its
jurisdiction by placing health care professionals such as chiropractors and nursemidwives outside the realm of acceptable medicine. Which sociological perspective
would likely view medicine in this manner?

Question 10

Although industrialized nations such as Japan, the United States and the United
Kingdom, have been the leading contributors to air pollution, developing countries such
as -___________, are quickly catching up.

Question 11

___________ authority is derived more from the beliefs of followers than from the actual
qualities of leaders.

Question 12

Advocates of the neo-Malthusian view differ from Thomas Malthus in that they favor:

Question 13

Which theorist suggests that capitalist societies such as the United States care more
about maximizing profits than they do about the health and safety of industrial workers?

Question 14

What do Paul and Anne Ehrlich suggest is the central factor in environmental

Question 15

According to Sidney Verba, PhD, Harvard University, ______________ is a place in

which everybody is suppose to have an equal voice and the government is suppose to
respond equally to everybody.

Question 16

Neo-Malthusians condemn developed nations, which, despite their low birthrates,

consume a disproportionately large share of world resources. This position reflects
agreement with which sociological perspective?

Question 17

Teaching students to read and write, to calculate numbers, and to master the facts of
the societys history are all examples of:

Question 18

Which type of city is characterized by relatively large size, open competition, an open
class system, and elaborate specialization in the manufacturing of goods?

Question 19

A man changes his position on the issue of immigrant refugees being granted asylum in
the United States after a dinner-table argument with his grown children. This would be
an example of:

Question 20

A city wants to build a drug rehabilitation center; business, religious, educational, and
political groups argue back and forth about where to place this center. These competing
groups illustrate which theory?

Question 21

The largest factor contributing to illness and death among children in developing
countries is:

Question 22

Fertility is influenced by a persons:

Question 23

Which sociological term best exemplifies the following passage from Fast Food Nation?

The medical literature on the causes of food poisoning is full of euphemisms and dry
scientific terms: coliform levels, aerobic plate counts, sorbitol, MacConkey agar, and so
on. Behind them lies a simple explanation for why eating a hamburger can now make
you seriously ill: There is shit in the meat. (p. 197)

Question 24

Which sociological perspective argues the standardization of educational curricula

generally reflects the values, interests, and lifestyles of the most powerful groups in a

Question 25

Which of the following criticisms were expressed regarding Millss power elite model?

Question 26

According to Claude S. Fischer, PhD, University of California, Berkeley, where

somebody ends up on the ladder of success in the United States depends on

Question 27

The _______________ perspective views education as an instrument of elite


Question 28

___________ is/are designed to prevent any business from taking over so much of an
industry that it gains control of the market.

Question 29

During the 1900s, African Americans migrated from rural southern states to northern
urban areas. They brought with them high birthrates, which are characteristic of rural
residents, and they settled in congested inner-city communities. Which sociological
specialist would examine the social consequences of these migration patterns and

Question 30

The orders of ones superiors are felt to be legitimate because this is how things have
always been done in a political system based on:

Question 31

When a United States corporation relocates its plants to a country where prevailing
wages are lower than in the United States, this is the final stage of:

Question 32

In examining health, illness, and medicine as a social institution, which sociological

perspective generally focuses on micro-level study of the roles played by health care
professionals and patients?

Question 33

Which sociological term best exemplifies the following passage from Fast Food Nation?
Every day in the United States, roughly 200,000 people are sickened by a food borne
disease, 900 are hospitalized, and fourteen die. (p.195)

Question 34

Problems that have accompanied Chinas recent and substantial economic growth

Question 35

Which area of study is concerned with the interrelationships among people in their
spatial setting and physical environment?

Question 36

Which type of city has only a few thousand people living within its borders, a relatively
closed class system, and limited mobility?

Question 37

Socialist societies differ from capitalist nations in their commitment to:

Question 38

According to Richard Arum, PhD, New York University, In a modern society,

____________ are the most important determinants of peoples life course patterns.

Question 39

The most serious consequences of air pollution are the tremendous quantity of
greenhouse gasses released into our atmosphere. These emissions are major
contributors to _____________ and may disrupt the delicate balance of our biosphere.

Question 40

Who gets what, when, how, is Harold D. Lasswells definition of:

Question 41

According to sociologists, which of the following explain why women have tended to be
less involved in politics than men?

Question 42

Research in the United States and other countries has consistently shown that people
with lower incomes have:

Question 43

The economy of the United States is changing, which is due partly to

Question 44

During an inner-city riot, the governor of a state calls up members of the National Guard
to protect stores and private citizens. She is able to take this action based on the states
constitution and powers granted her by the states legislative bodies. Her power is
based on which type of authority?

Question 45

Barry Commoner, a biologist, contends the primary cause of environmental ills is the
increasing use of:

Question 46

According to Craig Calhoun, Ph.D., New York University, governments are often
reluctant to acknowledge and address infections diseases because of

Question 47

Which of the following school programs was initiated as an agent of social change?

Question 48

According to former Surgeon General Richard Cardona, the most pressing issue we
face today as a nation is _________, which in the year 2002 killed approximately
112,000 people.

Question 49

Putting children in school keeps them off the street and out of trouble. This is an
example of a(an):

Question 50

Karl Marx believed that society is ruled by a small group of individuals who share a
common set of political and economic interests, such as those represented by:

Question 51

Debbies mother and father are both lawyers, and she is sent to an exclusive private
school for her education. Teachers are disappointed when she does only average work
in her classes, and they spend more time working with and encouraging her to excel
than they do with her classmates. This situation illustrates:

Question 52

What is Chinas largest source of energy and the resource most largely consumed in
the supplying of energy?

Question 53

According to Joseph Chamie, PhD, Department of Economics & Social Affairs, United
Nations, the worlds population will reach ____________ by the year 2150, if fertility
remains constant.

Question 54

Which sociological perspective observes that less affluent nations are being forced to
exploit their mineral deposits, forests, and fisheries in order to meet their obligations to
developed nations?

Question 55

Which of the following did Thomas Robert Malthus suggest as method to control

Question 56

In the view of Karl Marx, the cause of social ills was not rising world population but

Question 57

The United States has considered a national healthcare system that would guarantee all
citizens medical coverage as a basic human right. The governments involvement in
providing healthcare for all citizens is characteristic of which type of economic system?

Question 58

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that the common identity and social
integration fostered by education contribute to overall societal stability and consensus?

Question 59

One research study revealed that teachers expectations have an impact on students
athletic achievements. This situation would be of particular interest to which sociological