You are on page 1of 18

Review of Secondary Treatment

Wastewater Treatment

Secondary Treatment
Biological Removal of BOD
Ponds
Activated Sludge
High Rate Processes

lagoons

UASB

digesters

CHNG 3804
Fariba Dehghani

Removal of other Contaminants


Activated Sludge Processes
Mass Balances
Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and Sludge retention
time (SRT)

Biological Nutrient Removal

Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Microbial Metabolism
Continuous and sequential batch reactor (SBR)

Activated Sludge - Continuous


Removes BOD and Suspended Solids, typical Effluent BOD ~ 20 mg/L,
SS ~ 30mg/L
Sedimentation tank is an integral part of the activated sludge process.
Because of the variable process microbiology that is possible, it has
been found that the settling characteristics of the biological solids in the
mixed liquor will differ with each plant.

Effluent

Influent

Sludge Management
Anaerobic Digestion
Composting

Process Microbiology

Pseudomonas
Zoogloea
Achromobactor
Flavobacterium
Nocardia
Bdellovibria
Mycobacterium
Nitrosomonas
Nitrobacter
Sphaerotilus
Beggiatoa
others

Return of activated sludge

Waste Sludge

Bulking in Activated Sludge Process


The presence of filamentous organisms leads to
formation of bulky flocs which do not settle well.
Examples are fungi, actinomycetes, etc..
Addition of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to
the return waste-activated sludge, control of
oxygen are alternative way to minimize the
bulking in activated sludge process.

Aerated Ponds (Lagoons)

Evolved from facultative stabilization ponds when surface aerators


were installed to overcome the odors from organically overloaded
ponds.
The aerated lagoons process is the same as the activated sludge
process (20 days).
An earthen basin is used for the reactor, oxygen is supplied from the
surface, and solid maintained in suspension.
Aerated lagoon are used in conjunction with settling facilities to
recycle the biological solids.

Complex compounds
+O2 +bacteria

CO2 + H2O +
more bacteria

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)


Rather than pumping all of the wastewater from one tank
to another it may be better to operate as a batch and
change the conditions
This is termed a Sequencing Batch Reactor
Activated sludge treatment system is a Fill-and Draw.
Aeration and sedimentation/clarification are carried out in
the systems.
Activated-sludge process is carried out simultaneously in
separate tank, however, in SBR the process is carried
out sequentially in the same tank.
The steps are (1) fill, (2) react (aeration), (3) settle
(sedimentation), (4) draw (decant), and (5) idle.

Sludge

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)


1

Draw

Fill
Add Substrate

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)


 Intermittent operation is also used for biological nutrient
removal.
 Instead of using different reactors, the conditions in the
reactor can be changed in the same reactor at different
times.

Influent

effluent
Remove effluent

React

Idle
Reaction time

5
Settle

Waste sludge

3
Clarity

Trickling Filter

Trickling Filter
Rotating Distributor

Biological unit operation


Organic material is removed by contact with
attached biomass
Some volatile pollutants are removed by transfer
to the gas phase
Consist of a
filter bed, which may be wood, plastic or mineral
distribution system - normally rotating
Support layer and effluent collection

Effluent
Influent
Design process, key parameter is surface hydraulic loading rate.
The volume is then calculated from BOD5 loading.

Trickling Filter

Issues in Trickling Filter

A highly permeable medium is provided to which


microorganisms are attached.
The filter media consists of either rock or variety of
plastic packing materials.
The depth of the rock ranges from 0.9 to 2.5 m, while
plastic media from 4 to 12 m.
Liquid wastewater is distributed over the top of the bed
by rotary distributor.
Fillers are constructed with underdrain system for
collecting the treated wastewater system.
Air recirculates across the pores in the underdrain
system.

Trickling Filter
Low-rate

Intermediate
-rate

Highrate

Super highrate

High incidence of clogging


The long rest period required.
Relatively low loading that could be used.

