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LANDING GEAR

CH 32

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ATA 32 LANDING GEAR TABLE OF CONTENTS


AIR / GROUND SENSING SYSTEM ................................................... 52
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAP. 32........................................................ 2
STUDENT NOTES ................................................................................ 3
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 4
CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS .......................................................... 6
MLG DESCRIPTION ............................................................................. 8
MLG DOOR ......................................................................................... 10
MLG WING DOORS ............................................................................ 12
MLG LOCK ACTUATORS ................................................................... 14
MLG OPERATION............................................................................... 16
MLG EXTENSION AND RETRACTION .............................................. 18
MLG DOOR GROUND RELEASE LEVER.......................................... 20
NLG GENERAL ................................................................................... 22
NLG DOORS ....................................................................................... 24
NLG HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC SIMPLIFIED .................................... 26
NLG EXTENSION AND RETRACTION............................................... 28
ALTERNATE EXTEND SYSTEM ........................................................ 30
ALTERNATE EXTEND ACTUATOR ................................................... 32
TAIL SKID GENERAL.......................................................................... 34
TAIL SKID COMPONENTS ................................................................. 36
TAIL SKID OPERATION...................................................................... 38
TAIL SKID INDICATION ...................................................................... 40
PROX. SENSE SYSTEM..................................................................... 42
PROX. SENSE SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM...................................... 44
PROXIMITY SYSTEM ELECTRONIC UNIT (PSEU) .......................... 46
PROX. SENSORS .............................................................................. 48
PSEU - BUILT IN TEST EQUIPMENT ............................................... 50

AIR / GROUND SENSING COMPONENTS ........................................ 54


LANDING GEAR POSITION INDICATION - GREEN LIGHTS............ 56
STEERING CONTROL ........................................................................ 58
CENTERING SPRING AND RUDDER INTERCONNECT ................. 60
BRAKE SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM .................................................. 62
BRAKE CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS ........................................... 64
BRAKE HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS......................................................... 66
BRAKE SOURCE LIGHT & RESERVE BRAKES SWITCH ................ 68
PARKING BRAKE................................................................................ 70
PARKING BRAKE ACCUMULATOR................................................... 72
BRAKE TEMPERATURE SYSTEM..................................................... 74
BRAKE TEMPERATURE MONITOR................................................... 76
ANTI-SKID GENERAL ......................................................................... 78
WHEELSPEED TRANSDUCER .......................................................... 80
ANTI - SKID VALVE MODULES.......................................................... 82
SHUTTLE VALVE MODULE................................................................ 84
AUTOBRAKE GENERAL..................................................................... 86
AUTOBRAKE INPUTS......................................................................... 88
ANTI-SKID / AUTOBRAKE BUILT IN TEST EQUIPMENT (BITE) ...... 90

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INTRODUCTION
Main Gear
The main gear has standard air-oil struts for shock absorption and to support
the airplane. Center system hydraulic pressure is used to operate the landing
gear and each main gear door. The main gear are hydraulically tilted 17
forward when the weight of the aircraft is removed. Tilt allows the main gear to
enter the wheel well and also provides air/ground sensing. The main gear are
locked up by the main gear door linkage and locked down by over center
locking of two braces. Each gear has four wheels and brakes on a dual axle
truck. An electric actuator mechanically unlocks the main gear doors to allow
the gear to free fall during alternate extension.
Nose Gear
The nose gear strut is also a standard air-oil strut used to absorb landing shock
and to support the aircraft. The nose gear strut is operated hydraulically and the
doors are mechanically operated by strut movement. One over center lock link
locks the nose gear in both the retracted and the extended position. Hydraulic
nose gear steering is provided for ground maneuvering. The electric alternate
extend actuator mechanically unlocks the lock link to allow the nose gear to free
fall during alternate extension.

INTRODUCTION
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CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS


WARNING:
Extension and Retraction
A three-position (UP, OFF, DN) landing gear lever, located on the P3-1 panel
controls hydraulic extension and retraction. A lock solenoid in the landing gear
lever prevents moving the lever to the UP position until air mode is sensed. A
lock over ride button is also provided. A guarded alternate extend switch
controls one electric motor which unlocks the main gear doors and the nose
gear lock link to allow free fall extension. Position indicators above the landing
gear lever include three green gear down and locked lights, a amber gear door
open light, and an amber gear disagreement light.
Brakes, Antiskid, and Autobrakes
Eight hydraulic brake assemblies are operated by either the captains or first
officer brake pedals. The autobrake system is controlled by a rotary selector
switch on the P3-1 panel. The amber AUTOBRAKES light above the switch
indicates an autobrake disarm condition. Normal brake pressure is indicated by
a gauge on the P3-1 panel. Parking brakes are set by depressing both brake
pedals and pulling a handle of the P-10 quadrant stand. Parking brake
operation is indicated by an amber PARK BRAKE light forward of the handle.
The reserve brakes and steering switch on the P1-3 panel is used to isolate one
center hydraulic system alternating current motor pump and reserve a supply of
hydraulic fluid for brakes and nose gear steering. The amber BRAKE SOURCE
light on the P1-3 panel indicates a loss of both normal and alternate hydraulic
brake sources. An amber ANTISKID light on the P-5 panel indicates antiskid
faults. A BRAKE TEMP light provides indication for overheated brake
conditions. All amber lights have an associated EICAS message.
Nose Wheel Steering
A steering tiller, located on the P13 captain's auxiliary panel, provides control
(and indication) for 65 left or right nose gear steering. A total of 7-1/2 of gear
steering is available using the rudder pedal steering.
Dispatch Deviation
Landing Gear Door Light "INOP"
Open main gear doors and install door locks.

RAPID ACTION OF DOORS MAY CAUSE INJURY OR


DAMAGE IF LOCKS ARE NOT PROPERLY INSTALLED.

Confirm that advisory level message GEAR DOORS illuminates after 35


second time delay.
Remove door lock and close main gear doors.

CONTROLS AND INDICATION


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MLG DESCRIPTION
Shock Strut
The main landing gear shock strut is trunnion mounted between the wing rear
spar and the landing gear support beam and is hydraulically operated by a
retract actuator. The shock strut is serviced by an air charging valve and an oil
charging valve. Torsion links connect the inner and outer shock strut cylinders
to prevent inner strut rotation.
Trucks
Two axles on each truck mount dual wheels and brakes. Brake equalizing rods
connect the bearing mounted brakes to the inner strut. An axle jacking point
and a tow fitting are located fore and aft on each truck. An up lock fitting on the
outboard side of the inner shock strut rests on the door linkage when the gear is
up and locked. The door is held closed by an uplock hook. A truck positioner,
mounted between the aft side of the inner cylinder and the aft end of the bogie
beam, tilts the truck forward.
Drag Brace and Side Brace
The drag and side brace absorb side and rear loads and lock the gear in the
down position. Hydraulic actuators and lock springs provide over-center locking
of the drag brace jury strut and side brace lock link.
Maintenance TIP
Particular attention should be made to the correct BRAKE ROD attachment
installation. Be sure the proper configuration is present for the effective aircraft.
One configuration shown below, other configurations are similar. The keeper
washer should be omitted if a bushing shoulder protrudes from the outer side of
the brake housing at the attach pin.

MLG DESCRIPTION
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MLG DOOR
General
The main landing gear door provides wheel well aerodynamic seal and supports
the weight of the main gear when the landing gear system is de-pressurized
during flight.
The main gear door is kevlar/graphite composite construction with an aluminum
center hinge beam which supports the uplock roller and door actuator reaction
forces. The door is supported by an aft hinge from the aft bulkhead and by a
forward hinge from the keel beam. A door actuator hydraulically operates the
main gear door through mechanical linkage. Door actuator extends to close the
door and retracts to open the door.
Operation
The door is sequenced to allow the main gear to cycle. As the gear retracts, it
contacts the gear upstop structure which limits its upward travel. The door
closes to fold the gear support underneath the main gear and to lock its uplock
roller in an uplock hook. When the landing gear system is depressurized, the
weight of the gear rests upon the gear support. Skid bars in the wheel well
protect wheel well components from inadvertent untilt of the main gear and
subsequent hanging-up of the main gear in the wheel well.

