You are on page 1of 11

From Australias Tragic Past to its Multicultural

Present: Displaying Thousand Years of Aboriginal


History and Culture
BANGERANG CULTURAL CENTRE

One of the Oldest Continuing cultures in the World


Indigenous people have the oldest and one of the most continuous cultures in the world.1 Their interesting
lifestyle consisted of living according to their customs, traditions and sacred resources. The British
settlement to Australia in the eighteenth century had left the indigenous people devastated as they lost their
land, culture, religion, and language and left them with inacceptable rights and disadvantaged laws that the
government had introduced upon them. Aboriginals were spiritual, honest and respectful people, they lived
in a society where facts, knowledge, religion and survival strategies were passed by the elders of the
community to their children.2 Thus this routine of oral education was never recognised by the westernized
colonials and therefore Australias colonial history has been written by white perspective which does not
reflect both sides of the story. This is why keeping places and Museums are important structures in our
communities. These places visually display a time and culture in history, which shaped Australia forever.

A Culture Abolished, Memories Destroyed: An Indigenous Nightmare


Museums are a way of capturing a moments monument in time. As described by Boyce; Museums are
living institutions3 as they are today constantly evolving and revisiting their purposes. Museums not only
possess internal collections, endowments and facilities, but also provide beneficial information to
individuals or communities and are vital. They possess a power to shape collective values and social
understandings, in a conclusively important manner. Museums and Keeping places especially play an
important role in keeping Aboriginal ancestral remains. These remains have sentimental value for the
Indigenous communities not to mention the scientific importance. Therefore, instead of reburying or
cremation, its important to return the remains to the Aboriginal control ensuring continuous preservation.
The Bangerang Cultural Centre, located at 1 Evergreen Way Shepparton, is a foundation of the history; we
as a country town are honoured to be a part of. Places like the Bangaerang Cultural Centre highlight and
display lifetimes of history that once were mortifying for these traditional landowners.

Figure 2 below: The Murray river resembled garden setting


surrounding the Bangerang Cultural Centre,
Photo taken by Courtney Jezewski in 2010.

Figure 1 above: Image Source: Shepparton news


Former International village administrator with a map of
the project

A Culture Comes to Life


The Bangerang Cultural Centre in Shepparton is a place visited regularly by tourists and local community
members of the Goulburn Valley area. Gaynor Kavanagh the author of the book Making History in Museums
best states an expression of relation to this sacred place. Kavanagh expresses the idea that; Museums provide
no neutrality, as each museum is targeted for a specific audience.4 This is engaged at the Bangerang Cultural
Centre, as it was originally known as the Aboriginal Keeping place, built as part of the International Village
Project in 1974. The International Village Project was a tourist attraction designed by the city council to
celebrate the contributions of different ethnic groups.5 A space was allocated to the local Aboriginal
community to display their arts and crafts however the community, and in particular John Atkinson, a leading
figure in Aboriginal organisations, had a more imaginative plan to set up their own museum or keeping place
which would display artefacts and provide a resource centre for educating people about the cultural heritage of
the Aboriginal people. Thus proving evidence of the relevance Kavanagh's historical theory, as the Bangerang
Cultural Centre is essentially a sacred space of aboriginal culture purposely established for reflection and
educational experiences for those especially interested in Aboriginal culture. One thing phenomenal when
discussing the Bangerang cultures centre's targeted audience is the insight Aboriginal leaders have on the
sacred space itself all easily accessible for the mind of the curious. Kavanagh perfectly expresses this
reflection; historians act as agents for society and produce history to service that society."6 John Atkinson's
involvement within the Bangerang culture centre in sighted us into a reflection of his own as John Atkinson,
spent many years convincing organisations and individuals to commit to their visionary plan. Convincing the
Shepparton Council to set aside a grant of seventy thousand and provide the land on the site. After many years
of planning the cultural centre was finally opened in 1982.7 Thus proving evident the importance of historians
acting as agents for the focused group, as without a visit to the Bangerang cultural centre to be enlightened by
John Atkinson we would have never been enlightened of in depth background knowledge for this sacred
space.

Architectural Significance
Heritage Listed
Bangerang Cultural Centre is listed in Victorian Heritage
database due to its historical, social and architectural
significance, as it is an important landmark in the
struggle of the Aboriginal people to maintain their own
culture.

