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## > The art of detecting the movement of a craft from one

point to another along a desired path.

## >the navigator fixes his position

on a map by observing known
landmarks.

## >also called as Astronomical

>it is accomplished by measuring
the angular position of celestial
bodies.

RECKONING (DEDUCED
CALCULATIONS)

## >the positions of crafts at any instant

of time is calculated from previously
determined position, the speed of its
motion with respect to the earth with
the direction and the time elapsed.
>it is the most common and widely

computers

a fix.

1. POSITION

2. DIRECTION

3. DISTANCE

## >nautical mile (6080 ft.), statue mile

(5280 ft.), and radar mile (6000 ft.)

4. SPEED

5. TIME

## >EST Meridian (GMT-5), CST (GMT-6),

MST Meridian (GMT-7), PST Meridian
(GMT-8)

## WORLD TIME ZONES

1. GMT

Greenwich MeanTime
0 degree (Zulu Time)
UTC Universal Time Coordinate

2. PST

GMT - 8

3. MST

GMT - 7

4. CST

GMT - 6

5. EST

## >Eastern Standard Time

GMT - 5

POINTS OF BEARING

POINTS OF BEARING
1. 90 degrees

2. 0 degree

On Starboard Beam

3. 180 degrees

On Port Beam

4. 270 degrees

RELATIVE BEARING

Axes of rotation
1. Lateral Axis

Pitch (Elevator)

2. Longitudinal
Axis

Roll (Aileron)

3. Vertical Axis

## >basically, a means of gathering

or targets by sending
electromagnetic waves at them
and analyzing the echoes.

A. According to the Location of Transmitter and Receiver

1. Monostatic
2. Bistatic
3. Multistatic

## transmitter and receiver are both

located at the same point
separated by quite large distances

B. According to the Form of Transmitted Signal

1. Pulsed

## forms in short burst of RF energy

2. Continuous Wave

## gives the speed without the range

and distance using the principle of
Doppler Effect

C. According to the Information Given

1. Primary

2. Secondary

(azimuth, range)

(altitude, identification)

DOPPLER EFFECT
> the apparent frequency of electromagnetic or sound waves depends on
the relative radial motion of the source and the observer

> if the source and observer are moving away from each other, the
apparent frequency will decrease, while if they are moving toward each
other, the apparent frequency will increase

DOPPLER EFFECT
> postulated by Christian Doppler in 1842
> was given a firm mathematical basis by Armand Fizeau

## where: v = velocity of the target in m/sec

= wavelength in m
fd = Doppler frequency
= angle of direction of target
and the radar line of sight to the target

NOTE: the transmitted signal takes 6.16 sec to travel one radar mile
Therefore,
Round Trip = 12.36sec

## Pulse repetition time

> determines the maximum distance to the target to be measured

Maximum unambiguous
range
> range beyond which objects appear as second return echoes

## Minimum effective range

Duty cycle
> Duty Cycle = Average Power / Peak Power

examples
1. What is the duty cycle of radar with a PW of
3sec and a PRT of 6msec?

examples
2. Calculate the average power when peak power
is 1kW, PW is 3sec and rest time of 1997sec.

Since

Pmin = kTB(F-1)
Then,

## where: Rmax = maximum range

Pt = transmitting power
Ao = capture area of the transmitting antenna
S = radar cross sectional area
Pmin = minimum receivable power
= wavelength

examples
1. Calculate the minimum receivable signal in a
and a 9dB noise figure.

examples
2. Calculate the maximum range of a radar
system which operates at 3cm with a peak pulse
power of 500kW, if its minimum receivable power
is 10-13 watts, the capture area of its antenna is 5
sq. m. and the radar cross sectional area of the
target is 20 sq. m.