Anaerobic
Roughing

50-190

Advantages
Produces CH4 gas
Lower sludge disposal costs

Disadvantages
Longer Start-up
Susceptible to failure

0.5-1.6

1.5-7.5

Low Nutrient Requirements

Little nutrient removal

1-2

3-10

5-10

Production of hydrogen
sulfide

0-1

1-2

1-2

1-4

Elimination of off-gas
pollution (aeration strips
VOC)

80-90%

50-70%

65-85%

60-80%

40-65%

Lower quality Effluent than


Aerobic

high

partial

low

low

none

Can degrade chemicals


which are not degradable
aerobically

Filter Media

Rock/Slag Rock/Slag

Rock

Plastic

Plastic/
Wood

Loading
(m3/m2/d)

1.2-3.5

3.5-9.4

9-38

12-70

BOD5
loading
(kg/m3/d)

0.08-0.4

0.25-0.5

0.5-1

Depth (m)

2-3

2-3

Recirculation 0
Rate
BOD5
removal
efficiency
Nitrification

Energy Production (Anaerobic)


The yield of CH4 is typically 0.35 L/g of
COD
Calorific value of methane is 33.81 kJ/L
Efficiency of Internal combustion engines
are typically 25%
Can be more efficient if used in boiler

Energy Requirements (Aerobic)


Aerobic processes require agitation and/or
aeration
Except for Large shallow lagoons

For large ponds, mechanical aerators are


preferred
For fixed geometric vessels fine diffusers
are preferred
The type of diffuser has a large effect,
different to agitated fermenters

Anaerobic Ponds

Energy Requirements (Aerobic)


Aeration system

Maximum Aeration
Intensity (g/m3/h)

Energy Required
(kg O2/kWh)

Fine bubble static


diffuser

200

1.5-3.6

Coarse Bubble
static diffuser

100

0.9-1.2

Vertical
Mechanical
Aerator
Horizontal
Mechanical
Aerator

125

1.5-2.2

Used with relatively high organic loads


Fairly Deep Ponds (3-6 m)
Slow rate of biomass formation (5-15% of Carbon in feed)
Top of pond usually covered in layer of scum
The formation of the layer can be accelerated by covering the
pond with straw

pH needs to be 6.4-7.8
Excessive feeding causes pH to drop and Methane
formation to cease
Scum

100

Complex
compounds

1.2-2.4

H2S and NH4


acid

methane

CO2 + H2
Sludge

Anaerobic Ponds Design


Guidelines
Parameter

Typical Values

Units

Load

300-600

kgBOD5/ha/d

Load

0.1-0.2

kgBOD5/m3/d

Temperature

25-35

oC

HRT

6-20

days

Influent COD

1000-3000

mg/L

Effluent COD

200-500

mg/L

Facultative Ponds
Shallower pond than anaerobic (1.5-4 m)
Two zone environment
Top section of pond is aerobic
Lower section is anaerobic

Medium organic load, odor free


Must be careful not to overload and turn
entire pond anaerobic
Which in turn causes odor problems

BOD removal 60-80%, odour emission, need to monitor pH at 6.4-7.8

Facultative Pond Design


Guidelines
Parameter

Typical Values

Oxidation/Aerobic Ponds
Natural Oxygenation

Units

Wind
Photosynthesis

Load (T>15oC)

40-140

kgBOD5/ha/d

Load (T<15oC)

20-40

kgBOD5/ha/d

HRT

5-30

days

Shallow, 1-1.5 m
Low organic loading, suitable for treating effluent
from anaerobic ponds
Must be careful not to overload and turn the
pond anaerobic
Which in turn causes odor problems

Design parameter 40-120 kgBOD5/ha/d

Exercise 2 Abattoir Waste Water


An Abattoir (Cow/Sheep/Pig =>Meat
factory) produces 1ML/day of effluent with
a BOD of 3,000 mg/L after primary
treatment.
What is the required volume, area and
depth of the anaerobic pond?

Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR)


Rules of thumb

COD/m3/day

Load: 100kg
HRT: as low as 1-2 hrs
COD removal up to 85%
Advantages:

Lower N and P concentration in outlet effluent


Smaller volume
More robust
Less chance of odor production

High Rate Aerobic Treatment


Processes
The productivity of activated sludge processes is
limited by the suspended solids concentration.
This concentration is limited by the settling in the
secondary settler.
This in turn limits the COD removal and the HRT
The moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) removes
this constraint by retaining the biosolids in the
reactor.
This is achieved by growing the solids as
biofilms on carriers.

High Rate Anaerobic Treatment


Processes
Anaerobic is a complex process, including a number of
microbial processes. The stages can be physically
segregated to achieve better control
Invented in the Netherlands in 1980s
Good for
high strength wastewater pre-treatment
highly soluble COD

Most common HRAT is called the Upflow Anaerobic


Sludge Blanket (UASB)
Consists of
Acidification pretreatment
Mixing
Sludge Blanket

UASB

UASB
Methane

Hydrolysis

Treated
Effluent

Breakdown of solids to soluble compounds

Acidogenesis
Conversion of soluble compounds to short chain fatty
acids

Acetogenesis
Conversion of other acids into acetic acid

Methanogenesis

Gas is collected
below water level
to reduce
turbulence at the
overflow

Need uniform
distribution
Channeling is a
potential problem

Gas
Collectors

Sludge
Blanket

Generation of Methane from acetic acid and hydrogen

High Rate of Anaerobic


Treatment (HRAT)
Design Rules of Thumb
COD/m3/day

Loading 4-12 kg
HRT 4-12 hours
85% COD removal

Exercise 3 High Rate Processes


A brewery discharges 50 m3/hr of waste
water with a soluble COD of 4,000mg/L
Determine the size of a
High rate aerobic MBBR
High rate anaerobic UASB

Revision Questions
1.

Would you select aerobic or anaerobic treatment for


high strength waste water?
What are three advantages of

2.

3.

5.

1.

Volume?
Area?

3.

Aerobic over Anaerobic (no odor, lower volume, higher efficiency)


Anaerobic over Aerobic (produce methane, lower energy, low sludge
ad waste disposal)

Name and describe the types of waste treatment ponds (aerobic,


facultative, anaerobic)
For the same strength waste water, which pond will have the
smallest

4.

5.

What happens if a facultative pond is overloaded with


COD? How can you tell?

Would you select aerobic or anaerobic treatment for high strength


waste water? Anaerobic
What are three advantages of

2.

Aerobic over Anaerobic


Anaerobic over Aerobic

Name and describe the types of waste treatment


ponds
For the same strength waste water, which pond will
have the smallest

4.

Revision Questions

Volume?
Area?

What happens if a facultative pond is overloaded with COD? How


can you tell? (work anaerobic, and have odor)

Substrate Removal and Biomass


Growth Rate

The objective of a wastewater treatment process is to remove the


substrate.
Rate of substrate uptake

rs =

m X
Y

S
(K s + S )

Y is the maximum yield coefficient, mg/mg defined as the ratio of the


mass of cells formed to the mass of substrate consumed.
Such a process leads to the formation of biomass
Rate of biomass formation

rX = m X

S
kd X
Ks + S

Kinetic Parameters
(Domestic Wastewater)
Coefficient
m

Range
0.1-0.5

hr-1

Typical
0.12 hr-1

Ks

25-100 mgBOD5/L

60 mgBOD5/L

0.4-0.8
mgVSS/mgBOD5

0.6 mgVSS/mgBOD5

kd

0.002-0.003hr-1

0.0025hr-1

The yield can include the effects of endogenous respiration, e.g. the cells consuming
dead cells, in which case it is called the observed yield. (see chapter 8 Metcalf and
Eddy)

Kd: endogenous decay coefficient, time-1


See chapter 8 Wastewater engineering, Metcalf and Eddy

Adapted from IWES Workshop for wastewater treatment

Kinetic Parameters
(Industrial Wastewater)

Activated Sludge (HRT and SRT)


