Voltage Controlled CSI by ESPINOZA, J. R. - Power Electronics

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Voltage Controlled CSI by ESPINOZA, J. R. - Power Electronics

© All Rights Reserved

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Jose Espinoza

Geza Joos

Phoivos Ziogas

Concordia University

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West

Montreal, H3G 1M8, Canada

Tel. (514) 848-3116

F a . (514) 848-2802

are widely used in high peiformance applications because they

can provide fast and accurate line current control. Voltage

controlled current source inverters (VC-CSI's) are the duals of

CC-VSI's and as such they can also provide fast and accurate line

voltage control. Duality however implies one important difference

in favor of VC-CSI's. The load voltages (and consequently the

load currents with linear loads) are now sinusoidal. This feature

can offer important advantages in high performance applications

such variable speed ac drives. Potentia1 benefits include the

reduction of motor winding voltage stress, audio noise, and motor

losses associated with high frequency switching phenomena. This

paper presents a fully functional VC-CSI three-phase inverter

that can closely track a given voltage reference signal and also

provide the above mentioned performance improvements. A

detailed analysis and design procedure of the proposed variable

frequency power supply circuit is also included. Key

analysisldesign results and performance features are

subsequently verified on a 2 kVA experimental inverter-load

prototype system.

and Section I11 contains the design guidelines for the Adaptive

P W M Voltage Control. A design example is provided in

SectionIV. Finally, SectionV present the simulation and

experimental results.

11. DESCRIPTIONOF THE VC-CSI INVERTER

A. Principles of Operation

system is shown in Fig. 1. The Control block produces the

switching pattern based on the difference between the threephase sine voltage reference waveform y p and the threephase load voltage waveform y . This feedback scheme

ensures that the CSI pattern is m&ed on-line so as to force

the output voltage y to track the reference y p * . The

application of the switc$ung pattern to the dc bus current I d c

produces the required modulated three phase ac output

currents. The capacitive filter absorbs the high frequency

current harmonics, which results in sinusoidal output voltages

and currents (if the load is linear).

L INTRODUCTION

The main feature of current controlled voltage source

inverters (CC-VSI's) is that they can generate line currents that

closely track a given current reference signal [ 1).

The disadvantage with CC-VSI's however is the harsh

voltage switching environment they generate across the loads.

For some applications, this effect can be moderated by using

output filters (although the problem of audio noise associated

with magnetics still remains), in the case of variable speed ac

motor drive applications however (where output filters are not

used) the hard voltage switching environment can result in

considerably shorter motor lifetime.

Recent attempts to partially solve this problem through the

use of resonant subcircuits [2][3][4][5], have resulted in

increased circuit complexity, very sensitive (waveform

dependent) inverter switching schemes, and altogether new

integral cycle output voltage and current control schemes.

Although resonant-based soft switching technology will

undoubtedly find its way to specific applications, the authors

believe that the VC-CSI approach is generally a simpler

solution to the problem of soft load switching environment.

The contents of this paper are organized as follows:

Section I1 describes the power circuit, the control circuit and

three control block realization alternatives (specifically:

0-7803-0582-5 /92$3.0001992 IEEE

Control

Filter

current soufce inverter (VC-CSI).

B. Power Circuit Description

uses unidirectional reverse blocking switches. The objective of

the CSI is to produce three phase PWM line currents (jo) with

the minimum possible harmonic distortion. The capacitive

filter has two objectives. The first is to absorb the current

harmonic generated by the CSI P W M action. The second is to

define the output voltage and therefore generate the required

error between the actual y and reference y p* voltage signals.

<1,7

J 1L

tracking and minimum phase and amplitude error, with a

constant switching frequency. The output harmonic spectrum is

well defined. Furthermore, the carrier can be kept free-running.

Finally, implementation of this carrier technique is simple.