TARGET PROPERTIES
> the radar cross section or effective area of the target
depends on the frequency used

RAYLEIGH REGION
> the target is small compared to a wavelength, its cross
sectional area for radar appears much smaller than its
real cross section

RESONANCE REGION
> when the circumference of a spherical target is between
1 and 10 wavelengths, the radar cross section oscillates

OPTICAL REGION
> for shorter wavelengths, the radar and true cross
sections are equal

## TARGET CROSS SECTION

The Radar Cross Section of the Target Depends on:
1. polarization of the incident wave
2. degree of surface roughness
3. use of special coatings on the target
4. aspect of the target

PULSE CHARACTERISTICS
> flat topped rectangular pulse

must be vertical to ensure that the leading
edge of the received pulse is also close to vertical for the
exact measurement of the target range.
> steep trailing
is needed for the transmitted pulse
so that the duplexer can switch the receiver over the
antenna as soon as the body of the pulse has passed

> use dipole or horn fed paraboloid reflectors or at least
reflectors which is basically paraboloid shape

SCANNING PATTERNS
1. Horizontal

2. Nodding

SCANNING PATTERNS
3. Helical

4. Spiral

ANTENNA TRACKING
1. Lobe Switching
Technique

## > sequential lobe

> the direction of the antenna
beam is rapidly switched between
2 positions

2. Conical scanning

## > logical extension of lobe

switching

3. Monopulse tracking

of the reflector

1. A Scope

1. A Scope

## A-scan > range and intensity presentation

B-scan > range and azimuth presentation
C-scan > elevation and azimuth presentation

2. Plan Position Indicator
> intensity modulation of a CRT
> shows range, azimuth and speed
> shows a map of the target area
> the brightness at any point on the
screen indicates the presence of an
object there, with its position
corresponding to its actual physical
position and its range being
center

3. Automatic Target Detection
> direct feeding to a computer

3. Automatic Target Detection
> direct feeding to a computer

1. search for targets
2. track them once they have been acquired

1. Tracking in angle

2. Tracking in range

## a system that gives the angular

position of a target accurately

range information is
continuously obtained

transmitter and an antenna which is often
omnidirectional
> when radar transmits a coded set of pulses at the
beacon, the beacon responds by sending back its
specific pulse code, thereby earning its name
transponder

Foe)

to lighthouses

Interrogation

## Beacon range equations

example
Calculate the maximum active tracking range of a
deep space radar operating at 2.5 GHz using a peak
pulse power of 0.5 MW, with an antenna diameter of
64m, a noise figure of 1.1 and a 5 kHz BW, if the
beacon antenna diameter is 1m, its noise figure is
13dB and it transmits a peak pulse power of 50 W.

> Aerodrome control

R<10 n.mi.

R: 10-60 n.mi

## ARSR: air route surveillance

-R: 60-200 n.mi.

DIRECTION FINDERS
devices capable of determining the
waves.
RDF manual (uses loop
antennas)
employs 2 loop antennas in 90
degrees (uses goniometer to
terminate loop antennas with coil)

## AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER

> automatic determination of relative bearing to a transmitting radio
station or non-directional beacon. Used for weather information and
other broadcast programs. It uses AM with frequency band of 1901860 kHz. It employs 2 loop antennas in 90 0 (goniometer).

DISTRESS FREQUENCIES

500 kHz

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
> uses localizer, glide, and marker
beacon transmitter to provide a
sloping glide path for instrument
(blind) landing approach of an
aircraft
> highly accurate and dependable
means of navigating to the runway.
When using the ILS, the pilot
determines aircraft position primarily
by reference to instruments

(ILS)
1. Localizer

## > provides lateral

guidance
transmitter and
antenna system using
the same general
range as VOR (VHF
Omnidirectional
Range), transmitters
between 108.10 to
111.95 MHz

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
2. Glide slope equipment

guidance

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
3. ILS marker beacons
Marker
Beacon
Outer

Code Light
Blue

Distance to
Threshold
4 to 7 nm

Modulated
Frequency
400 Hz

Middle

Amber

3500 ft

1300 Hz

Inner

White

1000 ft

3000 Hz

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
4. Runway lights
> approach lights (white)

## provide guidance to the

pilot on an approaching
aircraft to the runway

(ILS)
4. Runway lights
Sequence lights

## a part of an approach light. It

flashes twice in second in
sequence. It distinguishes
aeronautical ground lights in
an aero dome to the other
lights in the area