Q, S0, X0

Ks

kd

Basis

Textile

0.1-7

90

0.5-0.7

0.01-0.1

BOD5

Poultry

500

1.3

0.7

BOD5

Meat

0.9

150-300

0.3-0.4

0.03-1.0

COD

Skim
milk

2.5

100

0.5

0.04

BOD5

Influent

(1+)Q, Sa, Xa

(1-)Q, Se, Xe
Effluent

Aerobic Reactor
Volume V
Sr, Xr
Q

Return of activated sludge

S: soluble COD (substrate)


X: particulate biomass

(+)Q
Q Waste Sludge

For domestic waste water is ~1

Assumptions
Steady-state
No biomass in influent (X0=0)
Assume no reaction occur in the clarifier

Adapted from IWES Workshop for wastewater treatment

Steady State Mass Balance


Q, S0, X0

Influent

(1+)Q, Sa, Xa

(1-)Q, Se, Xe
Effluent

Aerobic Reactor
Volume V
Sr, Xr
Q

Return of activated sludge

(+)Q
Q Waste Sludge

0 = (1 )QX e QX r + VX a rx
Out

Waste

Growth

SRT and Treatment Goal


Treatment Goal

SRT Range
(days)

Factors Affecting SRT

Removal of Soluble BOD

1-2

Temperature

Conversion of particulate
organics

2-4

Temperature

Develop flocculent biomass

1-2

Temperature

Provide complete nitrification

3-18

Temp/specific
population/compounds

Biological Phosphorous
Removal

2-4

Temp/specific
populations

Stabilisation of AS

20-40

Temp

Degradation of Xenobiotic
compounds

5-50

Temp/specific
population/compounds

Solids Retention Time (


(c)
The solid retention time (SRT) or cell
residence time (c) is basically a measure
of how long bacteria stay in the system.
The SRT is a very important operational
parameter as it affects:
Treatment performance
Settling tank volume
Sludge production
Oxygen requirements

Example 1
An activated sludge plant is processing 3,800
m3/d.
The COD of the influent is 100 mg/L and the
COD of the effluent is 30 mg/L.
The observed yield is 0.3 mg/mg (1 kg of Sludge
has a COD of 1.4 kg)
What is the daily rate of sludge production?
What is the rate of oxygen consumption?
O2 consumption = (1-Yobs)*(S0-Se)

Metcalf and Eddy p 680

Tertiary Treatment

Example (Continued)
3800 (m3/d) x 1000 (L/m3)x(100-30)/1000 (g/mg)/1000
(kg/g)=266 Kg COD removed
biomass produced from COD: 0.3 x 266 = 79.8 Kg

Adsorption of organics by activated carbon


Filtration of solids and colloids (sand filter
and membranes)

Total sludge produced:


79.8 x 1/1.4 = 56 .2 Kg
Oxygen = (1 - 0.3) x (3800 x 1000) x (100-30)/1000 =
186.2 kg/day

Biological nitrogen removal


Biological phosphorous removal

Adsorption Systems

Adsorption Equilibria
Is defined as follows:

qe =

(C o C )V
M

Where
qe : equilibrium contaminant concentration (mg contamination/g
adsorbent)
Co : initial contamination Conc. In solution (mg/L)
C: equilibrium contamination concentration in solution (mg/L)
M: Mass of adsorbent (g)

Batch
stirred tank with filtration/sedimentation
Low capacity

Continuous
Fluidized bed
Fixed bed in series

Others

Ion Exchange

Adapted from IWES workshop

Ion Exchange

Adapted from IWES workshop

Wetland Systems





The hydraulic retention time is about 2-5 days for BOD


removal and 7-14 days for N removal.
The wetland requires 0.5-2 years to establish and
harvested regularly.
Expensive
Used for biomass production

Free Water Surface Constructed


Wetland
 Is an example of wetland.
 Wastewater containing BOD, nutrients and solids is
treated using plants and micro-organisms
 Plants and micro-organisms uptake the nutrients
 Filtration and coagulation is used to remove solids
 Plants adsorb the ions
 Due to some reaction, contaminants precipitate.

influent
influent

Seal

Effluent

Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES worskshop

Filtration
Removal of solid residue and pathogens from effluent
after secondary treatment.
Solid is removed by straining, precipitation and
flocculation
Continuous or intermittent process can be used.
Most common is semi continuous, cleaning the filter by
reverse flow (back washing).

