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Group 11:

Phua Yun Hock (18295), Teow Kah Wai (19974), Nur Athirah binti Khalid (18552),
Muhammad Ardany bin Nazlim (18149), Nadya Husna binti Razi (18031)

Experiment 1: Flow Transmitter Calibration Review Questions

1. What is the effect of the square root flow differential pressure relationship on the
rangeability of a flow transmitter?
Rangeability is defined as the ratio of maximum ratio to minimum ratio. The flow rate through
a differential pressure primary flow element is proportional to the square root of the pressure
drop across the restriction. This relationship can limit the ability of differential pressure
flowmeter technology to measure large flow ranges.

2. Name two other flow restrictions which can be used instead of an orifice meter. Discuss
their advantages and disadvantages.
Flow Restriction
1. Venturi tubes

2. Pitot tube

Venturi tubes can
velocity flows than
orifice meter.
It can handle 60%
more flow than an
orifice plate for the
same bore under
Pitot tube is cost
It has no moving
parts and therefore
simple to use and
It can measure low
pressure drop.

Venturi tubes are
more expensive.
They are not as
easy for size change
or inspection.

In a landfill gas
application, they can
mineralization and
harsh, binding fluids

3. Briefly describe the functioning of:

Electromagnetic flowmeter
Electromagnetic flowmeter applies the physical principle of electromagnetic induction. A
magneticc field is applied to the metering tube, which results in a potential difference
proportional to the flow velocity perpendicular to the flux lines. The magnetic flow meter
requires a conducting fluid, for example, water that contains ions, and an electrical insulating
pipe surface, for example, a rubber-lined steel tube.


Turbine flowmeter

Turbine flowmeters use the mechanical energy of the fluid to rotate a rotor in the flow
stream. Blades on the rotor are angled to transform energy from the flow stream into
rotational energy. The rotor shaft spins on bearings. When the fluid moves faster, the rotor
spins proportionally faster.


Vortex flow meter

Vortex flow meter uses the principle of development of a Karman vortex shedding street in
the wake of a body built into the pipeline. It measures the vibrations of the downstream
vortexes caused by a barrier in the moving stream. The periodic shedding of eddies occurs
first from one side and then from the other side of a bluff body (vortex-shedding body)
installed perpendicular to the pipe axis. Vortex shedding generates a so-called "Karman
vortex street" with alternating pressure conditions whose frequency is proportional to the
flow velocity.

4. What is a metering pump? Can it be used for flow measurement?

The metering pump is a positive displacement chemical dosing device with the ability to
vary capacity manually or automatically as process conditions require. It features a high
level of repetitive accuracy and is capable of pumping a wide range of chemicals
including acids, bases, corrosive or viscous liquids and slurries. It moves a precise
volume of liquid in a specified time period providing an accurate flow rate.
Metering pump can pump and meter the fluid at the same time. It gives reasonable
accuracy and therefore it can be used for flow measurement.

5. Explain the effect of noise on flow measurement.

Noise is produced due to the turbulent flow and will affect the accuracy of the flow
measurement especially the sensitive flowmeter such as ultrasonic meter. Energy loss and
the consequential noise generated during pressure reduction are proportional to the flow rate
and pressure difference. It has been found that control valves with a significant pressure
drop can produce noise in the same ultrasonic frequency range as that used by the
ultrasonic meter. This noise can interfere with the signal detection system of the meter and
may lead to transit time measurement errors if untreated.