Figure 3, Bangerang cultural centre, photo taken by Fulya Torun


2010

Historical Significance
The Bangerang Cultural Centre in Shepparton, is the
first Aboriginal keeping place or museum to be
developed and managed by the Aboriginal
community in Australia. It houses an important
collection of artefacts and artworks from Aboriginal
communities across Australia, whilst focusing on
local communities of the Murray and Goulburn
Valley regions. It represents a tangible symbol of the
shift of attitude in society from the idea of
assimilation to self-determination. The phenomenal
museum is beneficial for everyone from children
right through to the elderly, as it holds within it an
experience of history through life sized dioramas and
an insight into traditional Aboriginal cultural
lifestyle. The dioramas focus on local stories, whilst
the remainder of the displays represent Indigenous
cultures from across the country. The displays within
the Bangerang Cultural Centre include features of;
ceramics, glass works, carvings, woven baskets,
paintings and a range of tools and weapons.

Bangerang Cultural Centre is architecturally


significant as a work of renowned architect
Frederick Romberg. The Bangerang Cultural
Centre Building itself consists of a pyramidal roof
on an octagonal base, as evident from the photo
beside. This picture depicts Bronwyn Davies
would describe; photographs, bear witness to
what is not put into words, what is not considered
important, or small details of everyday occurrence
that are taken for granted.9 The shape circle is
architecturally significant to Aboriginal culture as
Aboriginal ancestors when creating a stone
structure as a house or shelter used it. It is believed
that Aboriginal ancestors may have used the shape
circle when building shelter, to allow foundation
walls for timber-domed structures, windbreaks or
daytime hunting hides. Its understood the stone
circles were more likely to be a foundation to hold
the base of the sapling ends in place for the
construction of a domed structure. As expressed by
Davies when you look at the photo above it truly
bears witness to what is not put in words.10 The
shape of the building you see is round and quite
circular, deliberately built as a historical reflection
of previous Aboriginal ancestors building of sacred
places. This small detail of shape used is taken for
granted as Davie would express, as even though it
is a part of historical Aboriginal architecture, most
people would oversee it and be unaware unless
John Atkinson educates them. However, the
interior consists of a ground floor and mezzanine
level. The museum displays are located along the
outer wall and the dioramas and other display
areas are opposite. The artefacts are contained in
timber and glass cabinets. Along the outer wall of
the museum area the ceramic artwork is displayed,
other artworks and a memorial plaque. The
building was deliberately sited in a prominent
position near the entrance to the International
Village and set in landscaped undulating grounds
partly encircled with water. A grassed
amphitheatre was established to stage cultural
events. It was originally intended that a bush
garden would surround the building with edible
fruits and plants. The photographs and artefacts
displayed within the building offer significant
insights into society, without which Davies
expresses; the entire history of material culture
and everyday life could not be investigated.11
Thus enforcing the idea that; a picture says a
thousand words.12 The photo above, along with
the photos and artefacts within the building hold
significant culture for Aboriginal people on their
sacred space, truly emphasizing photographs
bearing witness to what is not put in words, what
is not considered important, or small details 3of
everyday occurrences that are taken for granted.

Oral Interpretation of an Educational Foundation: Representing the Yorta


Yorta People
The Bangerang Cultural Centre is of social significance for the important role it has played for many
Aboriginal people in preserving their identity and raising awareness of indigenous culture. The Bangerang
Cultural Centre as a keeping place particularly represents the Yorta Yorta people. As a unique group of
Indigenous Australians, the Yorta Yorta peoples original ancestors have occupied the land since time
immemorial. However the Yorta Yorta nation now occupy a region of territory overlapping the New South
Wales and Victoria border known today as the Goulburn/Murray region. The Yorta Yorta mob wears their
distinct identity with pride and honour. This enriching pride can be seen in the Bangerang Cultural Centre, as
the museum serves to display a lifetime cultural heritage of descendants from ten different clan groups, living
in regions between the Murray and Goulburn Rivers. These ten distinct family clan groups include:
Bangerang, Kailtheban, Wollithiga, Moira, Ulupna, Kwat Kwat, Yalaba Yalaba and Nguaria-iiliam-wurrung
clans, each a family clan being a representation of their own mob.13 However the family clans are so closely
related by kinship ties, that they identify themselves as one and are strongly attached to each other through
blood line connections and respect.14 The Bangerang Cultural Centre today plays and educative, but
important roles as they strive to provide a Cultural Centre, that will educate persons of all; ages, ethnics and
physical abilities, as well as inspiring them to explore and discover Aboriginal culture in a creative
environment. One key point about the Bangerang Culture Centre however, includes its commonly known
attribute as being a "place to reflect.15 The Bangerang Cultural Centre as a place to reflect can focus on a
time in history where Indigenous Australians won't be pushed around any longer as the Cummergunja walk
off and the Yorta Yorta native title claim, changes the history of Indigenous Australians forever.

