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Sophomored 0910 Chem

I. Mole Concept
- a counting unit used in chemistry to measure the ammount of substance
- abbreviated as “mol”
- Founded on Avogadro's Number
- 6.02 X 10^(23)
- founder: Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro
- is equivalent to the number of atoms in a carbon-12 atom
- Different masses are used
1. Formula Mass:
- a measurement of an object's mass relative to that of a carbon-12
- measured in “amu”
- used for ionic compounds.
- Ionic compounds are METAL – NONMETAL
1. Molecular Mass
- a measurement of an objects mass relative to that of a carbon – 12 isotope
- measured in amu
- used for covalent compunds
2. Molar Mass
- mass in grams numerically equal to formula or molecular mass
- Measured in grams per mol, “g/mol”
- SOLVING FOR ATOMIC MASS (Given just the compound)
1. Example: Al2 (SO4)3

Element Number of Molecules Atomic Mass (NoM X Atomic Mass)

Aluminum 2 26.98 53.96
Sulfer 3 32.07 96.21
Oxygen 12* 16 192
Total: 342.17 amu

*: it’s twelve because 4 times 3 is 12, 4 being the subscript of O and 3 being the subscript of the sulfur AND oxygen

1. Example: SF6

Element Number of Molecules Atomic Mass (NoM X Atomic Mass)

Sulfur 1 32.07 32.07
Fluorine 6 19 114
Total: 146.07 amu


1. Note: Use this naming system
1 element = atoms (8 atoms of oxygen)
compounds = particles (8 particles of Freon)
molecular mass = molecules (8 molecules of H2O)
formula mass = formula units A.K.A “fu” (8 fu CaCl)

1.Conversion Chart

----- ( P/AN)---> ---- (mol X amu) ---->

Particle Mole Grams
<----(P X AN)--- <---(grams/amu)------

AN = Avogadro's number (6.02 X 10^(23))

P = Particles

- Triple Conversion
1. You will either be doing a particle to gram or gram to particl conversion
2. Just follow the steps in the chart above

II. Percent Composition

- a relative measure of the mass of each different element in the compound
1. in other words..... the percentage of an element in a compound
2. Example: (NH4)2 SO4

Element Number of Atomic Mass (NoM X Atomic Mass) (<---That)/Total AMU (<----That) X 100

Nitrogen 2 14.01 28.02 0.2120 21.20%

Hydrogen 8 1.008 8.064 0.061 6.10%
Sulfur 1 32.07 32.07 0.2427 24.27%
Oxygen 4 16 64 0.4843 48.43%
Total: 132.154 amu This is your answer ^

III. Empirical
- It is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms present in a compound
- percentage composition is needed here
- experiment data can be used here (seen in experiment 1 or 2, I can't remember)
1. Example: 0.545g of aluminum burns in oxygen to make 1.030 grams of Aluminum Oxide. Find the EF of the Oxide.

Element Mass (<---- That) converted (<---- That) Divided by the least measurement (<---- That) multiplied by X
to Mole (in this case, 0.0202)

Aluminum 0.545g 0.0202 1 2

Oxygen 0.485g 0.0303 1.5 3
Total = 1.030g This is your answer ^

Final Empirical Equation: Al2 O3, or Aluminum Oxide

X = any number that would make all the given numbers equal. Refer to this chart:

0.5 X 2 = 1
0.33.... X 3 = 1
0.66.... X 3 = 2
Anything really close any whole number (e.g. 1.9) is rounded off

1. Empirical Mass
- Basically, it's a measurement of mass based on the empirical formula. It's the “estimated” mass
- An example based on the problem above…
Element Empirical Number Multiply (<---- That) by it’s molecular mass

Aluminum 2 2 X 26.98 = 53.96g

Oxygen 3 3 x 16= 48g
Total = 1.030g This is your answer ^

2. Molecular Formula
- The last part of this Empricial ****
- This example is the latter part of an EF problem
- The given molar mass: 120g

Element Empirical Formula Empirical Mass

Carbon 2 14.02
Hydrogen 3 3.024
Nitrogen 1 14.01
Oxygen 5 80
Total = 111.054
The Formula is: Molar Mass / Empirical Mass
=>120/111.054 (aprox =) 1

Element Empirical Formula Multiplied by the (Molar Mass/Empirical Had the given molar mass been 240...