Power

SUPPlY

CSI

Filter

Load

C. Voltage and Current Relationships

reducing the power circuit of Fig. 2 to the per phase equivalent

circuits and the phasor diagram of Fig. 3. The following

equations apply for an R-L load:

d

v ( t )= R . L l ( t ) + L . - - ( ! l ( t ) }

-P

dt

is sinusoidal, the output voltage (y p ) and load current (i 1) are

also sinusoidal. From (3) and for the above conditions, the

fundamental component of the CSI output current (jo) is also

sinusoidal. The exact current i is a PWM waveform, however

it has no low order harmonics.

D. Control Block Realization Options

The main function of the Control block is the on-line

generation of the CSI switching pattern required to produce an

output current (j o) with minimum harmonic distortion, and

with an amplitude and phase such that y tracks y p * .

Feedback P W M pattern generators used in C6-VSI's can be

adapted to VC-CSI's [1][6], if the switch gating requirements

are met. Three possible control block options are:

Bang-Bang Hysteresis Voltage Controller

This is the simplest technique, conceptually and in terms of

implementation. It also ensures good tracking. However, the

frequency of operation varies with the magnitude of the

reference and the load, resulting in uncontrolled output

harmonic content and phase jittering.

Adaptive P W Voltage Controller

This alternative is similar to the traditional carrier

Sinusoidal P W M technique [6]. However, in this case, the

Fig. 3 Single phase model of the VC-CSI and load. a) Per phase

equivalent circuit. b) Complex impedance model. c) Phasor

diagram.

The primary objective of this technique is to maintain the

output voltage space vector within a specific range for the

maximum possible length of time [7]. To achieve this, a

predictive algorithm modifies the inverter output current (j o)

only if the output voltage error increases beyond a predefined

error zone. The output current ( i o )is modified by the CSI

according to one of the 9 possible CSI states. The selection of

the next state is done by computing the state which produces an

output current (j o) that returns the output voltage

within

the error zone. This control technique can be optimized to yield

minimum switching frequency and very low steady state error

(between y and y *). However, the implementation is

complex ancfcan best done by means of a calculator @SP or

Microcomputer). It also requires a model of the load.

eP)

kk

E. Referred Solution

The proposed VC-CSI is implemented in this work with the

Adaptive P W M Voltage Controller. This controller is best

suited for the application since it has very good tracking

capability, constant switching frequency and a relatively

simple implementation. The complete control structures for

phase

voltage

references

PI

Phase

switching

fUnctions

line-line

switching

functions

dc

load

bus

curfents

output 1

fik4.s

load

phase

type, the camer is of the triangular type.The bi-level patterns

xc

'

subtracted to produce the tri-level switching patterns (line to

line), Swl,Sw2 and Sw3,and, by application to the dc bus

current , the output current. The switch gating signals are

obtained from the combination of the switching patterns and

the required shorting pulses.

and the harmonic rms output phase voltage, assuming the load

impedance to be very high respect to the filter impedance at the

switching frequency,. is given approximately by

Vpk,n

IIL DESIGNGUIDELINES

5*

xc

(6)

voltage quality. This is quantified by means of a specified total

harmonic distortion (THD,) defined as

THD,

- loo

with

k : phase a, b, c.

hl, 1 : normalized rms output current (see TABLEI).

:normalized dc input current.

X L : normalized load reactance (XL = 2?rf&).

X c : normalized filter reactance CX, = 1/(27~.~C9).

n : harmonic order.

output filter capacitor and the parameters of adaptive PWM

voltage controller (proportional and integral gains, amplitude

and frequency of the carrier). The voltage controller parameters

depend upon the output capacitor value.

