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CC2418 Human Bio II Ch 16 Urinary system Tu Ex

Chapter 16: Urinary System


Kidneys
A. Introduction
1. A kidney is __________________ in color and_______________________shaped.
2. A kidney is enclosed by________________________________________________
B. Location of Kidneys
1. The kidneys are located________________________________________________
2. Retroperitoneally means________________________________________________
C. Kidney Structure
1. The renal sinus is_____________________________________________________
2. The renal pelvis is_____________________________________________________
3. The renal pelvis is divided into__________________________________________
4. Major calyces are divided into___________________________________________
5. Renal papillae are_____________________________________________________
6. The renal medulla is___________________________________________________
7. Renal pyramids are____________________________________________________
8. The renal cortex is____________________________________________________
9. Renal columns are____________________________________________________
10. The renal capsule is__________________________________________________
D. Functions of the Kidneys
1. The main functions of the kidneys are_____________________________________
2. Erythropoietin functions to______________________________________________
3. Renin regulates_______________________________________________________
4. Hemodialysis is______________________________________________________
E. Nephrons
1. Draw the structure of a Nephron. Answer the followings.
a. Functional units of the kidneys are called__________________________________
b. Each nephron consists of_______________________________________________
c. A renal corpuscle consists of____________________________________________
d. A glomerulus is______________________________________________________
e. A glomerular capsule is________________________________________________
f. Afferent arterioles give rise to___________________________________________
, which lead to_______________________________________________________
g. The two layers of the glomerular capsule are________________________________
h. Podocytes are located__________________________________________________
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i. Slit pores are_________________________________________________________
j. The renal tubule leads away from_________________________________________
k. The parts of the renal tubule are__________________________________________
l. Distal convoluted tubules merge together to form____________________________
_________________, which empties into____________________________________
Urine Formation
A. Introduction
1. The main function of the nephrons is______________________________________
2. Urine is ________________________ and contains__________________________
3. The three processes involved in urine formation are__________________________
4. In glomerular filtration, blood plasma is___________________________________
5. The function of tubular reabsorption is____________________________________
6. The function of tubular secretion is_______________________________________
B. Glomerular Filtration
1. Glomerular filtration is_________________________________________________
2. Glomerular filtrate is__________________________________________________
3. The normal composition of glomerular filtrate is____________________________
C. Filtration Pressure
1. The main force that moves substances through the glomerular capillary wall is
2. Glomerular filtration is also influenced by__________________________________
3. Net filtration pressure is_____________________________________________and
normally favors_________________________________________________________
4. Net filtration can be calculated by________________________________________
D. Filtration Rate
1. The glomerular filtration rate is directly proportional to_______________________
2. The factors that affect glomerular filtration are______________________________
3. Normally the most important factor affecting net filtration pressure and GFR is____
4. If the afferent arteriole constricts, net filtration pressure____________________and
the filtration rate________________________________________________________
5. If the efferent arteriole constricts, net filtration pressure____________________and
the filtration rate________________________________________________________
6. Factors that can change the hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule are
______________________________________________________________________
7. If hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule becomes too high, net filtration
pressure will___________________________________________________________
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CC2418 Human Bio II Ch 16 Urinary system Tu Ex
E. Control of Filtration Rate
1. GFR may increase when_____________________________________and decrease
when_________________________________________________________________
2. If blood pressure and volume drop,__________________________________ of the
afferent arterioles results, which leads to a___________________________in filtration
pressure and GFR.
3. If excess body fluids are detected,____________________________ of the afferent
arterioles results, which leads to a___________________in filtration pressureand GFR.
4. Renin is secreted by________________________________________in response to
______________________________________________________________________
5. Renal baroreceptors detect______________________________________________
6. In the bloodstream, renin reacts with________________________________to form
______________________________________________________________________
7. Angiotensin I is used to make___________________________________________
8. The effects of angiotensin II are__________________________________________
9. The functions of ANP are_______________________________________________
F. Tubular Reabsorption
1. Introduction
a. Tubular reabsorption is_________________________________________________
b. Tubular reabsorption returns substances to_________________________________
c. In tubular reabsorption, substances must first cross___________________________
___________________________________________________________________and
then__________________________________________________________________
d. Active tubular reabsorption requires______________________________________
e. The factors that enhance the rate of fluid reabsorption from the renal
tubule are______________________________________________________________
f. Tubular reabsorption occurs throughout____________________________________
________________ but most occurs________________________________________
g. Microvilli in the proximal convoluted tubule function to______________________
h. Segments of the renal tubule are adapted to reabsorb_________________________
______________, using__________________________________________________
i. Usually all of the glucose in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed because
j. The renal plasma threshold is____________________________________________
k. Glucose is excreted in urine when________________________________________
l. Diuresis is___________________________________________________________
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m. Osmotic diuresis is___________________________________________________
n. Examples of substances that are reabsorbed through renal tubules are
2. Sodium and Water Reabsorption
a. Water reabsorption occurs by_______________________________________and is
closely associated with___________________________________________________
b. If sodium reabsorption increases, water reabsorption_________________________
c. Much of the sodium reabsorption occurs in_________________________________
______________________ by_____________________________________________
d. When sodium ions move through the tubular wall,___________________________
________________________________________________________move with them.
e. About_________________________of water and sodium may be reabsorbed before
urine is excreted.
f. Two hormones that affect sodium and water reabsorption are___________________
G. Tubular Secretion
1. In tubular secretion, substances more______________________________________
2. Examples of substances that are secreted into renal tubules are_________________
3. To summarize, urine forms as a result of___________________________________
H. Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
1. Aldosterone and ANP affect______________________________________of urine.
2. The cells lining the later portion of the distal convoluted tubule and the
collecting ducts are impermeable to water unless_______________________is present.
3. A ensures that the medullary interstitial fluid becomes
hypertonic.
4. Chloride ions are reabsorbed in the and follow the
chloride ions.
5. Tubular fluid in the ascending limb becomes as it
loses solutes.
6. Water leaves the __________ by osmosis and NaCl the descending limb
by diffusion.
7. Tubular fluid in the descending limb becomes_____________________________as
it loses water and gains NaCl.
8. As NaCl repeats the circuit, its concentration in the medulla___________________
9. The vasa recta countercurrent mechanism helps maintain______________________
I. Urea and Uric Acid Excretion
1. Urea is a by-product of_________________________________________________
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CC2418 Human Bio II Ch 16 Urinary system Tu Ex
2. Urea enters the renal tubule through______________________________________
3. Up to __________ of urea is recycled.
4. Uric acid is a product of________________________________________________
5. Uric acid is_________________________________________________reabsorbed.
6. About 10% of the reabsorbed uric acid ends up in urine because________________
J. Urine Composition
1. Urine is normally composed of__________________________________________
2. Factors that change urine composition are__________________________________
(B) Short Questions
1. Name the structures fluid passes through as it travels from the glomerulus to the
collecting duct.
2. Describe the location and structure of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
3. Distinguish among filtration, reabsorption, and secretion as they relate to urine
formation.
4. Compare the composition of glomerular filtrate with that of the blood plasma.
5. Explain how the diameters of the afferent and efferent arterioles affect the rate
of glomerular filtration.
6. Describe two mechanisms by which the body regulates the filtration rate.
7. Discuss how tubular reabsorption is a selective process.
8. Explain how the peritubular capillary is adapted for reabsorption.
9. Explain how epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule are adapted for
reabsorption.
10. Explain how hypotonic tubular fluid is produced in the ascending limb of the
nephron loop.
11. Explain why fluid in the descending limb of the nephron is hypertonic.
12. Describe the function of ADH.
Ch 15 Digestive System Tutorial Ex ANS