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
4. Runway lights

>runway edge
lights (amber)

provide sufficient
guidance to the pilot
during landing and take
off especially at night or
zero visibility

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
4. Runway lights

>threshold lights
(green)

provides information on
the extremely runway
where landing aircraft is
intended to land

(ILS)
4. Runway lights

(red)

## signifies the end of

runway and is placed on
lines at right angle to
the runway access

## Instrument landing system

(ILS)
4. Runway lights
>PAPI lights
(precision approach
path indicator)

## provides a positive indicating on the aircraft

position relative to the optimal slope during
final approach to the runway

GROUND-CONTROLLED
APPROACH (GCA)
> an airplane is talked down to a blind landing by means
of ground-based search and precision radars

GROUND-CONTROLLED
APPROACH (GCA)
> an airplane is talked down to a blind landing by means
of ground-based search and precision radars

## consisting of extremely high precision microwave radar

equipment that gives the position of an aircraft in range,
azimuth, and elevation.
It is primary designed to bring the pilot through low
overcast of low horizontal visibility so that he can make a
normal landing by visual contact

GROUND-CONTROLLED
APPROACH (GCA)
basically the ground equipment at the airport consists of two
microwave radar sets, which are usually installed in a single trainer
One of the radars, known as the search system, locates all aircraft
within 30 miles or so of the airport and thus provides a radar map of
the vicinity.

## It is the initial phase of the GCA and is accomplished with medium

range radar called plan position indicator
> the other radar, called the precision system, provides continuous
information regarding the position of the incoming aircraft with respect
to the runway. The plane may thus be safely talked down along the
sloping glide path

GROUND-CONTROLLED
APPROACH (GCA)
on the final approach leg, the controller, using precision scopes,
takes control.
He also broadcasts verbal instructions, principally concerning
attitude and lateral deviation from the desired glide path, and guides
the pilot virtually to the end of the runway
> on the final approach, the GCA operator uses precision approach
glide path for descent

NONDIRECTIONAL BEACONS
(NDB)
are low-frequency transmitters operating into an omnidirectional
vertically polarized antenna.
Usually placed at the ILS outer and middle marker beacon sites
where it is known as compass locator

NONDIRECTIONAL BEACONS
(NDB)
are beacons sending its signal equally well in all directions. It is a
low-frequency beacon with a frequency range of 200 kHz to 415 kHz.
The reception range of the radio beacon is at least 15 nautical miles
and it transmits 2 to 3 letters of identification signal from the Morse
code 8 times per minute.
NDB provides a radio station for use by aircraft. The equipment in
the aircraft consists of an ADF.

NONDIRECTIONAL BEACONS
BEARINGS
Magnetic Bearing = Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing
Example:
An aircraft has a magnetic heading of 150 degrees and a relative
bearing to an NDB station of 75 degrees. Determine the magnetic
bearing of the station in degrees.

DISTANCE MEASURING
EQUIPMENT (DME)
> an equipment that provides information of the distance between an
aircraft and the VOR station
> together with VOR, they provide the information necessary for

DISTANCE MEASURING
EQUIPMENT (DME)
1. Transceiver
> sends out signals to
the ground station

DISTANCE MEASURING
EQUIPMENT (DME)
2. Internal computer
> built within the
transceiver that measures
the time interval that
elapsed until the
response

DISTANCE MEASURING
EQUIPMENT (DME)
3. Antenna
> used for both
transmission and
reception

DISTANCE MEASURING
EQUIPMENT (DME)
3. DME controls
> incorporate digital
DME and ground speed
information

DISTANCE MEASURING
EQUIPMENT (DME)
DME displays information

expressed in
nautical miles

## b. aircrafts ground speed

expressed in knots

c. time to station

expressed in minutes

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
a radio facility providing bearing information to
and from such facility at all azimuth within its
service area.
It provides an unlimited number of visual course
legs through the phase comparison of a cardioidsshaped rotating radiation pattern with a fixed 30
Hz reference signal