THD,% =

(5)

J X C 2 4 . X C . X L +1

(4)

vPk,l

Assuming the adaptive P W M controller produces a SPWM

type pattern, the normdized rms output phase voltage is given

from Fig. 3(a) by

F, =

5 14

n=2

hI,l

z

+x&1

(7)

TABLEI

GENERALIZED

HARMONICS OF i FOR A LARGE

AND ODD N THAT

IS A MULTPLE

OF 3. hi,n = Iok,n 1Idc ARE TABULATED

AS A

FUNCTION

OF THE MODULATION

h E X (M), WHERE zokpnARE THE

margin of 2 is introduced and (1 1) becomes

( 1 - M ) * AA '0.5 = U k , N

M=0.4

M=0.6

M=0.8

M=1.0

1

Nf2

Nf4

2.N f 1

2.N f 5

3.N f 2

3.N f 4

4.Nf 1

4.N f 5

4.N f 7

0.245

0.037

0.367

0.080

0.200

0.227

0.085

0.007

0.096

0.124

0.029

0.005

0.021

0.490

0.135

0.005

0.192

0.008

0.108

0.064

0.064

0.051

0.010

0.612

0.195

0.01 1

0.111

0.020

0.038

0.096

0.042

0.073

0.030

'fi

(12)

given by

*

TABLEII

CONSTANT

F, FOR A LARGEAND ODDNTHAT

IS A MULTIPLE

OF 3.

F,. 100 ARE TABULATED

AS A FUNCTION

OF THE MODULATION

INDEX

(M),WHERE F,. IS DEFINED BY (8).

M=0.4

~~~~

21

27

33

39

45

51

(9)