Alternate Extension
When the door is opened for alternate extension, the uplock hook is released
and the weight of the gear pushes the door open where it remains. The door
safety valve is also cycled to depressurize the door actuator and prevent door
closure.
Ground Release
For ground release of the main gear door, the uplock hook is cycled to let the
door fall open and the door safety valve is cycled to depressurize the door
actuator. A ground safety pin is inserted in the door actuator structure to
prevent door closure on the ground.

MLG DOOR
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MLG WING DOORS


General
The main landing gear wing doors are positioned by gear movement to provide
aerodynamic seal with the gear retracted.
Shock Strut Door
The shock strut door is mounted directly to the shock strut outer cylinder by five
attach fittings. Three offset fittings are adjustable rods for door rigging.
Trunnion Door
The trunnion door is hinged to the wing and linked to the strut trunnion. A single
adjustable rod is used for door rigging.
Drag Brace Door
The drag brace door is hinged to the wing and linked to the drag brace. An
adjustable link between the door and the drag brace is used for door rigging.
Pop Up Door
When the retract actuator goes through the arc of its stroke, either extending or
retracting, the top of its arc passes above the wing skin surface. A washer on
the rod end of the actuator contacts a rub strip on the spring-loaded pop-up door
moving it up roughly one-half inch. The retract actuator rod end never contacts
the pop-up door surface, but rides in a channel in the pop-up door. A torque
tube on the forward end of the pop-up door is spring-loaded to provide 180 foot/
pound preload on the door.

MLG WING DOORS


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MLG LOCK ACTUATORS


General
The main gear lock actuators hydraulically lock and unlock the side brace and
drag brace in the gear down position.
Side Brace Lock Actuator
Each main gear side brace lock link has a hydraulic actuator to lock and unlock
the over-center locking of the lock link. The actuator rod end is attached to the
lock link and the actuator end is attached to the shock strut. For gear retraction,
the actuator is pressurized to retract to overcome two lock springs, that are in
tension holding the lock links in the over-centered condition. For gear
extension, the actuator is pressurized to extend to aid the lock springs in forcing
over-center locking of the lock link. The lock springs are contained in a sliding
cartridge to keep a compressive load on the springs. A down lock pin is
inserted in the apex of the lock link for ground safety.
Drag Brace Strut Actuator
Each main gear drag brace jury strut has a hydraulic actuator to lock and unlock
the over-center locking of the jury strut. The actuator rod end is attached to the
jury strut and the actuator end is attached to the shock strut. For gear
retraction, the actuator is pressurized to retract to overcome the two jury strut
springs and break the ove-center locking. For gear extension, the actuator is
pressurized to extend to aid the lock springs in forcing over-center locking of the
jury strut. A down lock pin is inserted in the apex of the jury strut for ground
safety.

MLG ACTUATORS
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MLG OPERATION
General
Landing gear hydraulic operation involves a series of valve actions. A simplified
description of their operation is outlined below.
Landing Gear Retraction
The landing gear lever moves the main gear selector valve to the UP position.
The MLG transfer cylinder receives pressure from the selector valve and
pressurizes the retract actuator to momentarily retract. Hydraulic pressure
flows through the gear operated sequence valve to the door latch actuator. The
door latch actuator opens the door uplock hook and then ports OPEN pressure
to the main gear door actuator. Door opening causes the door operated
sequence valve to open and allow UP pressure to the main gear retract
actuator. Gear retraction moves the gear operated sequence valve to the
TRANSIT, then UP position. The UP position of the valve ports pressure to
close the door. Initial gear UP pressure causes the lock actuators to unlock the
side and drag brace actuators and the truck positioner to tilt the truck.
Landing Gear Extension
Landing gear extension is the reverse of retraction except that initial DOWN
pressure causes the transfer cylinder to momentarily retract the landing gear
while the uplock hook opens. The lock actuators are pressurized to lock the
side and drag braces. The truck positioner is pressurized to tilt the truck.
Door Safety Valve and Lock Out Actuator
The door safety valve is opened and closed by either the alternate extend
system or the ground door release lever. When the valve is closed, pressure
cannot close the door. The lock out actuator hydraulically releases a
mechanical lock on the ground door release lever. The lock prevents the lever
from being placed in the close position without center system hydraulic
pressure.

MLG OPERATION
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MLG DOOR GROUND RELEASE LEVER


General
Each main gear door has its own ground release lever to unlock the door hook
and to actuate the door safety valve, located aft of each wheel well in the wing
body fairing.
Operation
Press the latch lever to disengage the door ground release lever from the up
detent (6). Pull on the lever (maximum 50 pound force) to rotate it to the open
position (52) where the latch will lock the lever in the open detent. The latch
lever can be pinned in the up or open position to prevent inadvertent door
operation. In the open position the ground release lever will align with the safe
(green) band on the access door and the latch lever pin can be inserted. If the
lever is not latched in the open position and released, the door uplock hook and
safety valve reset springs will partially retract the lever until the arming lockout
actuator pawl engages (34). At this position the lever will align with the unsafe
(red) band on the door and the latch lever pin cannot be inserted. (If center
system pressure is applied the ground release lever will fully retract, open the
safety valve and center system pressure will close the door). To stow the lever,
remove the pin, depress the latch lever and return the ground release lever to
the up position.
Note:

The lever may only be stowed when center hydraulic system is


pressurized, i.e., the lever can only be stowed when it will result in
door closing.

Maintenance Practices
Each ground release quadrant is pinned in the 0 rig position to tension the
ground door release cables via the turnbuckles. Turnbuckles are accessible
through the lever access door.

MLG DOOR GROUND RELEASE LEVER


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NLG GENERAL
General Description
The nose gear shock strut outer cylinder is trunnion mounted to the wheel well
walls and connected to the inner cylinder by a torsion link. The strut is serviced
by an air charging valve (located on top of the outer cylinder) and an oil
charging valve (located on the lower right-hand side of the outer cylinder). The
torsion link is mounted on the outer cylinder steering collar to allow hydraulic
nose wheel steering through a pair of forward mounted steering actuators.
The nose gear shock strut is supported by a trunnion-mounted drag strut. A
hydraulic retract actuator, mounted on an actuator support beam and the upper
drag strut cycles the nose gear for extension and retraction. The gear is held,
both down and up, by overcenter locking of a lock link, hydraulically actuated
and held by a pair of lock springs. Forward and aft doors are mechanically
operated by the nose gear. A single axle, integral to the inner shock strut,
supports the two nose gear wheels. A jacking pad is located beneath the axle
with a tow fitting attached to the front of the axle. A towing lever is provided for
towing without de-pressurizing the hydraulic system. The torsion links may be
disconnected for towing angles greater than the nose wheel steering system
actuator limits.

NLG GENERAL
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NLG DOORS
General
The nose gear doors are mechanically sequenced to provide aerodynamic seal
of the nose wheel well.
Aft Doors
The aft doors are mechanically linked to the shock strut to open and close with
the nose gear.
Forward Doors
The forward doors are mechanically sequenced by bell cranks and rods to open
(for gear extension or retraction) then close and remain sealed after the gear
has cleared the doors.
Maintenance Practices
The doors are constructed of a fiberglass honeycomb covered with a
graphite-fiberglass composite and sealed around the edges with aeroseals.
Adjustable rods are used to ensure proper door closure.
For ground opening of the forward doors, a ground release lever unlocks an
internal ball lock in the telescoping rod and the weight of the door, 29.5 lbs,
causes the door to swing open, extending the rod. Pushing up on the door, to
close it, will cause the telescoping rod to retract and re-lock the internal ball
lock. If left open on the ground, the normal sequencing of the gear will re-lock
the telescoping rod and the forward doors will close normally.