(VOR)

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
> the VOR signals are received
on the antenna normally located
on the vertical stabilizer or on
the top of the fuselage. The
from the antenna to the

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
> indicator gives the pilot aircraft
position information by means
of three components:

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
> indicator gives the pilot aircraft
position information by means
of three components:

a. Track / Omnibearing
selector

## used to rotate the

azimuth ring which
displays the VOR track

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
> indicator gives the pilot aircraft
position information by means
of three components:

## indicates whether the

track will take the pilot
to or from the station

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
> indicator gives the pilot aircraft
position information by means
of three components:

(TB)

## shows the pilot the position

relative to the track selected
and indicates whether the
radial is to the right or left
agrees generally with the
track selector

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
3. Track arrow
> a needle that you could think
of as a line that runs through the
station and points in the
direction of the selected track
that divides the area around the
VOR station into halves

## VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE

(VOR)
4. Reference line
> a line perpendicular to the
track arrow and intersecting it at
the station. It also divides the
VOR reception area to

(TACAN)
> a microwave pulse system that provides highly accurate
bearing and range information from a shipboard or ground

(TACAN)
> provides an aircraft with continuous distance (range)
and bearing (azimuth) information from a ground beacon
station located within a line-of-sight range up to 195
nautical miles

## > operates completely in the UHF band from 962-1213 MHz

(TACAN)
> has a total of 126 channels in the UHF band, each being
capable of providing full service for over 100 aircrafts
> provides compass direction with less than one degree
error and is capable of indicating true distance from the
ground station within about 600 feet
> can use a very small ground station antenna which
permits its installation on Air Force Mobile units and Navy
carriers

(TACAN)
> the airborne set is a radio set that could be tuned to 126
channels and has a special range and azimuth circuit. It is
generally provided with two indicators, one for showing the
range in nautical miles, the other for indicating the bearing
(azimuth) of the aircraft on the station

(TACAN)
2. Ground or shipboard surface beacon
> a beacon that could be triggered by distance
interrogation pulses coming from an airborne radio set.
When triggered, it will respond by sending out
synchronized reply pulses and also identifies itself aurally
in International Morse Code characters

VORTAC
> a facility consisting of two components or is referred to
as a combination of a VOR and a TACAN therefore
deriving the name VORTAC

VORTAC
> this system is an ICAO (International Civil Aviation
Organization) Rho-Theta system implemented by colocating VOR and TACAN azimuth and TACAN distance
measuring capability at one sight

## LOW FREQUENCY RANGE (LFR)

> range stations that provide four aircraft course legs (the
overlapping of two figure-of-8 patterns)

## LOW FREQUENCY RANGE (LFR)

the low frequency radio range depends on the superposition of two
figure-of-eight directional antenna patterns at right angle with each
other.
These patterns provide on-course signals which interlock with those
of surrounding station to form easily followed airways.
When two vertical antenna towers are properly fed with radio
frequency energy they produce two figure-of-eight radiation patterns.
This makes production of on-course signals simpler and easier.
Radio range stations operate on frequency between 200 kHz and 400
kHz

## LOW FREQUENCY RANGE (LFR)

> four sectors are created by these towers between which are four
regions that overlap each other. In these regions, both signals from
towers are present. Signal in this overlapping zones are heard as
continuous tones blend rather than be heard individually. As long as an
aircraft flies over this zone where on-course signals are present, pilots
would hear continuous signals

## LOW FREQUENCY RANGE (LFR)

if two pairs of vertical tower are placed in a square patterns at right
angles to each other, the fifth center tower is used for transmitting
weather reports.
With two figure-of-eight patterns available the production of oncourse signals becomes a simple matter.
The code signal A is transmitted over one pair of diagonally opposite
towers, and the code signal N is transmitted over the pair of towers.
In this way, four signal zones, called sectors, are produced, two of
which carry the A signal while other two carry the N signal. Between
the four sectors there are regions of overlapping