~~~~

3.111

2.418

1.977

1.673

1.449

1.279

M=0.6

~~~

M=0.8

M=1.0

2.488

1.851

1.512

1.278

1.107

0.976

2.311

1.788

1.460

1.233

1.068

0.942

2.679

2.080

1.700

1.438

1.246

1.099

In order to simplifl the design, the following assumptions

are made:

- The gain of the PI controller (Kp) is assumed equal to 1.

- The time constant of the PI controller is chosen so that the

integrator action occurs within approximately one switching

period. An integral time constant equal to one switching

period (llfd) was found to yield good tracking and good

transient response.

- The load is inductive (Fig. 3, $10).

The switching frequency can be defined by the switch

technology, the required dominant output harmonic or THD,,

or the desired output capacitor value. It is assumed to be N f o at

the design output frequency fo.

In order to find the triangular carrier amplitude (Ad), it is

assumed that in the feedback loop all the harmonics are

concentrated at the triangular carrier frequency ( N f o ) with an

equivalent amplitude given by

I

IV.DESIGNEXAMPLE

To illustrate the use of the design guidelines and equations

derived for the Adaptive PWM voltage controller, a design

example is presented.

The converter output specifications are:

S = 2 kVA, V = 220 V, f o = 60 Hz and cos (+) = 0.8

lagging

Base values are therefore:

Vbase = 127 v, ]base = 5.3 A, zbase= 24.2 fi and fbase=

60 Hz.

The converter operates at the nominal modulation index

( M ) of 0.8. With this value the control system is able to supply,

theoretically, a 20% current overload without loss of the

voltage source features. A normalized triangular carrier

frequency (N) equal to 27 is chosen, based on practical (switch

operation frequency) considerations. The following design

parameters can then be derived:

"

= 27 pu = 1620 Hz.

lower than the triangular carrier amplitude and in order to

avoid loss of the constant frequency feature, the following

condition must be met

(l-M).A* 2 uk,N

*fi

from (9)

Idc= 1 . 7 3 p u = 9 A

(11)

A A = 0.56 PU = 71 V

515

v.

RESULTS

the CSI output current spectrum Fig. 5(d) and the phase

voltage spectrum, Fig. 5(e) are characterized by dominant

harmonics around the triangular carrier frequency (which is

typical in SPWM pattern generators).

A. Simulation Results

Proof of concept in terms of voltage controller operation and

output current and voltage waveforms is obtained through a

high level language computer simulation. The system

parameters are based on the above design example. The

simulated results, on a pu basis, are illustrated in Fig. 5.

Specifically, Fig. 5(a) shows the triangular carrier and the PI

output (U,), Fig. 5(b) the output phase voltage reference (v,,*),

output phase voltage (v ), and load current (;la), Fig. 5(c) the

CSI output current (i,,fand the line output voltage (vab), Fig.

5(d) the normalized spectrum of the CSI output current (io,),

finally, Fig. 5(e) the normalized spectrum of the output phase

voltage (v ,).

From k e simulated results it is possible to conclude that:

- the converter is operating with a modulation factor close to

0.8, Fig. 5(a)

the output voltage has a THD, equal to 5.1% , Fig. 5(b) and

5(e)

- the output phase voltage tracks the output phase voltage

reference with a minimum phase-shif? (approximately equal

to 3') and with a gain equal to 0.94 , Fig. 5(b) and Fig. 5(e)

B. Experimental Results

The proposed VC-CSI concept was implemented on an

experimental 2 kVA set-up to venfy the feasibility and confrm

the design procedure presented en Section 111. Key

experimental waveforms are shown in the Fig. 6. These results

were initially 'down-loaded' into a personal computer (PC) and

subsequently printed through the use of appropriate post

processing software. Specifically, Fig. 6(a) shows the

experimental output phase voltage (v,,) and load current (;la),

Fig. 6(b) the experimental CSI output current (io,) and the

line output voltage (vab), Fig. 6(c) the experimental spectrum

of the CSI output current (io,). These figures corroborate the

I. In

validity of key results predicted by eqn. (3,(6) and TABLE

particular they show that, as expected, the CSI output current

is PWM, i.e., with characteristic sideband harmonics around

the triangular carrier frequency. Finally, Fig. 6(d) shows the

spectrum of the experimental output phase voltage (v,,)

which, as predicted, is nearly free harmonics.

1.0

3.0

,"a

-1.0

Triangular Carrier

-3.0

Os

2.0

4ms

8ms

6ms

lOms

l2ms

14ms

16ms

c)

lr

fla

2ms

0.5A

vPa

-2.0 J

IkH

OH

WI

3kH

4L;H

SkH

6kH

7kH

d)

I

.

"

1 I

OH

lkH

ZkH

4kH

3kH

5kH

6kH

7kH

e)

Fig. 5 Simulation of the performance of the PWh4 VC-CSI with an adaptive controller (see Fig. 4). a) Triangular Carrier and PI output (U,). b)

Output phase voltage (v,)

reference phase voltage)',v(

and load current (ilu). c) CSI output line voltage (vub) and current (im). d)

Normalized CSI output current spectrum. e) Normalized output phase voltage spectrum.

516

250

-250

os

2ms

4ms

6ms

8ms

lomS

12ms

14ms

16ms

2ms

4ms

6ms

8ms

lOmS

12ms

14ms

16111s

350 ,

-350

os

7.5A

f*

160V

80V

d)

o v - !\ -

rd

Fig. 6 Experimental VC-CSI voltagdcurrent waveforms with an adaptive controller (Fig. 4). a) Output phase voltage ),v(

and load current

(ifa).b) CSI output line voltage (vab) and current (im). d) CSI output current spectrum. e) output phase voltage spectrum (fo = 60 Hz,

fd = 1620 Hz,cos(+) = 0.8 lagging).

in static power conversion", IEEE Tmns. Ind. Appl., vol. 25, no.

2, pp. 317-325, MarChlApril 1989.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

A fully functional voltage controlled current source inverter

SPWM control method has been used to force the output

high-power applications", IEEE Tmns. Ind. Appl., vol. 25, no. 4,

This combination yields a general purpose three phase

balanced voltage supply with precise frequency and voltage

amplitude control. Moreover, has the inherent regeneration and

short circuit protection features associated with current source

inverters.

141 K. Bonhardt, "New possibilities for DC-side commutated inverter

circuits", in EPE Con$ Record, pp. 549-554,1989.

IEEE IAS Annual Meeting, pp. 1222-1227,1990.

REFERENCES

161

- _ G. Joos, P. D. Ziogas and D. Vincenti, "A Model Reference

5 , no. 4, pp. 485494, Oct 1990.

Inverters", IEEE Tmns. Ind. Appl., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 562-570,

May/June 1985.

517

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