Carbon 2 2 4
Hydrogen 3 3 6
Nitrogen 1 1 2
Oxygen 5 5 10

Final Molecular Formula (given 120g Molar Mass): C2 H3 N O5

Final Molecular Formula (given 240g Molar Mass): C4 H6 N2 O10

IV. Qualitative Relationship

- Basically finding the mass/mole of an unknown part of your equation
- There are 3 types of relationship
1. Reactant to Reactant
2. Reactant to Product
3. Product to Reactant
- Mole Ratio: The ratio of the given part of the relationship it's appropriate partner based on it's type.
4. Example: 2 (H2) + O ? 3 (H20); ? JUST AN EXAMPLE
1. the ratio of H to H2O is: 2 (H2)/ 3 (H2O)
2. the ratio of O to H2O is: 1 (O)/ 3 (H2O)
3. the ratio of O to H2 is: 1 (O)/ 2 (H2)

- the study of qualitative relationships.
- There are 4 formulas used, depending on the measurements given
1. Mole to Mole
- (Given Mole) X (Mole Ratio)
2. Mole to Mass
- (Given Mole) X (Mole Ratio) X (Molar Mass)
3. Mass to Mole
- (Given Mass) / (Molar Mass) X (Mole Ratio)
4. Mass to Mass
- (Given Mass) / (Molar Mass) X (Mole Ratio) X (Molar Mass)

Note: The blue parts are simply conversion to mole and the red are conversion to mass

- Best explained through an example:

NH3 + O2 ? N2H2O
How many moles of NH3 are needed to react with 8 moles of water?

Step 1: Balance the equation

−if you don' know how to do this, give up
=> 4 (NH3) + 3 (O2) ? 2(N2) + 6(H2O)
Step 2: Identify
−just so you know what formula will be used
=> Unknown: NH3 mol
=>Type: Mole to Mole (your unknown is moles, and you given is moles, 8 to be exact)
Step 3: Solve
−this is where the fun starts
=> 8 mol (H2O) X 4 (NH3) = 5 Moles NH3  This is your answer
6 (H2O)

VI. Limiting/Excess reactancts

- Limiting: determines the extent of the reaction. It is the reactant that is used up first
- Excess: other reactants present in quantities greater than needed
- Example
- you have 4 wheels and 1 bike frame
- the wheels are excess, because they are left over after the”reaction” has completed
- the frame is the limiter, because it determines how much product is produced
- Scarier example
- 4 (NH3) + 5 (O2) ? 4 (NO) + 6 (H2O)
- Assume that 4.50g of NH3 reacts with 7.50g Oxygen
- What is the limiter?
- Step 1: Solve for the product
- here, you will solve for the product two times, 1 for each of the reactants. Stoich will be used

14.50g NH3 ---(convert to mole)--> X 6 H2O --(mass)--> = 7.124g H2O
4 NH3

(same process as above, just replace 4.50g NH3 with 7.50g O2) = 5.07g H2

Note that the product of NH3 is greater than O2. That makes it excess, and that being the case, O2 is the

- When asked for the amount of product used, always use the limiting reactant's assumed product. In the previous example, we
will be using 5.07g H2O as the estimated product

- When asked for how much of the excess reactant was used....
- Perform another stoich equation, but with the excess reactant instead of the product
1. 7.50g O2 –(mole)--> X 4 NH3 ---(mass)---> = 3.19g <--- Answer
5 O2
-When asked for the amount of unused excess reactant....
- Just subtract your used excess from your given excess
1. 4.50 – 3.19 = 1.31g NH3 excess