Figure 5: An artwork
from Bangerang
Cultural Centre,
representing the
ancient Yorta Yorta
tribes. Photo taken by
Courtney Jezewski
2010

Figure 4: Cummeragunja school 1938. Photo taken from national archives of


Australia

The Walk of Hope, which changed history of Australia


The area known as The Flats, on the Shepparton to Mooroopna Causeway, became home to
many after the Walk Off, from Cummeragunja at Barmah on 4 February 1939.16 The first ever
mass strike of Aboriginal people, the Walk Off was due to the increasingly restrictive controls
upon the movement and activities of the people, the poor rations and cruel treatment they
received and the increasing removal of children. The plan came alive when Jack Patten, with
the help of William Cooper, encouraged the people of the mission to leave in order to seek
better living conditions, therefore resulting in the walk off to The Flats. Jack Patten received a
gaol sentence for his part in enticing the Aboriginal families to leave the Cummeragunja
reserve.17 Both Jack Patten and William Cooper was a spokesman for the dispersed Aboriginal
communities of central Victoria and western New South Wales. Historian Tony Birch In his
article 'History is never Bloodless,' argues the consequences of history wars conflict views of
the past which do not form part of the white national narrative towards Aboriginal people being
discredited by certain historians, which have in turn served political interests.18 The use of
language in particular such as 'removal' instead of 'stolen' implies a policy that was indeed
humane. Certain right wing media outlets and politicians have seized upon their distorted views
and employed them in justifying their arguments and in doing so have denied Aboriginal
peoples social justice. However as historians have a 'special obligation' because of their
'custodians of memory' prestige surely it is their responsibility to strive for integrity and convey
the truth.19 A suggestion that would go a long way towards rectifying the sins of the past. It's
moments like these that are captured as a moments monument in time, within the walls of the
Bangerang Cultural Centre. As more than just a local museum, the Bangerang Culture Centre is
a place to reflect or embrace our Australian culture, reconciliation for a time in Australia that
once was in humane, and a place of knowledge to learn from mistakes, along with our heritage
and pride us as multicultural Australia.

Fighting For Fair Justice


The Bangerang Cultural Centre shares a time in history that our local Yorta Yorta people will forever celebrate;
The Native Title Claim. In February 1994, the Yorta Yorta people were one of the first Indigenous groups in
Australia to make a native title claim.20 The Native Title Claim involved local Yorta Yorta people making land
claims to the Government in an attempt to regain the land that had been taken from them after European
settlement. Yorta Yorta group coordinator; Monica Morgan cited; Our mob knew we were taking a chance
trusting the system of the white man...but this is like an annihilation of our culture. 21 Monica Morgans quote is a
reflection of Ann Curthoys reading; Crying in the Archives, particularly Curthoys quote; Language like
everything else used as historical evidence, is itself a historical artefact.22 As Monicas quote is used as historical
evidence within the walls of our local Bangerang Cultural centre to express a necessary celebration or triumph for
an accomplishment that should never have been stolen from the Yorta Yorta people. Monicas use of words when
cited engages the truth passion of history as Curthoys expression can be seen in Monicas language as itself an
historical artefact. The Yorta Yorta people were granted with the reclaiming to their land in December 2002.
However the Yorta Yorta people were faced with many difficulties including; proving an uninterrupted connection
to the land and a number of setbacks including a court ruling against their initial claim. This interesting moment in
Aboriginal history can be found within the historically inspired doors of the Bangerang Cultural Centre, as we read
of this phenomenal account that opened opportunity for other Indigenous mobs across Australia to join them in
taking a stand to regaining their land. Thus truly emphasizing the importance of the Bangerang Cultural Centre in
our community as it a sacred place to reflect on historical moments like the particular Native Land Titles moment.