Section (A) True or False


T/F
1. The area called the vermiform appendix apparently serves no digestive function in humans. T
(Correct Answer: Although a digestive role has not been elucidated for the appendix, this area does have
numerous lymph nodes that play a role in defense against infection.)
2. The descending colon usually lies on the left abdominal wall area. T
(Correct Answer: The descending colon is left and the ascending colon is in the right area.)

3. The external anal sphincter is under voluntary control. T


(Correct Answer: The external sphincter is skeletal muscle while the internal is smooth muscle.)

4. The visceral peritoneum is a fibrous membrane, which wraps around the outer layer of the intestines. T
(Correct Answer: One purpose of the visceral peritoneum is to allow the free movement of the intestines; the
parietal peritoneum is the membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominal cavity.)

5. The mucous cells of the salivary glands secrete amylase which facilitates digestion of starches. F

6. During swallowing, the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward. T
(Correct Answer: Swallowing is a complicated series of events that must prevent food from entering the nasal
cavity and larynx; the epiglottis covers the opening of the larynx called the glottis.)

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7. Gastric intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12. T
(Correct: The parietal cells produce gastric intrinsic factor which is needed to absorb the vitamin B12
necessary for blood cell development.)

8. Emetics cause the vomiting center in the hypothalamus to propel food by contracting stomach F
muscles.
(Incorrect: The vomiting center is in the medulla oblongata and causes the diaphragm to contract which
increases pressure within the stomach by its external force; vomiting involves respiratory reflexes.

9. The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills. T
(Correct Answer: There are a number of nerve reflexes that aid in the proper movement of food; the
enterogastric reflex occurs as the duodenum fills with chyme and stimulates stretch receptors, which send an
impulse to the stomach muscle preventing further movement of food into the duodenum.)

10. The portal veins drain blood from the liver and convey it to the inferior vena cava. F
(Incorrect: The hepatic portal veins drain the gastrointestinal areas and convey the blood to the liver; the
hepatic veins then leave the liver.)

11. Without a gallbladder, a person will develop vitamin and lipid deficiencies because of the lack of bile. F
(Correct Answer: The gallbladder only stores the bile; the liver will continue to secrete
bile in sufficient amounts to meet nutritional needs.)