NLG DOORS
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NLG HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC SIMPLIFIED


General
The nose gear selector valve, controlled by mechanical inputs from the landing
gear control lever, will port center system hydraulic fluid for gear extension and
retraction.
Extension
The lock actuator will be pressurized to extend, breaking the over-center locking
of the lock link. The transfer cylinder provides a time delay to allow the lock
actuator to function, prior to pressurizing the retract actuator. Pressure is free
flowing through the priority valve and is also supplied to nose wheel steering.
As the retract actuator extends the nose gear, the lock actuator continues to be
pressurized to extend and will now lock the lock link over-center in the gear
down position.
Retraction
For gear retraction, the lock actuator will be pressurized to retract, breaking the
over-center locking of the lock link. The priority value provides a time delay to
allow the lock actuator to function, prior to pressurizing the retract actuator.
Pressure is also supplied to nose wheel steering and to reset the transfer
cylinder. As the retract actuator retracts the nose gear, the lock actuator
continues to be pressurized to retract and will now lock the lock link over-center
in the gear up position.

NLG HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC SIMPLIFIED


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NLG EXTENSION AND RETRACTION

Dispatch Deviation

Gear Extension

Landing Gear Retracting System

The nose gear selector valve in the right main gear wheel well is positioned
to the "down" position by the gear lever in the flight compartment porting
center hydraulic system pressure.
The lock actuator extends to override the lock springs and unlock the lock
links.
The transfer cylinder delays the retract actuator movement until the gear is
unlocked.
The retract actuator retracts to extend the nose gear.
When the nose gear is down and locked the lock links are held over-center
by the extended lock actuator and the lock springs.
The doors are mechanically sequenced to follow the gear and re-close as
the gear is fully extended.
Gear Retraction
The nose gear selector valve is positioned to the "up" position by the gear
lever porting center hydraulic system pressure.
The lock actuator retracts to override the lock springs and unlock the lock
links.
The priority valve momentarily delays the fluid flow to the retract actuator
until the gear is unlocked. This also cycles the transfer cylinder.
The retract actuator extends to retract the gear.
When the gear is up and locked, the lock links are held over-center by the
retracted lock actuator and the lock springs.
The doors are mechanically sequenced to follow the gear and close behind
it.
The nose gear selector valve is positioned to the "off" position by the gear
lever and all nose gear hydraulic lines are ported to return.
The nose gear is held up and locked by the over-centered lock links and
lock springs.

Aircraft may be dispatched with gear down provided:


Open and clamp Gear Lever circuit breaker
Select alternate Vmo/Mmo position on the Vmo/Mmo select switch located
on E1 rack,
All associated gear hydraulic leaks are corrected.
Install all three gear down-lock pins.

NLG EXTENSION AND RETRACTION


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ALTERNATE EXTEND SYSTEM

Ground Door Release System

General
The nose gear alternate extend and main gear alternate extend systems are
inter-dependent; the same electric actuator drives both systems. A guarded
switch on the P3-1 panel, below the landing gear lever, energizes the electric
actuator for alternate extension.

The ground door release system is an auxiliary system of the main gear
alternate extend system. Cables from the ground release levers operate the
same control rod and bellcrank system in each wheel well as the main gear
alternate extend system. Pulling the Ground Door Release Lever will operate
the door safety valve and rotate the door uplock hook, opening the main gear
door for ground maintenance.

Nose Gear Alternate Extend System

Landing Gear Alternate Extend Circuit

The nose gear alternate extend system is a solid-link system comprised of


control rods and bellcranks which will drive to break overcenter locking of the
nose gear lock link and allow the nose gear to free-fall. The system is loadlimited so that in the event the nose gear alternate extend system is jammed,
the load-limiter will yield to the driving force of the electric actuator and allow the
main gear to extend.

For alternate gear extension, the guarded alternate extension switch on the
P3-1 panel energizes the electric actuator to the extend or retract position.

Main Gear Alternate Extend System


The main gear alternate extend system is cable driven from the electric actuator
to an uplock release quadrant in each wheel well where it is a solid-link control
rod and bellcrank system to a door safety valve and to each main gear door
uplock hook. Actuating the system will operate the door safety valves and
rotate the uplock hooks, unlocking each main gear door and allowing both main
gears to free-fall. The cable runs are load-limited so that in the event one of the
main gear alternate extend systems is jammed, the load-limiter will yield to the
driving force of the electric actuator and allow the nose gear and remaining
main gear to extend.

In the extend mode, power from the 28vdc Hot Battery Buss passes to the
actuator when the alternate gear extension switch is positioned to extend and
when the landing gear lever is not in the UP position. When the actuator has
reached the full extend position, the extend limit switch will open breaking
power to the actuator.
In the retract mode, power from the 28vdc L Main Buss passes to the actuator
when the alternate gear extension switch is latched. When the actuator has
reached the full retract position, the retract limit switch will open breaking power
to the actuator.

ALTERNATE EXTEND SYSTEM


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ALTERNATE EXTEND ACTUATOR


Operation
The electric actuator is energized from the landing gear alternate extend switch
on the P3-1 panel. The actuator is reversible, operating in the extend and reset
modes to drive through a torque shaft, the left and right main gear door release
quadrants for main gear alternate extension and a load-limiter and control rod
for nose gear alternate extension. The torque shaft include a stop crank which
contacts reset and extend limit switches controlling the electric actuator and
which contacts mechanical stops limiting torque shaft travel to 66 of arc.
Location and Access
The actuator and torque shaft assembly are mounted to support frames below
the flight compartment floor at approximately STA 232. Access is via the crawlway to the left forward equipment center above the nose wheel well and below
the flight compartment floor, and must be gained via the main equipment center
access door.
Maintenance Practices
GO and NO-GO pins are used to check the proper operation of the limit
switches. After each switch has cut power to the electric actuator and the stop
crank has coasted to a stop, it should be possible to insert a GO pin (nominal
diameter .0190 inch) but not possible to insert a NO-GO pin (nominal
diameter.1050 inch) between the stop crank and the mechanical stop of the
support frame.
Note:

An electrically operated brake will stop the actuator within 1 of


output shaft rotation.

The limit switches are adjusted via a slotted bolt hole on the mounting plate until
this condition is achieved.

ALTERNATE EXTEND ACTUATOR


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TAIL SKID GENERAL


Purpose
A tail skid, electrically controlled and hydraulically operated protects the aft
fuselage area if a tail strike were to occur during takeoff or landing.
Operation
The tail skid, pivoting on airplane structure, is attached to the rod end of the
shock strut/actuator assembly and forms part of the fairing when retracted. The
lever has a replaceable pad.
The shock strut/actuator assembly is mounted to airplane structure with a fuse
pin and restrained by breakaway cables, in event a hard tail strike causes shear
out of the pin. The strut has a pneumatic charge of 300 - 350 psi and is serviced
by an air charging valve on the rod end of the shock strut/actuator. A low
pressure indicator (red pop-out button) on the rod end is visible when air
pressure is 174-232 psi and servicing is required.
The tail skid is retracted and extended by center hydraulic system pressure.
The components are located in the stabilizer compartment. Operating time is
14 seconds to retract and 17 seconds to extend.
Two proximity sensors, actuated by a target on the lever, provide tail skid
position for fault annunciation.