Figure 6 : (Above) Yorta Yorta Native Title


Case taking evidence at the Echuca Court
House 1996 . National Archives of
Autsralia Canberra 1996

Figure 7: Reflections on the Yorta Yorta Native Title Claim


1994, photo taken from slv.vic.gov.au native title claim

A League Of Extraordinary Men and Woman

Figure 8 Man Magazine, 1938, The Mourning Day. In the


middle, William Cooper

Figure 9, The Australian Newspaper, April 1938

Bangerang Cultural Centre also proudly reflects on the


leading extraordinary Aboriginal elders by displays their
photos in the keeping centre. Many of these
leading activists from the Yorta Yorta area are known to
have courageously fought throughout the hardship and
survival of the European invasion and through the battles
to claim indigenous rights. These elders are recognised
nationwide for their contribution in campaigns, political
activities and land right movements in the history of
Australia. The walk off from Cummeragunja in 1939 is
an example of a political activity which took place as a
protest for bad living conditions.23 Many brave
Aboriginal woman including Gladys Nicholls were
involved in this walk off alongside their beloved families.
Likewise Aboriginal woman such as Elizabeth Hoffman,
Monica Morgan and Margaret Wirrapundas were
also involvement in the Yorta Yorta native title claim that
took place in 1994, to claim land that was traditionally
theirs. Margaret Tucker however can be referred to as
the most outstanding example of a woman fighting to
make a difference. Margaret Tucker was a Yulupna
woman who spent part of her childhood at
Cummeragunja mission.24 Margaret was removed against
her will at the age of thirteen and was taken to
Cootamundra domestic training home, where she was
treated both physically and psychologically horrifically.
She then was sent out to work for a white family where
she was again severely abused.25As a result, like many
other Aboriginal kids and teenagers, Margaret too
experienced traumatic years of teenage hood which
resulted from the government policies. Margaret Tucker,
began campaigning for Indigenous rights in 1930s
alongside other renowned Koori campaigners such as
William Cooper 26 Margaret Tucker was one of the cofounders of the Australian Aborigines League and played
a significant role in United Council of Aboriginal and
Islander Women in the 1960s. She was recorded as the
first Aboriginal woman appointed to the Aborigines
Welfare Board and has contributed and remembered with
many of her political work regarding people and woman
in the Aboriginal society.27 Another well-known
Aboriginal leader, William Cooper, had attended adult
literacy classes and therefore had sound writing and
communication skills.28 Through his works at the union
and along with family connections he became a
spokesman for the dispersed communities of Victoria and
western Australia who were ineligible for any sort of
assistance during 1920s drought up until the 1930s
Depression period. As secretary of the Australian
Aborigines' League, formed by the Melbourne Aboriginal
community, he petitioned seeking representation in
parliament, enfranchisement and land rights. Although
Cooper was refused cooperation by the Commonwealth
and state authorities, he had extraordinarily managed to
collect over 1500 signatures from Aboriginal
communities all over Australia by the end of 1937. His
work and achievements are today remembered and
recognised by the Aboriginal communities all over
Australia.29

7
Figure 10: Dawn Magazine, Margaret Tucker, May 1958

Is the Glass Half Full Or Is It Half Empty?


Indigenous Cultural Centres, particularly our local Bangerang Cultural Centre, have become a crucial argument for
making Indigenous histories and contemporary cultures public in urban settler-colonial societies over the past few
decades. Whilst were inspired with brilliant heart warming success stories, we are equally enlightened in stories that
cause concern, as some Indigenous cultural centres have been abandoned in the past recent years. These centres fail to
nourish the cultural interests of Indigenous sponsors, once being places for vibrant community gatherings,
unfortunately fail to garner the economic and politic and social support to remain viable and continuous.