Seal

Effluent

Need for Nutrient Removal


Why do we need to remove nutrients such
as Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus?
Carbon - causes a reduction in dissolved
oxygen concentrations.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus linked to
growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms.
Particularly significant for inland
waterways or enclosed water bodies.

Adapted from IWES workshop

Need for Nutrient Removal


International legislation is now being passed to
confine N&P in effluents.
In Australia environmental regulations typically
require total N < 5mg/L and total P < 1mg/L.
Over US$300 billion worldwide is estimated to
construct new plant to comply with new
regulations for nutrient removal.

Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR)


BNR utilises biological processes to remove C, N and P
from wastewater
Reduction (anaerobic) or oxidation (aerobic) of organic
carbon
CH2O CH4 + CO2 + H2
CH2O CO2
Nitrification (oxidation) and denitrification of nitrogen
NH3/NH4+ NO3- N2
Intracellular storage and wastage of phosphorous
PO43- [PO4]n

Nitrogen Transformations in Biological


Treatment Processes

Oxidation of Organic Carbon

Organic nitrogen
(protein, Urea)

O2

Nitrite (NO2-)
O2

Nitrate (NO3-)

Denitrification

Figure 8-32 Wastewater Engineering, Metcalf and Eddy

Nitrification/Denitrification
Nitrification/Denitrification
Nitrogen can occur in many forms in wastewater
and undergo numerous transformations in waste
water treatment.
Ammonia-nitrogen convert to product such as
nitrogen gas.
Two principle mechanisms are assimilation and
nitrification-denitrification.
Nitrogen is nutrient and can be incorporated into
the cell mass.

Nitrogen gas (N2)

Organic carbon

Nitrification

Nitrogen removal is a two step process:


Two bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are responsible for nitrification.
The latter convert the nitrite to nitrate.
For nitrosomonas the equation is
109 HCO3- + 76O2 + 55NH4+ C5H7O2N + 57H2O+104H2CO3

For Nitrobacter the equation is

195O2 + NH4+ + 400NO2- +4H2CO3 + HCO3- C5H7O2N + 3H2O+400NO3-

Approximately 4.3 mg O2 per mg ammonia-nitrogen oxidized to nitratenitrogen is required.


A large amount of alkalinity is consumed 8.64 mg HCO3- per mg of
ammonia-nitrogen oxidized.
Changing ammonia does not facilitate nitrogen removal but does eliminate
its oxygen demand.
Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive to pH & temperature. A variety of organic
and inorganic agents can inhibit the growth and action of these organisms.

Nitrification
Nitrifiers are autotrophic bacteria.
They obtain their carbon, used for cell synthesis from CO2.

Organic nitrogen
(net growth)

Organic nitrogen
(Bacterial cells)

Ammonia nitrogen
Nitrification

Carbon may be oxidised with either oxygen


or nitrate as electron acceptor:
Heterotrophic carbon oxidation
CH2O + O2 cells + CO2 + H2O
Denitrification
CH2O + NO3- cells + CO2 + N2
Note that many heterotrophs may switch
to nitrate as electron acceptor when
oxygen is exhausted

Denitrification

Under anoxic conditions (without oxygen) the nitrate is converted to nitrogen


gas.

Many different bacteria are involved in denitrification process: Micrococcus,


lactibacillus, bacillus, alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, etc.

These bacteria are hetereotrophs capable of dissimilatory nitrate reduction.

NO3- NO2 - NO (g) N2O (g) N2 (g)

Dissolved oxygen is critical in denitrification. Dissolved oxygen (DO) suppress


the enzyme system needed for denitrification.

Microorganisms are also sensitive to pH and temperature.

By including denitrification in a nitrifying process, the oxygen use can be


reduced by up to 60% and the alkalinity depletion by up to 50%.

The key factor affecting nitrogen removal include, pH, temperature, age of
sludge, dissolved oxygen, and feed composition.