TAIL SKID GENERAL


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TAIL SKID COMPONENTS


The tail skid components are located in the stabilizer compartment.
The tail skid hydraulic system consists of the following components:
Shock strut/actuator and blocking valve: the actuator extends/retracts the
tail skid and also functions as a pneumatic shock strut. The blocking valve
on top of the actuator provides a hydraulic down lock when the tail skid is
extended.
Fuse: a quantity measuring fuse (120 cu in) protects the center hydraulic
system from a leak in the tail skid system. The fuse resets automatically
and can also be reset manually.
Transfer cylinder: a transfer cylinder provides a measured volume of fluid
(200 cu in) to extend the tail skid assembly.
Control module: the control module routes fluid to the actuator and transfer
cylinder. The valve is electrically operated but can be manually operated
for dispatch with the tail skid extended. The module also contains a flow
regulating valve and a pressure-operated valve.

TAIL SKID COMPONENTS


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TAIL SKID OPERATION


General
The tail skid is powered by the center hydraulic system. The tail flight control
shut off valves do not shut off pressure to the tail skid.
Retraction
To retract the tail skid (as shown) the control valve is positioned to allow center
system hydraulic flow to fill the transfer cylinder, pressure the blocking valve
open and retract the shock strut/actuator assembly. The rate of retraction is
controlled by a flow regulating valve (.9 GPM). The retract pressure is
maintained by the center system with the tail skid retracted as the control valve
is in the same position with the landing gear lever up or off.
Extension
To extend the tail skid the landing gear sense relay is powered by the gear lever
position switch (gear lever down) to position the control valve. Center system
pressure then moves the pressure operated valve and discharges the transfer
cylinder to the extend port of the shock strut/actuator to extend the tail skid.
Extended
After the transfer cylinder is discharged extend pressure is no longer present
and the closed blocking valve hydraulically locks the tail skid in the extend
position. Thermal relief is provided by a pressure bleed orifice.
Tail Skid
During a tail skid strike the shock strut will be momentarily compressed by fluid
transfer through the shock absorption bleed, which compresses the nitrogen
gas, and through the pressure bleed orifice.

The pressure bleed orifice is sized (.144 GPM, opens at 250 psi;) to allow only a
few cubic inches of fluid to pass during tail skid compression with the remainder
forced through the shock absorption bleed. After the strike the tail skid is
returned to the extended position by the high pneumatic pressure.

TAIL SKID OPERATION


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TAIL SKID INDICATION


General
There is no indication of tail skid position during normal system operation.
Tail skid failure indications are controlled by the proximity switch electronic unit
(PSEU) using inputs from proximity sensors on the tail skid, nose and main gear
up and down lock proximity sensors (system 1) and a switch on the landing gear
lever.
A tail skid amber light and EICAS advisory message TAIL SKID are displayed
when the PSEU detects the tail skid sensor is in disagreement with the landing
gear sensors. The PSEU groups the tail skid retract sensor input with the gear
up lock sensors and the tail skid extend sensor input with the gear down lock
sensors to detect disagreement. An input from a landing gear lever position
switch is used by the PSEU to inhibit the light and message for 36 seconds after
the lever and gear position inputs disagree. After 36 seconds the inhibit is
removed and light and message are displayed if tail skid/gear position
disagrees regardless of lever/gear position agreement/disagreement.
Dispatch Deviation
Tail Skid "INOP"
Should only dispatch with Tail Skid fully down.
If not fully down move manual override lever on tail skid control module to
position 2 and check that tail skid extends fully.

TAIL SKID INDICATION


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PROXIMITY SENSE SYSTEM


Proximity Switch System
The purpose is to provide position sensing for landing gear, doors, slats and
thrust reverses. The system consists of multiple sensors mounted throughout
the aircraft that sense the proximity of targets and provide position signals to the
PSEU.
PSEU, located in main equipment center, receives discrete signals from
sensors and/or micro-switches to control relays, lights, and/or other electronics.
The PSEU also incorporates built-in-test equipment (BITE) to provide in-flight
position switch testing and on-ground testing, troubleshooting and fault
isolation.

LandingGearPositionIndication
Air/GroundSense

Thrust

12

LeadingEdgeSlats

24

Fwd&AftCargoDoorControl

FwdLeftCabinEntryDoorControl

AllOtherDoorWarnings

27

Totals

103

PROXIMITY SENSE SYSTEM


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PROXIMITY SENSE SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


Proximity Switch System
Proximity sensors located throughout the airplane monitor the position of
landing gear, door, leading edge slat, and thrust reverser components. Sensor
channels on proximity cards in the proximity switch electronic unit (PSEU)
convert the position signals from the proximity sensors into logic signals.
Logic cards take these logic signals from different combinations of proximity
sensors and process the signals together to decide when to operate lights,
relays or switches (via the driver cards). An example of this would be the
illumination of the landing gear down & locked green lights. The logic cards also
receive discrete inputs used in the processing of logic functions (i.e. gear handle
position).
The drivers on the driver cards, driven by the output logic signals from the logic
cards, provide discrete signals to lights, relays and switches of different airplane
user systems.
The functions of the proximity switch system are monitored automatically by a
BITE module inside the PSEU. The BITE Module provides automatic fault
isolation and storage of faults into the BITE memory to the LRU level. The BITE
Module also has LRU and systems tests that can be performed on the ground.
Power is provided to the proximity cards by individual 28V DC supplies from
different subsystems. The BITE module has its own 28V DC power supply.

PROXIMITY SENSE BLOCK DIAGRAM


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PROXIMITY SYSTEM ELECTRONIC UNIT (PSEU)


Proximity System Electronic Unit (PSEU)
The PSEU is located in the main equipment center on E1-2. Access is through
the access door aft of the nose wheel well.
The PSEU is mounted in the rack by two fasteners and may be removed as a
unit, or individual cards may be replaced without removing the unit. Static
sensitive procedures required for handling of the PSEU.
The proximity, logic and driver cards are accessed through left and right doors
on the PSEU face. The BITE cards are accessed through a removable BITE
module assembly.

PROXIMITY SWITCH ELECTRONIC UNIT (PSEU)


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PROXIMITY SENSORS
Proximity System Sensors
Sensors provide position inputs to the proximity switch electronics unit (PSEU)
for the following airplane systems control and indication.

Door control and indication

Landing gear indication and air ground sensing

Leading edge slat indication and failure protection

The sensor is a two-wire, magnetic field producing device that is contained in a


stainless steel case with wires connected to the PSEU proximity switch card.
Either cylindrical or rectangular sensors are used depending on installation
requirements. Operation is identical with slight differences in rigging
procedures.
The sensor operates in conjunction with a steel target. The change in
inductance as the proximity of sensor and target changes from near to far or far
to near is detected by the associated proximity card which switches its output to
its associated logic card from 0.3 volt to 13.1 volts (near to far) or 13.1 volts to
0.3 volt (far to near).

PROXIMITY SENSORS
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PSEU - BUILT IN TEST EQUIPMENT

Sensor, Card and Target Lights

BITE Components

One of the lights illuminates during memory recall, system test and target test to
indicate that a sensor or a card is failed, or a target is not in the correct position.

The BITE control and display panel is located on the center front face of the
PSEU. The left front face of the PSEU lists the operating instructions and
display codes while the right front face lists the 3-digit codes for all the sensors,
power supplies and discrete inputs.
The BITE control and display panel is part of the BITE module. The BITE
module can be removed by loosening the two screws on the center panel and
pulling the module out of the PSEU. The module contains two BITE cards. The
BITE module and cards can be removed and installed without pulling the PSEU
out of the rack.
Press/Test
The PRESS/TEST switch is depressed to perform a lamp test. During the test,
all five amber lights should illuminate and code 888 appear on the red LED
display. If the lamp test fails, the PSEU needs to be replaced.
Target Near and Far Lights
One of the indicator lights illuminates at the end of a target test to indicate the
position of the target for the selected sensor being tested.
Sensor Channel Select Switches
The three thumb-wheel switches are used to input the selected 3-digit code for
sensor input as well as system code to be tested.
Digital Channel Display
The digital channel display indicates the 3-digit fault code for a sensor, card,
power supply, target or discrete input during memory recall and system test.
The LED display indicates the code of the sensor tested during a target test.
The display also provides the status of the BITE testing by indicating the
appropriate display code from the list on the left front cover.