AIATSIS
Many other cultural centres have emerged in Australia to
seek and represent the cultures of the Indigenous tribes as
well as acting as a gathering place for the Indigenous
population. One positive example of a cultural centre is the
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Studies Keeping place (AIATSIS), which prides itself as
the great keeping place and refers to itself as a treasure
trove. The keeping place located in the heart of the capital
city holds some of the largest collections of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander materials in the world. Its library
holds more than one hundred and seventy thousand items.29
These items consists of photographs, films, audio tapes and
cover all aspects and time of Indigenous histories,
languages, traditions, practices and peoples. Furthermore
AIATSIS centre digitalises most of its oldest materials
which date back to the earliest years to preserve these
valuable information and items, for the future generations
to come. The centre works very closely with honorly
scholars and researches, native title rep bodies, local
councils and lawmakers in order to develop programs to
make a difference on the emerging issues and support the
Indigenous communities.30

Figure 11: AIATSIS building in Canberra, source from nirs.org.au

Fears of Facing Closures

Armidale & Region Aboriginal Cultural


Centre
Likewise, Armidale and Region Aboriginal Cultural centre
and keeping place is also another example of a keeping
place still standing strong. Structured similarly to the
Bangerang cultural Centre, Armidale and Region Cultural
centre too displays a diverse aboriginal art and culture in
the museum. The Armidale local council and the Australian
government trade and investment agency fund the Centre.
The Cultural Centre contains a caf and a gift shop within
the building, which offers a taste of Aboriginal culture and
adds an excitement to the experience by offering a chance
for the tourist to purchase souvenirs. Armidale and Region
Aboriginal Cultural Centre can be argued as more active in
term of engaging with tourists, then some of other keeping
places in the country.31

On the other hand Brewerrina Aboriginal culture


museum which was opened in 1990, is one of the
Indigenous keeping places which are today in
danger of closing down. Like Bangerang cultural
centre Brewerrina Aboriginal cultural centre too
offers visitors and the community members a
chance to lean and experience the Aboriginal
culture where the local tribe of Ngemba people
have gathered for thousands of years. However
the keeping place has been known to be facing
difficulties attracting enough visitors. Moreover,
Galina Beek cultural centre that opened in 1995
had also struggled for viability in the recent
years and therefore has already been closed
down. McGaw and Pieris state the stress of
such closures is demoralising for the Indigenous
communities involved.32 Both McCaw and
Pieri affirm that Indigenous people have right
to the city with economic opportunities and
civic visibility it affords.33
8

Future Uncertainties for Bangerang Cultural Centre


Although the Bangerang Cultural Centre has no significant economical issues as it is funded by the Australian
Governments office of the Arts for its work in preserving Indigenous culture, yet today still face uncertain future,
due to the difficulties attracting enough visitors for it to remain open. McCaw and Pieris, acknowledge that
centralising Aboriginal culture in urban towns and cities requires specific compromises. Some of these
compromises include flexible trading times, convenient locations, and modernising artefacts within the centre. All
of the points made by McGaw and Pieris is directly relevant to the Bangerang cultural centre today.34 Firstly the
keeping place needs to be open to public during its trading hours. Although the museums trading hours are
Monday to Friday from nine till four, one cannot easily drop in while passing through the town due to
inaccessibility. It seems the only way to have an access to the museum is by appointment, which is inconvenient
for many tourists wanting to visit while driving through the town. Secondly, artefacts and historical materials can
be upgraded and modernised to attract the interest of younger generations. Digitalising historical materials and
artefacts not only would bring the museum to life, nevertheless it is an important process in preserving the
significant pieces for the future generations to come. Moreover, another suggestion perhaps is arranging activities
and programs within the cultural centre that would welcome the Aboriginal community to spend more time in the
keeping place. This process could also have a positive uplifting effect on the cultural centre.

As a Result
To conclude, the purpose of this article was to state
the importance of the Aboriginal culture and the
significance of educating the public about one of
the most fascinating and earliest continuing
cultures in the world. There is no doubt that
Aboriginals are the original owners and are the
pride of this land, therefore their stories, traditions
and customs should continue to be taught and
experienced. This is when the museums and
keeping places play a significant role. As discussed
throughout this article, museums not only are
places that display items but also places that posses
an invisible power to shape our social
understanding. Particularly Indigenous keeping
places are important due to the artefacts and
materials they hold which have sentimental value
to the Aboriginal communities. Continuation of
these keeping places is crucial for the educational
purpose and keeping the communities and their
cultures alive. As proposed above, there are
brilliant examples of Indigenous keeping places in
our communities and the key word for continuity of
most keeping places in Australia is Change and
Availability.
Figure 12, The Yorta Yorta Country Barmah- Millewa National
Park Wetlands

1.

Broome, Richard, Aboriginal Victorians: A History since 1800 (NSW:

Allen & Unwin, 2005), P13

Bangerang Cultural Centre - Home. 2015. Bangerang Cultural Centre 15.