## LOW FREQUENCY RANGE (LFR)

Cone of Silence
> directly above a radio range station there exists an area where
practically no signal is heard. This area has the shape of inverted cone
and is known as the cone of silence. A pilot passing through the cone of
silence would know that he was directly over the range station whose

SYSTEM
> produces hyperbolic lines of position through the measurement of
the difference in times of transmission of radio signals from two or
more synchronized transmitters at fixed points

SYSTEM
> when synchronized signals are received from two transmitting
stations, the difference in the times of arrival is constant on a
hyperbola having the two transmitting stations as foci

## the measured time difference locates the receiver on the hyperbolic

line of position for that time difference.
Another pair of transmitters provides another hyperbolic line of
position.
The intersection of the lines of position provides a navigational fix.

SYSTEM

LORAN
> an electronic method of determining ship position by the
reception of signals from transmitting stations of known
locations

LORAN
radio signals consisting of short pulses are continually transmitted
from a pair of shore-based stations.
These signals are received aboard the ship by means of a specially
The difference in time of arrival of the two signals is measured by
means of an indicator associated with the receiver.
The measured time difference is used together with special tables or
charts to determine line of position on the surface on the earths
surface.
Two lines of position obtained from two pairs of transmitting stations
intersects at a given LORAN fix.

LORAN A
> the ground waves of a LORAN A transmitter with a peak
power of 100 kW can be received over sea at a distance of
500 to 700 n.mi. and a distance of up to 1100 n.mi. with
ground and sky waves. Over land these distances are
considerably shorter.

LORAN C
> LORAN C transmitters operate at lower frequencies of
100 kHz. At this frequency, ground waves of a 300 kW
transmitter can be received up to 1200 n.mi.

LORAN D
the advantage of LORAN D over LORAN A is that ground stations
are transportable and can therefore be quickly deployed.

## This mobility is gained at the expense of the substantially reduced

radiated power (30 kW peak) inherent in the somewhat smaller
transmitter and lower antenna towers (400 ft. or 120 m) to partially
compensate for this reduction in radiated power.
LORAN D is configured to use 16 phase-coded pulses 500sec part
in each group.
LORAN D phase code is different but compatible with LORAN C
system format and 100sec apart as in LORAN C. pulse sampling is
carried out near the signal peak because sky-wave delays are greater
at short range.

DECCA
> a continuous wave hyperbolic system operating in the 70
to 130 kHz band
> a hyperbolic navigation system which establishes a line
of position from measurement of the phase difference
between two continuous-wave signals

OMEGA
a navigation system developed by US Navy in 1957.
It is a hyperbolic system which works in the VLF region
and has a very long base line of the order of 7000 km
information by measuring the phase difference between
signals radiated by a network of transmitting stations

SONAR

## > a system used

for sonic and ultra
sonic underwater
detection, ranging,
sounding and
communications

TCAS
> Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System

TCAS
> traffic alert and collision avoidance system
> TCAS tracks these other airplanes or intruders, if
equipped with an ATCRBS (air traffic control radar beacon
system)

TCAS
Two types of collision avoidance alerts

(RA)

## shows the relative

position of any intruder
airplanes
vertical maneuver to
avoid a possible
airplane collision

GPS
> Global Positioning System

## > a space-based satellite

location and time information
in all weather conditions,
anywhere on or near the Earth
where there is an unobstructed
line of sight to four or more
GPS satellites

GPS
> NAVSTAR GPS

Timing and Ranging Global
Positioning System
(NAVSTAR GPS) is a
aid which uses satellite
signals to provide accurate

GPS
> GLONASS GPS

## > Globalnaya navigatsionnaya

sputnikovaya sistema or Global
system operated by the Russian
Aerospace Defence Forces.