12. Chylomicrons are lipoprotein aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi. T
(Correct Answer: The lipoprotein complexes represent methods of transporting fatty substances,
including cholesterol and are manufactured in the intestines.)

13. The digestive system functions to provide cells with proper amounts of proteins, carbohydrate or fats. F
(Incorrect: The digestive system only processes and absorbs what we eat.)

Section (B) Fill in the blanks Answers


1. The ________cells produce pepsinogen. Chief cells/ zymogenic
cells
2. The most important hormone regulating gastric secretions is called ________. gastrin

3. When the _____________ region of the stomach stretches it causes the pyloric
stomach to empty into the duodenum.

4. The duodenum, ____________, and ileum are the parts of the small intestine. jejunum

5. The small intestine is lined by ___________ epithelium. Simple columnar

6. The ___________ produces bile. liver

7. The __________ stores bile. gall bladder

8. The _____________ duct is formed by the union of duct from the liver and gall Common bile
bladder.

9. The hormone ____________ cause the gall bladder to release bile. Cholecytokinin

10. The turn in the large intestine near the liver is called the ___________ flexure. hepatic

11. If the small intestine is stretched too much the __________ reflex will be enterogastric
triggered.
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CC2418 Human Bio II Ch 16 Urinary system Tu Ex

12. Somatostatin is produced _______ and functions to _____________________. stomach/functions to inhibit


acid secretion

13. Parasympathetic innervation stimulates _____________________. the release of gastric juice

14. The functions of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are ___________. to digest proteins

15. Zymogen granules are ___________. granules that store


pancreatic enzymes

16. Brunner’s glands are _________ and are located__________ . They secrete mucous-secreting glands/
_________. the submucosa of the
proximal portion of the
duodenum./
alkaline mucus.

Section (C) Discussion Questions

1. List the enzymes in gastric juice, and explain the function of each enzyme.
a. Pepsin—is a protein-splitting enzyme, which is the beginning of nearly all types of
dietary protein. The chief cells secrete pepsinogen (the precursor of pepsin) that then
combines with hydrochloric acid to form pepsin.
b. Intrinsic factor—aids in the absorption of vitamin B12.

2. Explain how gastric secretions are regulated.


Parasympathetic impulses and the hormone gastrin enhance the gastric secretions.
The presence of the food in the small intestine reflexly inhibits the gastric secretions.

3. Describe the mechanism that controls the emptying of the stomach.


The chyme accumulates near the pyloric sphincter. This muscle begins to relax. The
pyloric region of the stomach then pumps the chyme a little at a time into the small
intestine. The rate at which the stomach empties is dependent upon the fluidity of the
chyme and the type of food present.

4. Describe the enterogastric reflex.


The enterogastric reflex inhibits the gastric peristalsis and the secretion when the
food enters the small intestine.

5. Explain the mechanism of vomiting.


Sensory impulses travel from the site of stimulation to the vomiting center in the
medulla oblongata, and a number of motor responses follow. These include taking a
deep breath, raising the soft palate and thus closing the nasal cavity, closing the
opening to the trachea (glottis), relaxing the circular muscle fibers at the base of the
esophagus, contracting the diaphragm so that it moves downward over the stomach,
and contracting the abdominal wall muscles so that pressure inside the abdominal
cavity increases. As a result, the stomach is squeezed from all sides, forcing its
contents upward and out through the esophagus, pharynx, and mouth.

6. List the enzymes in pancreatic juice, and explain the function of each enzyme.
a. Pancreatic amylase—functions to digest carbohydrates.

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b. Pancreatic lipase—functions to digest triglycerides.
c. Trypsin—functions to digest protein.
d. Chymotrypsin—functions to digest protein.
e. Carboxypeptidase—functions to digest protein.
f. Nucleases—functions to break nucleic acids into nucleotides.
7. Explain how pancreatic secretions are regulated.
Secretin stimulates the release of pancreatic juice that has a high bicarbonate ion
concentration.
Cholecystokinin stimulates the release of pancreatic juice that has a high
concentration of digestive enzymes.
Acidic chyme in the duodenum triggers the release of pancreatic juice. As the chyme
moves through the intestine the pancreatic juice is inhibited.

8. Describe the composition of bile.


Bile is composed of bile salts, bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin), cholesterol,
and electrolytes.

9. Trace the path of bile from a bile canaliculus to the small intestine.
The bile flows from the bile canal into hepatic ducts. The ducts then merge to form
the common hepatic duct. It then can flow into the gallbladder for storage. The
common hepatic and cystic duct form the common bile duct. This then empties
into the duodenum.

10. Explain how gallstones form.


Gallstones form as a result of cholesterol precipitating out of solution and
crystallizing. This can result if the bile becomes too concentrated, the hepatic cells
secrete too much cholesterol, or the gallbladder is inflamed.

11. Explain the functions of bile salts.


Bile salts emulsify fats and aid in the absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and
certain vitamins.