VII. Yield
- Your amount of product
- 3 types
1. Percent
- the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield
- basically, it’s how much product you make compared to the ideal amount
- Formula:
(Actual/Theo) X 100
2. Theoretical
- the maximum amount of product that could be formed from the given amount of reactants
3. Actual
- the amount of product gained through an actual experiment
- the real deal
- affected by different factors
1. Temperature: has a tremendous effect on the speed/rate of the reaction
2. Container: the surroundings of the reaction may enhance/retard the reaction
3. Pressure: affects both the result and the rate of the reaction
4. Medium: the means as to how the reaction was performed
-e.g.: heating an evaporating dish using a blow torch and a full-sized flamethrower
5. Physical State: Whether the reactants are solid/liquid/gas also affects the reaction
- example of yield measuring:
1. The theoretical yield of AgCl is 7.16g. What is the percent yield if the actual yield is 6.97?
=> (7.16g/6.97) X 100 = 97.35% Yield
- an even harder example…
1. Wine is produced by fermentation…

C6 H12 O6  2(C2 H6 O) + 2 (CO2)

- given 983g fructose (C6 H12 O6) what is the percent yield if 327g of ethanol was used?
Step 1: Balance
Step 2: Stoich. This equation will convert ethanol to fructose, or the given reactant to the unknown product
=> 938g F X 1mol X 2 E X 46.07g = 480g E ; (327/480) X 100= 97.35%
180.16g 1F 1 mol
Legend: Fructose, Mole Conversion, Ethanol, Mass Conversion, Theoretical Yield Actual, Percent

Theo: 480
Percent: 97.35

VIII. Acids and Bases

pH Below 7 Above 7
pOH Above 7 Below 7
According to…
… Arthenius Contains H+ Contains OH-
… Bronsted-Laury Proton Donor Proton Acceptor
… Lewis Electron Acceptor Electron Doner

1. the amount of H or OH in an acid/base
2. measured in M (Molarity)
3. Use these formulas
1. H+ to…
1. pH: -log(H)
2. OH- to…
1. pOH: -log(OH-)
3. pH to…
1. H+: 10^(-pH)
2. pOH: 14 – pH
4. pOH to…
1. OH-: 10^(-pOH)
2. pH: 14- pOH

Note: Direct conversion from H to OH and vice versa is IMMPOSSIBLE

4. Examples
1. Given: pH = 12; unknown H
=> 10^(-3.12)
=> 7.58 X 10^(-4) = H
2. Given: H = 0.15M; unknown pH
=> -log(0.15)
=> 0.82 pH

IX. Solutions
−homogenous mixture of two or more substances
1. homogenous: parts cannot be defined. It will not separate if left alone
−2 components
1. Solute: the dissolved substance
2. Solvent: the dissolving substance
−Solvation: the reaction between a solute and solvent
−2 Main Branches
1. Physical State
1. Gaseous
1. gas in gas
2. Liquid
1. liquid in liquid
2. gas in liquid
3. solid in liquid
3. Solid
1. solid in solid
2. gas in solid
3. liquid in solid
2. Solute Concentration
1. Saturated: a solution containing the maximum amount of solute
2. Unsaturated: a solution containing less than the maximum amount of solute
3. Supersaturated: a solution containing more than the maximum amount of solute
1. Refers to the maximum amount of solute expressed in grams that can be dissolved in 100g of water
1. soluble: the substance can be dissolved
2. insoluble: the substance cannot be dissolved
2. Solubility Rules
1. All salts of alkali metals (Group 1) and ammonium ion NH4+ are soluble
2. All salts containing acetates, per chlorates, chlorate, and nitrate are soluble
3. Salts of silver, lead, and mercury (I) are insoluble unless affected by Rule #2
4. Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble unless affected by Rule #3
5. Carbonates. Hydroxides, oxides, phosphates, silicates, and sulfides of metals are insoluble unless affected by
Rule #1
6. Sulfates are soluble except for sulfates of calcium and barium
1. refers to the ability of a liquid to dissolve another liqud
1. miscible: the liquid can be dissolved
2. immiscible: the liquid cannot be dissolved