Verify Switch
The VERIFY switch is depressed to activate ground testing of various systems.
The digital channel display flashes code CCC during testing, illuminates the
3-digit codes of identified faults and code 999 at the end of the test.
Target Test Switch
The TARGET TEST switch is depressed to activate testing of the sensor circuit
selected with the sensor channel select switches. During the test, the digital
channel display illuminates the code of the selected sensor. At the end of the
test, the sensor and card lights may illuminate to indicate a faulted component
or, if no fault is found, one of the target NEAR or FAR light illuminates to indicate
the position of the target.
BIT Switch
The BIT switch is depressed to recall the faults stored in the nonvolatile
memory. The digital channel display illuminates the 3-digit fault code for sensor,
power supply, discrete input, card or target for each fault. At the end of the
memory recall, the display illuminates code OOO.
Reset Switch
The Reset switch is depressed to erase the nonvolatile memory. When the
memory is cleared, the digital channel display illuminates code EEE.

PSEU - BUILT IN TEST EQUIPMENT


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AIR/GROUND SENSING SYSTEM


General
The air/ground relays on the airplane switches a number of airplane systems
from ground to air mode when the airplane lifts off and vice-versa. Switching is
accomplished via a relay system that is actuated by the main gear truck tilt
proximity sensors, the nose gear not compressed proximity sensors and
associated electronics.
Sensors
Two tilt sensors on each main gear truck provide dual system bogie tilt
information to the PSEU. Two sensors on the nose gear strut provide nose gear
strut compression information to the PSEU.
Electronics
The sensor inputs are processed in the PSEU logic to provide inputs to drive a
number of air/ground relays which control various flight/ground critical items.
The signals are also provided to the EICAS computers for message format
preparation.

AIR/GROUND SENSING SYSTEM


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AIR/GROUND SENSING COMPONENTS


Relays
All system 1 and system 2 air/ground relays are located in the P33, P36 or P37
panels. The relays are 4-pole, double throw, 2 or 10 amp hermetically sealed
relays with pin-type terminals for electrical plug connection. Relays are installed
on bracket with socket mounting screws. Power should be removed prior to
removal/installation.
Relay Adjustment and Test
All system 1 and system 2 air/ground relays are tested for ground mode and
flight mode operation. The test procedures require continuity and voltage check
for relay terminals in both modes. The test is conducted with a breakout box.
Simulated Flight Mode
Simulated flight mode may be accomplished by jacking the airplane or by
placing actuators on the main gear truck tilt sensors and the nose gear not
compressed sensors. Airplane with electrical power applied will switch the air/
ground system and all user systems to the flight mode. To prevent equipment
damage or personnel hazard from prolonged flight mode operation, consult the
Maintenance Manual 32-09 for the list of circuit breakers to be opened.
EICAS Indications
The PSEU processes the sensor signals to the relays and to the EICAS
computers. The following two messages are related to the air/ground sensing
system:
AIR/GND DISAGREE - monitors disagreement between system 1 and
system 2 for main gear tilt and is stored for status and maintenance pages.
NOSE A/G DISAGREE - monitors disagreement between system 1 and
system 2 for nose strut compressed and is stored for status and
maintenance pages.

E3 EQUIPMENT
CENTER

SYSTEM 2 K200
SERIES RELAYS

E8 EQUIPMENT
CENTER
P37
PSEU

P33
P36

AIR/GRD
DISAGREE
NOSE A/G
DISAGREE

K514,515,516
517,518,520
522,528,552
643,645
FWD

E8

EICAS
COMPUTER

EICAS DISPLAY UNITS (P2)

AIR/GROUND SENSING COMPONENTS


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SYSTEM 1 K-100
SERIES RELAYS

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LANDING GEAR POSITION INDICATION - GREEN LIGHTS


General
Dual bulbs and dual power are provided for each landing gear to prevent loss of
indication due to a single failure.
Main Landing Gear
Each main gear green light consists of dual bulbs (left main gear shown)
powered by separate MD&T circuits and controlled by a pair of relays powered
separately by landing gear position - air/ground system 1 and system 2 circuit
breakers.
Nose Landing Gear
The nose gear green light also contains dual bulbs powered by separate MD&T
circuits. The grounds are provided by logic in the PSEU responding to down
and locked indication from system 1 or system 2.

LANDING GEAR INDICATION - GREEN LIGHTS


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STEERING CONTROL
Upper Cable Loop
The nose wheel steering system may be controlled by either tiller input or
rudder input. 360 degrees tiller input through a gearbox commands 65 degrees
left or right nose wheel steering, and full rudder input commands 7-1/2 degrees
left or right nose wheel steering. The centering spring and rudder interconnect
mechanism combines rudder and tiller inputs through the upper cable loop and
provides for centering the tiller when released. A cable compensator transmits
upper cable loop inputs through the pivot links to the lower cable loop and
protects the lower cable loop from a hard over signal in the event of a cable
break.
Lower Cable Loop
From the steering drum to the summing mechanism, lower cable loop
movement provides input to the metering valve module. The lockout cam
mechanism forces the steering drum to send a centering signal to the metering
valve module for centering the gear or retraction.
The steering metering valve module ports hydraulic fluid through a pair of swivel
valves to power steering actuators. Actuator movement through the torsion link
steers the nose gear. As the gear turns, the lower cable loop follow-up through
the summing mechanism will null out input to the metering valve module when
the desired steering angle is reached.

STEERING CONTROL
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CENTERING SPRING AND RUDDER INTERCONNECT


MECHANISM
General
The centering spring and rudder interconnect mechanism joins rudder and tiller
input for nose wheel steering and provide for centering the tiller when it is
released.
Operation
The mechanism consists of a rudder input arm, two spring arms and a cable
quadrant all pivoted about a common center of rotation. The cable quadrant is
tied to the tiller through cable NWS1A-2 and to the cable compensator through
NWS1A-3. Movement of the quadrant will rotate both the tiller and the cable
compensator, providing a steering input.
Rudder input through either captain's or first officer's rudder pedals will rotate
the rudder pedal jackshaft and cause the input arm to rotate. Rotation of the
input arm will drive through the spring arms to rotate the cable quadrant,
backdriving the tiller and providing a steering input to the cable compensator.
Tiller input will drive the cable quadrant, providing steering input to the cable
compensator. Due to feel and centering forces in the rudder system, the rudder
input arm will remain stationary with tiller input which will cause the spring arms
to separate, stretching the springs. Spring force (4-pound preload) will provide
for centering the tiller when the input force is removed.
With the cable quadrant fixed, i.e.: gear retracted so no steering input, rudder
input will stretch the centering springs. This additional spring force will not be
noticeable in the rudder system.

Location and Access


The centering spring and rudder interconnect mechanism is below the
right-hand side of the flight compartment floor.
Access is through the main equipment center access door and around the right
crawl way to the forward equipment center.
Maintenance Practices
The cable quadrant may be pinned for cable rigging of the upper cable loop.
Turnbuckles are accessible in the forward equipment center.