Adapted from IWES workshop

10

Denitrification

Phosphorous Removal

Both anaerobic and aerobic condition is required as shown below.

It is based on activated sludge like nitrogen removal.

Factors affecting biological P removal include sludge age, Readily


Biodegradable Chemical Oxygen Demand (RBCOD), Nitrate
(NO3-N which reduces P by 1 mg P/mg NO3-N in anaerobic zone).
effluent
Influent
Sedimentation
Anaerobic
Aerobic
Low
Tank
COD,P
COD,P
Biomass recycling
Removal of P in bacteria

Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

Enhanced Biological Phosphorous


Removal (EBPR)
Phosphorous appears in wastewater as orthophosphate
(PO4-3), polyphosphate (P2O7), and organically bound
phosphorus.
Microbes utilize phosphorous during cell synthesis and
energy transport.
Phosphorous is first released under anaerobic
conditions. At these conditions Phosphate Accumulating
Organism (PAO) take up more phosphorous.
Soluble phosphate is then accumulated as an
intracellular poly-phosphate under aerobic or anoxic
conditions.
The cells are then wasted as sludge.

Adapted from IWES workshop

BNR Metabolism
Heterotrophic carbon oxidation (aerobic)
Heterotrophic denitrification and carbon
oxidation (anoxic)
Autotrophic nitrification (aerobic)
Heterotrophic phosphate release and carbon
uptake (anaerobic)
Heterotrophic phosphate uptake and carbon
oxidation (anoxic)
Heterotrophic phosphate uptake and carbon
oxidation (aerobic)

11

Chemical Phosphorus Removal


Chemicals such as ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferrous chloride
(FeCl2), alum (Al2(SO4)3,14.3 H2O) and lime (Ca(OH)2)
are used to precipitate P.
Al3+ + HnPO4 3-n

AlPO4 + nH+

Addition of alum may


produce more sludge
Difficulty in removing water from sludge
Decrease alkalinity and require to add lime for pH control
A simple jar test is used to determine the amount of alum
required.

Biological Nitrogen Removal


Nitrogen in wastewater is usually in the
from of organic (~30%) or ammonia
(~70%)

Wastewater Treatment
Primary treatment
settling
removes BOD (COD or C)
Secondary treatment
COD removal (some N and P)
Tertiary treatment
biological nutrient removal (BNR)
removes C, N, P
polishing (wetlands, sand filtration, etc)
disinfection

Biological Phosphorus Removal


Relatively new technology and is the focus of a
lots of research
Sludge must be cycled between anaerobic and
aerobic conditions
Anaerobic conditions
take up RBCOD into their cells and release orthophosphates in the process

Anoxic
NO3 => N2

Aerobic
NH3 => NO3

The recycle from the aerobic to the anoxic is large ~ 5-20 times the influent feed rate

Biological Phosphorus Removal

Anaerobic

Aerobic

Aerobic conditions
utilise stored RBCOD and take up ortho-phosphates
in excess of what they released

Overall net uptake of phosphorous is removed


by sludge wasting

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous


Removal
Carbon
aerobic/anoxic (or anaerobic)
Nitrogen
aerobic followed by anoxic
carbonate required for aerobic reaction
organic carbon required for anoxic reaction
Phosphorous
anaerobic followed by aerobic/anoxic
organic carbon required for anaerobic
reaction

12

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous


Removal
In order to remove nitrogen and
phosphorus the bacteria in a BNR require
COD
Rules of Thumb
COD/P >50 for complete biological P
removal
COD/TKN >10 for biological N removal

Biological Process Configuration


(A2/O)
Anaerobic Anoxic

Proprietary A2/O process


The disadvantage is that nitrate equal to the effluent
concentration is recycled to the anaerobic zone.
This reduces P removal
SRT 2-4 days

Modified Bardenpho

Anaerobic Anoxic

Aerobic

Anoxic

Aerobic

Aerobic

Standard UCT

Anaerobic

Anoxic

Aerobic

Incorporates a secondary anoxic reactor to


achieve greater N removal
SRT is 10-20 days better carbon removal
than A2/O

Developed at the University of Cape Town


Designed to minimise nitrates in weaker wastewaters
Differs from A2/O in that sludge is recycle back to the
Anoxic zone, reducing the nitrate concentration in the
anaerobic zone.
This increases phosphate uptake in the anaerobic zone.