GPS
> provides specially coded satellite signals that can be
compute position, velocity and time
> four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions
in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver
clock
> navigation in three dimensions is the primary function of
GPS

GPS
1. Space segment
> composed of a constellation of 24 satellites arranged in
six separate orbital planes of four satellites each on a
circular orbit and have the following characteristics:
a. 550 inclination to the equator
b. an altitude of approximately 20,200 km with an orbital
period of 12 sidereal hours
c. 11 hrs, 58 min orbital period

GPS
Satellites give:
a. satellite position
b. constellation data

c. atmospheric corrections

GPS
2. Control segment
Monitor stations locations
> Kwajalein
> Hawaii
> Ascension Island
> Diego Garcia
> Colorado Springs (master control station)

GPS
3. User segment
-anytime, anywhere, and in any weather
-highly accurate measurements
-GPS has almost endless applications

Q&a
An area directly above a radio range station where
practically no signal is heard.

b) cone of silence
c) coverage area
d) RDF area

Q&a
A shipboard equipment which measures the distance
between the ships bottom and the ocean floor by sending
the ultrasonic pulses via a transducer which are reflected
at the sea bottom and received with the same transducer.

a) echosounder
b) SONAR
c) compandor
d) hydrophone

Q&a
The ratio of the pulse width to the time
between the beginning of 2 pulses.
a) duty cycle
b) Doppler shift
c) blind speed
d) tracking error

Q&a
A navigation system from which hyperbolic lines of position
are determined by measuring the difference in the times of
arrival of pulses from widely spaced, synchronized
transmitting stations.

a) LORAN
b) TACAN
c) DME
d) VOR

Q&a
A measure of the ability of the receiver to
detect transmission.
a) selectivity
b) sensitivity
c) detector
d) demodulator

Q&a
Radio range stations in LFR operate on
frequencies between
a) 20 kHz & 40 kHz
b) 200 kHz & 400 kHz
c) 30 kHz & 300 kHz
d) 2 MHz & 4 MHz

Q&a
The fifth center tower in an LFR is used for
transmitting _____ reports
a) hazard
b) range
c) weather
d) direction

Q&a
The direction of one terrestrial point from another,
expressed as angular distance from a reference
direction.
b) bearing
c) relative bearing
d) true bearing

Q&a
DME operates in the ________ frequency
band.
a) LF
b) HF
c) VHF
d) UHF

Q&a
SONAR equipment feature which enlarges
all echoes on the screen.
a) grayline
b) zoom
c) sensitivity
d) ASP

Q&a
A major obstacle in achieving high speed
operation in a SONAR manifested by turbulent
water flow.
a) transom
b) cavitation
c) thru-hull
d) shoot thru

Q&a
Considered to be the SONAR units antenna

a) crystal
b) transducer
c) localizer
d) transceiver

Q&a
The speed of sound through water

a) 4800 m/sec
b) 1463 m/sec
c) 4800 miles/sec
d) 5000 ft/sec

Q&a
What is an electronic measuring equipment used
in navigation operating in 1 GHz band which
provides bearing and distance indication?
a) TACAN
b) VOR
c) ILS
d) DME

Q&a
An instrument used to measure one location
in terms of coordinates.
a) global positioning system
b) hydrometer
c) altimeter
d) increductometer

Q&a
The distance in angular degrees in a
clockwise direction from magnetic north.
a) phase difference
b) azimuth
c) latitude
d) longitude

Q&a
_______ is used with a localizer station to indicate
the desired approach path of an aircraft.

## a) glide slope system

b) marker
c) LORAN chart
d) OBI

Q&a
_______ is a 30 Hz signal which has a constant
phase at all points around the VOR station.

a) reference signal
b) variable signal
c) ID signal
d) voice modulation

Q&a
If the peak transmitted power in a radar system is
increased by a factor of 16, the maximum range
will be increased by a factor of
a) 2
b) 4
c) 8
d) 16

Q&a
After a target has been acquired, the best
scanning system for tracking is
a) nodding
b) spiral
c) conical
d) helical

Q&a
The coho in MTI radar operates at the

a) intermediate frequency
b) transmitted frequency
d) pulse repetition frequency

Q&a
If the target cross section is changing , the
best system for accurate tracking is
a) lobe switching
b) sequential lobing
c) conical scanning
d) monopulse