CENTERING SPRING AND RUDDER INTERCONNECT MECHANISM


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BRAKE SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


Mechanical Input
Two sets of brake pedals provide for full and differential braking capability. The
captain's and first officer's pedal sets are connected by a bus rod and linkage.
Cables on the left and right side of the airplane connect the pedals to a brake
metering valve module in each wheel well. Each brake metering valve module
contains a normal and an alternate brake metering valve.
Hydraulic Control
The normal brake system is powered by the right hydraulic system. The
alternate system is powered by the center hydraulic system and is automatically
selected upon loss of the right hydraulic system. A reserve source of hydraulic
fluid is also provided by the center hydraulic system. An accumulator in the
normal system is automatically selected when the alternate system is lost. The
brake metering valves mechanically meter the selected hydraulic system
pressure to the normal or alternate anti-skid system.
The normal anti-skid module receives normal brake metered pressure or
autobrake pressure and supplies the brakes. The alternate anti-skid module
receives pressure from the alternate brake metering valves if active and
supplies the brakes.
Electrical Control
The anti-skid/autobrake control unit provides electrical control to four anti-skid
valves for control of skidding wheel conditions and to the autobrake valve
module to meter brake pressure automatically per a preset adjustable setting.
Wheel speed inputs are transmitted to the anti-skid/autobrake control unit by
wheel transducers. Selected deceleration requirement is input to the autobrake
system from the autobrake selector switch.

BRAKE SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


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BRAKE CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS

Brake Temperature Monitor

Parking Brakes

A white BRAKE TEMP light on the P3-1 panel provides an indication of a hot
wheel brake. Individual wheel temperature is displayed on EICAS.

The parking brake handle on the control stand sets the parking brake. An
amber PARK BRAKE light and EICAS advisory message illuminate to indicate
parking brakes are set.
A brake pressure gage (P3-1) indicates pressure available for braking
(Accumulator or normal system pressure).
Brake Hydraulic Source
A BRAKE SOURCE light and EICAS advisory message illuminate when no
active source of hydraulic pressure is available to the brake system.
A reserve brakes and steering switch selects a center hydraulic system reserve
source of hydraulic fluid and isolates this fluid to the brakes and steering
systems.
Antiskid
An amber light on the P5 panel and EICAS advisory message illuminate for
faults in the active antiskid system. Normal and alternate antiskid system fault
messages also appear on the status and ECS/MSG pages. An ANTISKID/
AUTOBRK message also appears on the ECS/MSG page for all antiskid
system faults.
Autobrake
A control switch (P1-3) provides for selection of deceleration levels during
landing and for rejected takeoff.
An AUTOBRAKES light and EICAS advisory message illuminate with the switch
in the DISARM position, indicating that a fault has been detected or arming
requirements are not met. An ANTISKID/AUTOBRAKE message also appears
on the ECS/MSG page for autobrake system faults.

BRAKE CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS


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BRAKE HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

Alternate Brakes

Hydraulic Pressure Source

Center hydraulic system pressurizes the alternate brake system.

When right system drops to 48% of center system pressure, the ABSV opens
and the AIV closes due to differential piston areas. The alternate brake
metering valve meters pressure to alternate antiskid valves, then through
shuttle valves to wheel brakes. Return to reservoir through the alternate brake
metering valves when brakes are released or through the alternate antiskid
return lines if the valves relieve brake pressure.

Source Selection Valves

Accumulator Braking

The Alternate Brake Selector Valve (ABSV) is located on the keel beam, left
wheel well. The Accumulator Isolation Valve (AIV) is located on the aft wall,
right wheel well.

When right and center systems fall below 1440 psi, the accumulator opens AIV
and is available for limited braking through the normal brake system.

Right hydraulic system pressurizes the normal brake system and the
accumulator.

The two valves are identical, pressure operated slide and sleeve valves. They
contain system and control pressure ports, brake pressure output port, return
port and pressure switch port. (Pressure switch port and return port plugged on
the AIV).
The ratio of area of the slide to the area of the control piston is such that if
control pressure drops to 48% of system pressure, the valve opens.
Normal Brakes
Right hydraulic system pressurized and holds ABSV closed. Right system
pressurizes the accumulator and the normal brake system.
Pedal input activates the Brake Metering Valves (BMV) and meters normal
system brake pressure through the shuttle valve, through the normal antiskid
valves and through another shuttle valve to brakes. Return to reservoir is
through the brake metering valves when the brake pedals are released or
through the normal antiskid valve return line if the antiskid system relieves
brake pressure.

Brake accumulator pressure can be read at a gage in the right wheel well. A
pressure transmitter supplies indication of pressure on the gas side of the
accumulator to a brake pressure gage on the P3-1 panel.
Gear Retract Braking
With the gear handle in the UP position, up line pressure is ported through the
ABSV to the alternate BMVs. Up line pressure is also ported to the retract
braking actuators on the alternate BMVs. This meters gear up line pressure
through the alternate antiskid valves to the brakes. When the gear lever is
placed in "UP" position, the alternate antiskid valves are deactivated for 12.5
seconds to allow the brakes to fully stop wheel rotation.

BRAKE HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS


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BRAKE SOURCE LIGHT & RESERVE BRAKES SWITCH


Brake Source Light
The brake source light indicates that no active source of hydraulic power is
available for the braking systems. (The accumulator is a passive source.)
Activation
Loss of the right hydraulic system is monitored by the ACMP pressure switch
(S-32) during automatic ACMP operation or by the electric hydraulic pump right
control pressure switch (S-30) when the ACMP is not automatically operated.
Loss of the center hydraulic system is monitored on the downstream side of the
alternate brake selector valve by switch S415.
The brake source light illuminates when both systems indicate low pressure.
EICAS Message
The light is accompanied by a "BRAKE SOURCE" advisory level "C" message
on the upper EICAS display.

BRAKE SOURCE LIGHT & RESERVE BRAKES


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PARKING BRAKE

Control System

General

The cam driven parking brake switch has two contacts; one contact controls the
parking brake shutoff valve and the parking brake light, the other contact inputs
to the takeoff warning system.

The parking brake system provides a means of engaging the brake pedals to
hold the BMVs in the braking mode. A fully charged accumulator will hold the
brakes for a minimum of 8 hours.
Latching System
The T-handle on P-10 is attached to the latching mechanism by a flexible cable.
Pawls on the latch mechanism engage catches on the bell cranks. Both pedals
must be depressed before either pawl will engage.
A cam on the left pawl drives a parking brake indication and valve control
switch. (S-459) The latch engages with pedals depressed 9 degrees and
T-handle pulled. The latch is disengaged by depressing pedals to 11,
releasing handle.
Four adjustments can be made to the latching mechanism.
Parking brake pawl is adjustable to allow clearance of pawl stop.
The tabs on the micro-witch are adjustable to allow switch actuation as
pawl lobe moves within 0.22 - 0.25 inches of pawl stop.
Input crank stop can be adjusted till crank is 12 below horizontal with
crank against stop.
Jam nuts on cable can be adjusted so that the pin connecting the flex cable
rod to the input crank arm can be freely inserted when parking brake
handle is against control stand and input crank is against stop.

Brake pressure for setting parking brakes is indicated on brake pressure gage
on the P3-1 panel. Gage shows right hydraulic system pressure if system is
pressurized or accumulator pressure if right hydraulic system is not pressurized.
Parking brake valve is located in the return line from the normal antiskid valves
and prevents bleed down through the antiskid valves.
Indications
Park brake light - located on the left side of the P-10 panel and illuminates when
the parking brake valve is not fully open.
EICAS display - a PARKING BRAKE message on the upper display unit
(advisory C level) indicates that the parking brake valve is not fully open.
Parking brake message on upper scope at warning level indicates that the
parking brakes are set with takeoff power set. (T/O configuration warning
system)

PARKING BRAKE
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PARKING BRAKE ACCUMULATOR


General
The 300-cubic inch accumulator is located on the keel beam in the right wheel
well. The accumulator has three functions:
Provide brake pressure for the parking brake system
Reduce pressure droop during normal brake system operation
Provide a passive source of braking when both normal and alternate active
pressure sources are not available
A direct reading pressure gage and charging valve are installed on the keel
beam. The pressure transmitter provides a signal to a flight deck brake
pressure indicator. The pressure gage and transmitter are connected to the gas
side of the accumulator.
The charging valve is used to service the accumulator (nitrogen). The
accumulator air charge can be checked by depressurizing the center and right
hydraulic system and cycling the brake pedals until the brake pressure indicator
stops decreasing. Proper servicing is verified by comparing the air charge to
the ambient temperature. A servicing decal is located by the accumulator
charging valve.