Home. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bangerang.org.au/home.html.

2. Jackomos and Fowell, Living Aboriginal History of Victoria, Stories in the

[Accessed 9 October 2015].

Oral Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), P23.

16. The Flats | RiverConnect. 2015. The Flats | RiverConnect. [ONLINE]

3. James Boyce, 'Fantasy Island' in Robert Manne, Whitewash: On Keith

Available at: http://www.riverconnect.com.au/cultural/theflats. [Accessed 9

Windschuttles Fabrication of Aboriginal History, (Melbourne: Black Inc.,

October 2015].

2003) P17.

17. The Flats | RiverConnect. 2015. The Flats | RiverConnect. [ONLINE]

4. Gaynor, Kavanagh, Making Histories, Making Memories in Kavanagh,

Available at: http://www.riverconnect.com.au/cultural/theflats. [Accessed 10

Gaynor (ed), Making Histories in Museums, London, Leicester University

October 2015].

Press, 1996, P11.

18. Tony Birch, History is never bloodless: getting it wrong after one hundred

5.Ibid, P11.

years of federation, Australian Historical Studies, 33:118 (2002), P53.

6. Gaynor, Kavanagh, Making Histories, Making Memories in Kavanagh,

19. Tony Birch, History is never bloodless: getting it wrong after one

Gaynor (ed), Making Histories in Museums, London, Leicester University

hundred years of federation, Australian Historical Studies, 33:118 (2002): 42-

Press, 1996, P27.

53.

7. John Atkinson, Bangerang Cultural Centre Founder & Manager, 5/10/2015.

20. Native title & the Yorta Yorta | Ergo. 2015. Native title & the Yorta Yorta |

8. McGaw, Janet, Pieris, Anoma, Assembling the Centre: Architecture for

Ergo. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/fight-

Indigenous Cultures: Australia and Beyond (NSW: Routledge, 2014).

rights/indigenous-rights/native-title-yorta-yorta. [Accessed 18 October 2015].

9. Davies, Bronwyn, Chance Residues: Photographs and social

21.

history, (Ch. 7)in Tony Ballantyne and Brian Moloughney,

Morgan, Monica 2002. The Yorta Yorta experience. Paper presented at

eds, Disputed Histories: Imagining New Zealands Pasts, Otago University

The Native Title Conference 2002: Outcomes and Possibilities,

Press: Dunedin, 2006, P265.

Geraldton,Western Australia, 5 September.11/10/2015.

10. Davies, Bronwyn, Chance Residues: Photographs and social


history, (Ch. 7)in Tony Ballantyne and Brian Moloughney,

22. Ann Curthoys, History Wars, in Is History Fiction, (Ann Arbor:


University of Michigan Press, 2005), P220.

eds, Disputed Histories: Imagining New Zealands Pasts, Otago University

23.

Press: Dunedin, 2006, P265.

Oral Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 106


24.
Broome, Richard, Aboriginal Victorians: A History since 1800 (NSW:

11. Davies, Bronwyn, Chance Residues: Photographs and social


history, (Ch. 7)in Tony Ballantyne and Brian Moloughney,

Jackomos and Fowell, Living Aboriginal History of Victoria, Stories in the

eds, Disputed Histories: Imagining New Zealands Pasts, Otago University

Allen & Unwin, 2005)


25. Tucker, Margaret, If Everyone Cared: Autobiography of Margaret Tucker

Press: Dunedin, 2006, P267.

(Sydney: Ure Smith, 1977), P34.

12. Davies, Bronwyn, Chance Residues: Photographs and social

26. Dawn Magazine, A magazine for the Aboriginal People of NSW, Margaret

history, (Ch. 7)in Tony Ballantyne and Brian Moloughney,

Tucker, Volume 7, May 1958

eds, Disputed Histories: Imagining New Zealands Pasts, Otago University


Press: Dunedin, 2006, P267.

27. Diane Barwick, 'Cooper, William (18611941)', Australian Dictionary of

13. Chris Healy, We Remember for You: the memory-work of

Biography, National Centre of Biography,

museums, From the Ruins of Colonialism: history as social memory,

http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/cooper-william-5773, accessed online 8 Oct

(Cambridge, Melbourne, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997),

2015.

P105.