Q&a
The number of pulses that occur per second
a) PRR
b) pulse train
c) pulse width
d) duty cycle

Q&a
The phenomenon evidenced by the change in the observed frequency
of a sound or a radio wave caused by the time rate of change in the
magnitude of the radial component of relative velocity between the
source and the point of observation.

a) tunnel effect
b) Doppler effect
c) Gunn effect
d) end effect

Q&a
_______ are non-directional transmitters that
operate in the LF and MF bands.

b) DME
c) ILS
d) LORAN

Q&a
When a single antenna is intended to be used for
transmitting and receiving , it is necessary to use
a
a) duplexer
b) diplexer
c) combiner
d) translator

Q&a
The most commonly used component in a RADAR
transmitter is the _______ tube.

a) dynatron
b) twystron
c) magnetron
d) cyclotron

Q&a
A radar display that sweeps outward of the center
of the screen while rotating is known as

a) CRT
b) PPI
c) D-scope
d) periscope

Q&a
The time from the transmission of a radar pulse to
its reception is 0.12 msec. The distance to the
target is _________ nautical miles.
a) 4.85
b) 11.2
c) 9.7
d) 7.9

Q&a
The pulse duration of a radar signal is 600
nanoseconds. The PRF is 185 pulses per second.
The duty cycle is
a) 0.01%
b) 5.5%
c) 31%
d) 97%

Q&a
Doppler effect allows which characteristic of a

a) distance
b) speed
c) size of target
d) azimuth

Q&a

a) dipoles
c) horn and parabolic antenna
d) discone

Q&a
The following are the components of an ILS
except:
a) localizer
b) glide slope
c) markers
d) goniometer

Q&a
The following are hyperbolic systems
except:
a) LORAN
b) DECCA
c) OMEGA
d) TACAN

Q&a
What do you call an electronic measuring equipment used
in navigation which provides runway direction, distance
and height guidance to permit blind landing?

a) DME
b) VOR
c) TACAN
d) ILS

Q&a
or other highly directional antenna arrangement to
determine the direction of a radio signal.
a) DME
b) RDF
c) TACAN
d) VOR

Q&a
An agency of the United Nations, that formulates
standards and recommended practices for all civil
aviation.
a) ICAO
b) CAA
c) IATA
d) ATO

Q&a
LORAN is a navigation system used
primarily for
a) obtaining fixes over large distances
b) approach control
c) blind landing
d) IFF surveillance operation

Q&a
TACAN is a navigational aid providing

## a) speed and height indication

b) bearing and weather information
c) bearing and distance indication
d) cone of confusion

Q&a
Otherwise known as Coastline refraction or
the refraction of waves towards the
coastline.
a) Polarization effect
b) Land effect
c) Skin effect
d) Luxembourg effect

Q&a

a) RIMPATT
b) TRAPATT
c) magnetron
d) IMPATT

Q&a

## a) Radio Detection and Rating

Q&a
A long range navigation system in which two pairs of
ground stations transmit pulsed signal, which are used by
aircraft or ships to determine their position.

a) LORAN
b) SHORAN
c) GEE
d) TCAS

Q&a
LORAN stands for

Q&a
LORAN was developed in the United States during WWII.
What system equivalent to LORAN, which was developed
in England and is used for guiding high-flying bombers
over Germany during WWII?

a) SHORAN
b) DECCA
c) OMEGA
d) GEE

Q&a
What navigational system that uses the principle

a) GEE
b) LORAN
c) OMEGA
d) All of the above

Q&a
Navigation principle that depends on the measurement of
the difference in distance to two fixed stations whose
separation distance is accurately known.

a) triangulation
b) hyperbolic
c) elliptic
d) pilotage

Q&a
In hyperbolic navigation, how many sets of
hyperbolas are needed before a position (fix) is
obtained?
a) 2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 8

Q&a
In LORAN system, at least how many ground
stations are needed before a position (fix) is
obtained?
a) 2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 8

Q&a
In GEE system, at least how many ground
stations are needed before a position or fix is
determined?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 5
d) 7