BRAKE PRESS

28V AC
R BUS

(J-25)
P11-3 OVHD CB PANEL

BRAKE
PRESS
4
PSI X 1000
3

0
2

HYDRAULIC
CONNECTOR

N10 BRAKE PRESS IND (P3-1)


TS90 HYD BRAKE
PRESS TRANSMITTER
CHARGING INSTRUCTIONSHYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR.

R WHEEL WELL
KEEL BEAM

PRESSURE
GAGE
1200
CHARGING
VALVE

1100
PRESSUREPSI GAGE

HYD BRAKE
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER

WITH SYSTEM DEPRESSURIZED,


CHARGE WITH DRY NITROGEN
TO APPLICABLE PRESSURE PER
CHART BELOW 100 PSI

1000
900
800
700
-50 -25 0 +25 +50 +75
AMBIENT TEMP - CENTIGRADE

ACCUMULATOR

PARKING BRAKE ACCUMULATOR


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BRAKE TEMPERATURE SYSTEM


Each brake temperature sensor inputs to the brake temperature monitor unit.
The monitor unit inputs a voltage signal to the EICAS computers which display
eight boxes with numbers on the status page. Each box and number is color
coded (blue or white) with the number (0 to 9) within the box representing a
brake temperature of 90-695C.
The color of the numbers and boxes will be as follows:
Normal condition - the number will be 0 through 2 with both box and
number blue.
Threshold condition - with the first number in a respective group (left main
gear truck or right main gear truck) increasing to 3, the box will become
white and the number remains blue. Only the box with the highest number
(3 or 4) in the group will have a white box. If more than one box has the
high number (3 or 4), only the first box reaching the highest number will
have a white box.
Abnormal condition - any brake with a number of 5 or greater will have a
white box and number.
A brake overheat white light (P3-1) will illuminate when any box has a number 5
or greater. This light is controlled directly by the Brake Temperature Monitor.
The temperature monitor unit will indicate an overheated brake as follows:
Carbon brake (300) - 427C

BRAKE TEMPERATURE SYSTEM


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BRAKE TEMPERATURE MONITOR


Components
A thermocouple type temperature sensor (chromel-alumel) is installed in the
inboard side of each brake. A Brake Temperature Monitor Unit is located in the
main equipment center (E2-4). This unit controls a BRAKE TEMP light on P3-1
and inputs to both EICAS computers which provide a color-coded, numerical
brake temperature indication.
Brake Temperature Monitor Bite
The monitor unit has built-in test equipment (BITE) circuits which include a
monitor test and sensor test.
Monitor Test
When the MONITOR TEST position is selected the nine indicators will illuminate
on the face of the monitor unit, the EICAS indicators will all show uniform
temperature values of 5 or above and the BRAKE TEMP light will illuminate.
The sensors are not tested. If any light does not illuminate, change the monitor
unit.
System Test
When the SENSOR TEST position is selected, a test signal is applied across
each of the eight brake sensor thermocouples. If either the sensor or its cabling
is open or shorted, the signal will not be received by the monitor unit. A sensor
fault will be indicated by an extinguished light for that sensor and the monitor
unit. If a sensor LED and monitor light do not illuminate, change the sensor.
With the BITE switch in either test position the white "BRAKE TEMP" light
(P3-1) will illuminate and the eight digital displays on EICAS will display "5" or
above.

BRAKE TEMPERATURE MONITOR


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ANTI-SKID GENERAL

Outputs

Purpose

Anti-skid cards provide the valve driver signals to the normal and alternate antiskid valves. Fuses mounted to the valve modules provide leakage protection.

The anti-skid system primarily utilizes wheel speed information to command


brake pressure that will give a maximum braking level below wheel skid. Antiskid system will never command brake pressure greater than metered pressure.
Control Unit
The anti-skid function is controlled by four microprocessor cards within the antiskid/autobrake control unit. Each card controls a fore/aft pair of wheels and is
powered through a separate circuit breaker.
Inputs
Wheel speed inputs are generated in eight wheel speed transducers and input
to anti-skid cards.
Gear handle position (not down) provides an inhibit signal to the alternate antiskid system for gear retract braking. Gear handle position (down) energizes the
hydroplane/touchdown protection system.
Parking brake valve position is monitored. Valve must be fully open for
operational anti-skid system.
Inertial reference system signals provide ground speed signals for hydroplane/
touchdown protection.
Brake source signal is monitored to remove anti-skid valve bias signal when
normal and alternate brake hydraulic systems are lost.

Shuttle valve modules between the normal and alternate anti-skid valve
modules route pressure from the active system to the brakes.
Fault annunciation signals control:
Amber ANTISKID light on P5
EICAS displays on advisory, status and maintenance levels.

ANTI-SKID GENERAL
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WHEELSPEED TRANSDUCER
Purpose
The anti-skid transducers supply wheel speed data to the antiskid/autobrake
control unit to get wheel speed data. This data also goes to the antiskid/
autobrake control unit for autobrake operation.
Location
There are eight anti-skid transducers. Each main landing gear wheel has a
transducer in the axle.
Physical Description
When the transducer shaft turns, it provides wheel speed input to the
transducer.

IN-AXLE ASSEMBLY
INSTALLATION

HUB CAP
CLAMP
TRANSDUCER
DRIVE ASSEMBLY

CUP

HUBCAP

WHEEL SPEED TRANSDUCER


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ANTI - SKID VALVE MODULES


Anti-skid Modules
Two modules, normal and alternate mounted in each wing forward of the main
gear support beam and outboard of the gear trunnion door.
Normal module has four control valves, four fuses, a shutoff valve assembly,
two filters, a check valve and a restrictor. Each control valve controls the flow of
metered brake pressure to a single brake.
Alternate module has two control valves, two fuses, two filters and a check
valve. Each control valve controls the flow of metered brake pressure to a pair
of wheel brakes.
The in-line fuses are quantity measuring fuses with a capacity of 60 cubic
inches. Prevent loss of hydraulic fluid from a downstream rupture.
Maintenance Operations
Access to normal anti-skid valve module is through wing trailing edge inboard
lower surface skin panel 551 SB forward of main gear support beam and
outboard of gear trunnion door.
Access to alternate anti-skid valve module is through wing trailing edge inboard
lower surface door panel 552 BB forward of spoiler support beam.
Control valves, fuses, filters and shutoff valves are line replaceable.
Fuses are manually re-settable by rotating the reset knob. This equalizes the
pressure on both sides of fuse and allows the fuse to reset. When the reset
knob is released, a spring forces the knob back to normal position.

ANTI - SKID VALVE MODULES


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SHUTTLE VALVE MODULE

MAINTENANCE TIP

Module

Dispatch pin can be found in the MLG pin pouch.

Two identical modules, one located immediately below the anti-skid valve
module on each side of airplane are installed. Panel 551 SB provides access to
the module.
Each module contains four shuttle valves and four filters, one for each brake.
The inputs come from the four normal anti-skid valves and the two alternate
anti-skid valves. The output is to each brake.
The shuttle valve responds to the highest input pressure and ports that pressure
through a filter to an individual brake. The shuttle valve operates on a 30-70
psid.
A replaceable 117-micron filter, in each brake line, filters the fluid returning to
the anti-skid valves from the brakes.

Flight Dispatch Plug


The flight dispatch plug can be used in the event of a malfunctioning normal
anti-skid valve or wheel speed transducer to hydraulically disable the normal
brake system input to a brake. The alternate brake system still brakes the
wheel on gear retraction so the plug cannot be used for a hydraulic brake leak.
The cap on the shuttle valve is removed to install the flight dispatch plug which
positions the valve to block the normal brake port and open the alternate brake
port.
The flight dispatch plug is equipped with a ring to allow an indicator tag to be
attached while installed. Only one plug is authorized for dispatch with seven
brakes operating during normal brake system operation and all brakes
operating during gear retraction.