Heuristics

BNR Process Configuration

Batch systems are more cost effective


than continuous systems.
Nitrification and Enhanced Biological
Phosphorous Removal (EBPR) are
favored by plug flow mixing patterns.
For biological removal of C, N & P,
separate sludge processes are more
economical and perform better.
Adapted from IWES workshop

13

Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time


(HRT)
Reactions go to completion as HRT is increased
Acetate uptake by PAO is fast long anaerobic
HRT leaves time for phosphorous release from
endogenous metabolism (large stores of
polyphosphate)
Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is diluted
as HRT increases smaller secondary settling
tank (shorter settling time)

Solids Retention Time


Typically 3-50 days
Limited by phosphorous removal
Controlled by wasting ratio
SRT =

V
HRT
=
WF
W

where :
W = wasting ratio (fraction of F)

Effect of SRT
Phosphorous removal capacity depends
on PAO density.
Nitrification depends on autotrophic nitrifier
density and denitrifier density.
Longer SRT more biomass more
nutrient removal.
Longer SRT accumulation of inert
particulates larger secondary settling
tank (longer settling time).

Sludge Management
Sludge - solids streams are a by-product
of many primary secondary and tertiary
treatment processes.
Organic sludges can be used for
Digestion
Soil amendment
Land spreading

Other Stages
At this point we have removed many
contaminants from the waste water stream
But we still have to deal with the sludge we are
producing
and
Disinfect the water before recovery/discharge

Sludge Management
Sludge - solids streams are a by-product of
many primary secondary and tertiary treatment
processes.
Organic sludges can be processed by digestion
or composting to reduce solid mass.
Soil amendment
Land spreading

Toxic sludge may require stabilisation prior to


disposal.
Sludge can be processed by chemical or organic
process.

14

Sludge Management
Organic

Digestion
Soil amendment
Animal feed
Land spreading

Chemical
Reuse by another industry
Incineration
landfill

Anaerobic Digestion Process

Adapted from IWES workshop and websites listed in refs.

Digestion
The purpose of digestion is to remove volatile
solids from the sludge
The digestion can be aerobic or anaerobic
Anaerobic reactors tend to be the more popular
as they can generate methane and hence
energy
They are typically egg shaped and a portion of
the biogas produced is reinjected to mix the
contents.

Anaerobic Digestion Process

Adapted from IWES workshop

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic Digestion

1. Hydrolysis and fermentation


(liquefaction) of organic material
2. Acetogenesis and dehydrogenation
3. Methane fermentation
Anaerobic
Organics (CHON) CH4+CO2 + NH4
Aerobic
Organics (CHON) + O2 CO2 + H2O + NOx

solid organic
compounds
hydrolytic
enzymes

STAGE 1

soluble organic
compounds
acidogenic
bacteria
volatile aromatic
compounds, VFA

reduced nitrogen
and sulfur
compounds

acidogenic
bacteria

VOC
acidogenic
bacteria

acetic acid

STAGE 2
acidogenic
bacteria

CO2

H2
hydrogenutilising
methanogens

acetoclastic
methanogenic
bacteria

STAGE 3

methane

15

Two Stage Digestion


Acid forming bacteria prefer pH 5-6, grow quickly and
are not as sensitive to toxic components in the feed.
Methane forming bacteria prefer a neutral pH, grow
slowly and are sensitive to toxic components.
Either use two reactors, a pre-fermenter followed by a
digester
Or use one reactor at near neutral pH.

Anaerobic Digestion
Note anaerobic digesters also produce a lot of
CO2, typically the biogas is 60-70% methane
and 30-40% CO2.
The production of this CO2 causes the pH to
drop, hence you need alkalinity.
This is of great importance due to methanogens
being inhibited below a pH of 6.8.