28. Atwood B &Marcus A, Thinking Black: William Cooper and the Australian

14. Chris Healy, We Remember for You: the memory-work of

Aborigines' League (Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2004, P117.

museums, From the Ruins of Colonialism: history as social memory,

29. Atwood B &Marcus A, Thinking Black: William Cooper and the Australian

(Cambridge, Melbourne, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997),

Aborigines' League (Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2004, P121.

P105.

30. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Islander Studies. 2015.


Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Islander Studies. [ONLINE]
Available at: http://aiatsis.gov.au/. [Accessed 18 October 2015].
31. Home - Armidale Region. 2015. Home - Armidale Region. [ONLINE]
Available at: http://www.armidaleregion.com.au/. [Accessed 18 October 2015].
32. Watson, Sheila, Museums and their Communities (New York: Routledge,
2007)
33. Ibid.
34.

McGaw, Janet, Pieris, Anoma, Assembling the Centre: Architecture for

Indigenous Cultures: Australia and Beyond (NSW: Routledge, 2014).

10

Primary Sources
Dawn Magazine, A magazine for the Aboriginal People of NSW, Margaret Tucker, Volume 7, May 1958
Lumley, Bill & Lynn Bangerang Cultural Centre: Exodus from Cummeragunja, News Clippings from 1968 to 1961. Shepparton Newspapers.
John Atkinsons speech over Bangerang Cultural Centre, Cofounder and Manager, 20.12.2014.
Morgan, Monica 2002. The Yorta Yorta experience. Paper presented at The Native Title Conference 2002: Outcomes and Possibilities,
Patten, T. J., Abo Call: The Voice of the Aborigines, Australian, April 1938, in Trove [online database], accessed 11 Oct 2015.
Tucker, Margaret, If Everyone Cared: Autobiography of Margaret Tucker (Sydney: Ure Smith, 1977), P34.
Tucker Margaret, As I Saw the World Abroad Dawn Magazine, photos from Margaret Tucker section, 1952, 20, in AISISES [online database], accessed 10
Oct 2015.
Secondary Sources
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Islander Studies. 2015. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Islander Studies. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://aiatsis.gov.au/. [Accessed 18 October 2015].
Ann Curthoys, History Wars, in Is History Fiction, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005), P220.
Armidale Region. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.armidaleregion.com.au/. [Accessed 18 October 2015].
Atwood B &Marcus A, Thinking Black: William Cooper and the Australian Aborigines' League (Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2004, P117.
Bangerang Cultural Centre - Home. 2015. Bangerang Cultural Centre - Home. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bangerang.org.au/home.html. [Accessed 9
October 2015].
Broome, Richard, Aboriginal Victorians: A History since 1800 (NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2005).
Chris Healy, We Remember for You: the memory-work of museums, From the Ruins of Colonialism: history as social memory, (Cambridge, Melbourne,
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Davies, Bronwyn, Chance Residues: Photographs and social history, (Ch. 7)in Tony Ballantyne and Brian Moloughney, eds, Disputed Histories: Imagining
New Zealands Pasts, Otago University Press: Dunedin, 2006, P265.
Diane Barwick, 'Cooper, William (18611941)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, <http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/cooperwilliam-5773>, accessed online 8 Oct 2015.
Gaynor, Kavanagh, Making Histories, Making Memories in Kavanagh, Gaynor (ed), Making Histories in Museums, London, Leicester University Press,
1996.
Jackomos and Fowell, Living Aboriginal History of Victoria, Stories in the Oral Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
James Boyce, 'Fantasy Island' in Robert Manne, Whitewash: On Keith Windschuttles Fabrication of Aboriginal History, (Melbourne: Black Inc., 2003).
McGaw, Janet, Pieris, Anoma, Assembling the Centre: Architecture for Indigenous Cultures: Australia and Beyond (NSW: Routledge, 2014).
Native title & the Yorta Yorta | Ergo. 2015. Native title & the Yorta Yorta Ergo. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/fightrights/indigenous-rights/native-title-yorta-yorta. [Accessed 18 October 2015].
The Flats RiverConnect. 2015. The Flats RiverConnect. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.riverconnect.com.au/cultural/theflats. [Accessed 9 October
2015].
Birch, Tony History is never bloodless: getting it wrong after one hundred years of federation, Australian Historical Studies, 33:118 (2002), P53.
Watson, Sheila, Museums and their Communities (New York: Routledge, 2007)

11