SHUTTLE VALVE MODULE


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AUTOBRAKE GENERAL
Purpose
The autobrake system provides automatic brake application upon landing. The
deceleration rate of the airplane is monitored by the Anti-skid/Autobrake Control
Unit. Normal system brake pressure is applied to the brakes in order to obtain
the crew selected deceleration. The system also provides for autobrake
application to stop the airplane during a rejected takeoff.
Selector Switch
The autobrake selector switch, located on the P1-3 panel, controls the electrical
power supply to the autobrake microprocessor card of the anti-skid/autobrake
control unit. The switch allows the selection of five increasing deceleration
rates and the rejected takeoff function (RTO).
When the autobrake arming requirements are met, a solenoid located behind
the switch panel energizes and latches the switch in the selected position.
When the autobrake function is lost, the solenoid de-energizes and the switch is
spring-returned to the disarm position. In the disarm position, the
AUTOBRAKES amber light located on the switch panel illuminates and the level
C message AUTOBRAKES appears on EICAS. When the rejected takeoff
arming requirements are met, the selector switch is latched in the RTO position.
Upon takeoff, the switch is spring-returned to the OFF position. If the autobrake
function is lost when RTO brakes are applied, the switch remains in the RTO
position and the amber light AUTOBRAKES illuminates with the EICAS level C
message AUTOBRAKES.
Input Signals
Air/ground relays, controlled by the main gear truck tilt, input the ground mode
to the autobrake card. The ground signals are used for arming and application
of autobrake.
The left and center ADIRU input through a switching system to the autobrake
card and provide ground speed and deceleration signals.
The speedbrake handle position switch provides a signal to disarm the
autobrake card when the handle is stowed after deployment.

Thrust lever position switches provide signals to the autobrake card when the
thrust levers are in the retarded position. The signals are used for arming and
activation of the autobrake system.
Brake metered pressures applied by pilot command of the brake pedals are
monitored by brake pressure switches. The signals are used for disarming the
autobrake when pedal pressure is applied.

Antiskid/Autobrake Control Unit


Wheel speed signals are provided by the anti-skid cards to the autobrake card
for determining wheel spinup upon landing.
When arming and application requirements are met, the autobrake card outputs
electrical signals to the solenoid valve and the electro-hydraulic servo valve of
the control module.
The BITE card performs self tests and provides fault identification to the display
card. Fault information signals are also provided to the EICAS computers for
storage and annunciation.
Autobrake Control Module
The autobrake control module meters right hydraulic system pressure to the
brakes in response to the electrical command signals of the autobrake card.
The module includes a solenoid valve, an electro-hydraulic servo valve and
monitoring pressure switches.

AUTOBRAKE GENERAL
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AUTOBRAKE INPUTS

Air/Ground Sensing Inputs

Thrust Lever Position Switches

Two independent air/ground system inputs are sensed by the autobrake and
monitor/BITES subsystems. Proximity switches sense the tilt position of the left
and right main landing gear truck beams and provide air/ground mode signals
through the PSEU and associated relays.

Two micro-switches on each thrust lever provide lever position. The switches
are installed in the auto-throttle switch pack located beneath the thrust lever
quadrant stand. Access is through the door forward of the nose wheel well.
The switches are rigged to open when the lever is 4.5 from idle when
advancing. The normally open contact on the switch ensures that any failure
that releases the switch will result in a thrust lever advanced indication.
One switch per thrust lever is supplied with 28 volt dc power: the powered
switch on the left thrust lever controls power to the solenoid valve and the
powered switch on the right thrust lever controls power to the valve control
relay. This interlocking prevents application of brake pressure with either thrust
lever advanced regardless of any control unit failure.
The other switch on each thrust lever senses ground when the thrust lever is
fully retarded. The continuous checking of the switches' condition by sensing
power in one switch and ground in the other within the logic circuitry provides for
protection in case of massive short to power or to ground - for example: If all
four switches were grounded by water or heavy moisture, the logic circuitry
would detect a contradicting and faulty condition of the switch and interpret it as
thrust lever advanced.
Speed Brake Handle Switch
A micro-switch is installed on the speedbrake lever mechanism in the quadrant
stand. Access is through the left side of the quadrant stand. The switch is
opened when the speedbrake handle is near the fully extended position. The
autobrake system disarms if the speed brakes are extended then stowed while
on the ground.

Pressure Switches
Metered pressure switches are installed on the left and right autobrake shuttle
valves in the left and right wheel wells, respectively. The switches monitor
pilot's left and right metered brake pressure, and are used to disarm the
autobrakes when metered pressure application is detected. Switches actuate
between 450 and 550 psi and de-actuate at a minimum of 200 psi and 50 psi
less than the actuating pressure.
Autobrake Control Switch
An eight-position control switch mounted on the P1-3 panel provides the power
and deceleration selection functions for the landing autobrakes and RTO
autobrakes. The control unit also contains an amber warning light indicating
loss of autobrake function.

AUTOBRAKE INPUTS
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ANTI-SKID / AUTOBRAKE BUILT IN TEST EQUIPMENT (BITE)

Display Test

General

Moving the toggle switch to PRESS/TEST position will initiate the display test.
The caution warning light (P-5) and EICAS advisory messages will be displayed
and all 8 segments of the alphanumeric display will illuminate on the control
unit. EICAS messages displayed:

The monitor/BITE subsystem card in the control unit contains the BITE to
perform self-test and fault isolation of the anti-skid and autobrake systems
without removal from airplane and without additional test equipment.
BITE functions isolate failures to the line replaceable unit (LRU) and to the
individual card level within the control unit. Intermittent faults are stored in
memory for later recall. Failures are displayed in alphanumeric format on the
front of the control unit.
Module
Module is mounted in the E1-1 rack in the aft equipment center. The 4 anti-skid
cards, 1 autobrake card, monitor/BITE card, and interface/display card may be
replaced through the top of the module.

Anti-skid off (advisory)


Autobrake (advisory)
Anti-skid/autobrake (S,M)
Memory Recall
Moving the toggle switch to the BIT position will recall and display faults stored
during continuous monitoring of the anti-skid/autobrake system. Successive
faults are displayed by depressing the BIT toggle down until the message TEST
END is displayed. Each message displayed for 45 seconds or until BIT button
is depressed again. Faults are recalled on a first in - first out basis.
Reset (Memory Clear)

BITE Functions
The tests are conducted by use of switches on the front of the module.
Abbreviated instruction for test procedures are contained on a placard on the
front of the module. The following tests may be performed:

Display test
BIT memory (recall) test
System test
Anti-skid brake operational test
Autobrake test
Configuration identification test
Reset (memory clear)
RTO (OPT) brake test

This switch causes erasure of failures currently stored in the failure storage
memory. When this function is invoked, the BITE first scans the storage
memory until it finds an active fault. The BITE then checks the present status of
the identified LRU and if the status indicates good LRU, the fault is erased from
the failure storage memory. Next, the memory is scanned again, and the
process is repeated for all possible faults. When completed, message MEM
CLR is displayed for 2 seconds.
Disable Function
The fault indication may be deactivated for one wheel by using the rotary switch
to make the wheel selection. This removes the selected wheel from the fault
annunciation circuitry to the amber anti-skid light and the EICAS display. This
function is used when a single normal anti-skid valve system has malfunctioned
and is disabled by using a flight dispatch plug to block the affected valve output.
Faults occurring on other wheels will continue to be displayed. The disabled
wheel fault will be identified on the EICAS maintenance page (Anti-skid/
Autobrake S,M).

ANTI - SKID / AUTOBRAKE BUILT IN TEST EQUIPMENT (BITE)


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