Typically the digester is run at 30-40oC and a pH of 77.5.

Sulfate Reducers

Sludge Drying

A problem for many anaerobic digester is the


presence of Sulfur in the feed.
Inevitably sulfate reducing bacteria will occur in
the process.
This results in the formation of H2S.
The effects of this compound can be reduced by
dosing with iron to precipitate FeS or raising the
pH slightly to keep it in solution.

Drying the sludge reduces the volume and mass


that must be handled/transported.
It also stabilises the sludge and reduces the
pathogen levels.
Sludge can be dried by

Sludge Composting

Sludge Composting

Composting is the biological degradation of


organic material.
Start with dewatered sludge (~60%) moisture
Need to ensure aeration to avoid odour
problems
The biological activity increases the temperature
to 50-70oC.
Thought to be sufficient to kill pathogens.

Spreading the sludge over a field and relying on


natural convection, can load at 100-15 kg of
VS/m2/year. 1 hectare is sufficient for 70,000 people.
Heating
Filtration typically using a belt press
Centrifuge

Windrow
The sludge is placed in an open pile and
mechanically turned to provide aeration.
Requires around 30 days

Static Pile
Air is supplied mechanically
Requires around 30 days

In-vessel
Compost is mechanically stirred and aerated
Higher capital cost, but lower labour and land costs,
odour problems less likely

16

Disinfection

Sydney Water Biosolids


Have a look at Sydney Waters web site for
information on sludge uses

http://www.sydneywater.com.au/EnsuringTheFuture/Biosolids/

Inactivate or remove the phathogenic micro-organisms


Chemical (Cl2, ClO2, NaOCl, Ca(OCl)2, O3, pH)
adjustment
Physical (heat or pressure)
Radiation (UV)
Filtration (membranes)
Most common is chemical treatment

Adapted from IWES workshop

Membranes in Wastewater

Membranes in Wastewater

Micro-filtration to remove residual colloidal solids


Ultra-filtration to remove solids and large soluble
particles (sterilisation)
Nano-filtration and reverse osmosis to remove dissolved
pollutants

Adapted from IWES workshop


http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/civil/metcalf/information/chapter1.pdf

Size of Plant

Cl2

ClO2

O3

All

Small/Med

Med/Large All

UV

Lime

Membrane

Med/Large Large

Adapted from IWES workshop

Need for Nutrient Removal

Cost
Capital

Low

Med

High

Low

High

High

Operating

Low

Med

High

Low

High

Med

Maintenance Low

Med

High

Low/Med

High

Med

Contact
Time

Long

Mod/Long

Mod/Long

Short

Very Short

Mod

Safety
Concern

High

Med

Low

None

Low

None

Kills
Bacteria

Good

Good

Very Good Very Good Good

Good

Virus

Poor

Good

Good

Unknown

Good

Unknown

Fish Toxicity

Yes

Yes

Slight

No

Mod

No

Hazardous
Products

Yes

Yes

Unknown

Unknown

Sludge

Unknown

Residual
Time

Long

Mod

Short/no

None

Short

No

Why do we need to remove nutrients such as


Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus?
Carbon - causes a reduction in dissolved oxygen
concentrations
Nitrogen and Phosphorus linked to growth of
cyanobacteria and algal blooms
Particularly significant for inland waterways or
enclosed water bodies
In Australia environmental regulations typically
require total N < 5mg/L and total P < 1mg/L

This table is adapted from IWES 2005, see Metcalf and Eddy p 1222 for original
Adapted from IWES workshop

17

Summary
This lecture we have looked at
Activated Sludge
Tertiary Treatment
Biological Nutrient Removal
Sludge Management
Disinfection

References
Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and
Reuse by Metcalf and Eddy
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5161/water1.ht
m
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5161/wwtps.
htm
http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/PublicWorks/Sewer/w
wtppg_4.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewage_treatment
http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0768.html
http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/civil/metcalf/information/chapter1.p
df

IWES Workshop, Principles of wastewater treatment


2005.

18